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Digital Cinematography

Book Description

With the shift from film to digital, a new view of the future of cinematography has emerged. Today’s successful cinematographer must be equal parts artist, technician, and business-person. The cinematographer needs to master the arts of lighting, composition, framing and other aesthetic considerations, as well as the technology of digital cameras, recorders, and workflows, and must know how to choose the right tools (within their budget) to get the job done. David Stump’s Digital Cinematography focusses primarily on the tools and technology of the trade, looking at how digital cameras work, the ramifications of choosing one camera versus another, and how those choices help creative cinematographers to tell a story.

This book empowers you to both correctly choose the right camera and workflow for your project from today’s incredibly varied options, as well as understand the ins and outs of implementing those options. Stump sheds a light on the confusing advantages and disadvantages of shooting theatrical features using digital technology and what it can or can’t do.

Topics covered include:

* Detailed coverage of Arriflex, Blackmagic, Canon, Ikonoskop, Panasonic, Panavision, Phantom, Red, Silicon Imaging, Sony, and Weisscam digital motion picture cameras

* Coverage of a wide variety of lenses, including Angenieux, Canon, Cooke, Fujinon, Hawk, Leica, Panavision, Red, Schneider, Sony, UniqOptics, Vantage, and Zeiss

* Coverage of recorders, displays, and look management tools

* Exposure theory tips — learn how to correctly expose digital cameras

* Focusing tips — learn how to focus digital cameras correctly

* Checklists to help design digital workflows

* Practical tips on preparation — prepare for shooting a digital motion picture like a professional

* Camera set-up and operation, color management, digital intermediates, 3D stereo cinematography, future trends, and much more

If you aspire to be a successful cinematographer in this new digital age, or if you already are a working cinematographer in need of a resource to help you stay on top of your game, this is a must-read book.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title
  4. Copyright
  5. Contents
  6. Acknowledgments and Dedications
  7. Foreword
    1. What This Book Is About
    2. What This Book Is Not About
    3. Why Should a Cinematographer Read This Book
    4. Do Not Bluff With Buzzwords, Do Your Homework
      1. As a Cinematographer, You Must Ultimately Serve Three Masters
        1. Your Director
        2. Your Producer
        3. The Studio
  8. A Note on the Color
  9. Chapter 1 What Is Digital
    1. What Are Pixels?
    2. Photosites Are Not Pixels!
    3. Analog to Digital
    4. How Many Crayons in the Box?
    5. The Issues of Encoding Luminance
      1. The Just Noticeable Difference (JND) and Square Root Integral (SQRI)
      2. The Problem With Linear Encoding
      3. Gamma
    6. 10-Bit Log Cineon/DPX File Format
    7. Cineon/DPX Encoding Ranges
    8. The Calculus of Color Sampling (Uh-Oh… Math Again!)
    9. Nyquist Sampling Theory
    10. Nyquist Sampling Theory Simplified
  10. Chapter 2 Camera Sensors
    1. The Practical Differences Between Film and Digital Sensors
    2. Sensor Size Has an Effect on the Image We See
    3. CCD Versus CMOS
    4. 3-Chip 2/3-Inch Sensors
    5. Prisms Are Very Difficult to Engineer
    6. Chromatic Aberration
    7. Telecentricity in Lens Design
    8. CCD Image Smear
    9. Three Solutions to the Problem of CCD Image Smear
    10. Interline Transfer CCD Sensors
    11. Bayer Pattern Sensors Versus Co-Sited RGB Pixels
      1. Bayer Pattern Color Filter Arrays
      2. Optical Low Pass Filtering
      3. Infrared Filtering
      4. Understanding Bayer Pattern Images
      5. “De-Bayering” Images
      6. Resolution in Bayer Pattern Cameras
      7. Converting Raw Images to RGB Images
        1. Dead pixel removal
        2. Noise reduction
        3. Linearization
        4. Black-level subtraction
        5. De-mosaic to RGB
        6. Lens corrections
        7. Cropping
        8. Scaling
        9. White balance
        10. Color conversion
        11. Color enhancements
        12. Toning curve
        13. Gamma curve
        14. Clip to fewer bits
        15. Lossy compression
        16. Cinema DNG Format
    12. Rolling Shutter Versus Global Shutter
      1. Skew
      2. Wobble
      3. Smear
      4. Partial Exposure
    13. Dark Frame Subtraction
    14. Dynamic Range = Exposure Latitude
    15. How Much Picture Noise Is Acceptable in Digital Cinema?
    16. Noise and Lower Dynamic Range Issues
    17. Fixed Pattern Noise, Readout Noise, Circuit Noise, and Photon Noise
    18. Highlight Handling and Headroom
    19. Fill Factor
    20. Sensitivity and ASA Rating
    21. Sensitivity
    22. ISO, ASA Rating, and Exposure Index
  11. Chapter 3 Color
    1. The CIE 1931 RGB Color-Matching Functions
    2. Color Space as It Relates to Cinematography
    3. Color Sampling and Subsampling
    4. YCbCr and Y’CbCr Color
    5. Color Space Conversion
    6. Color Has Traditionally Been Device-Dependent
    7. ACES Color Space
    8. One Possible Future Motion Picture Finishing Solution—ACES, the Academy Color Encoding System
      1. ACES Components
      2. ACES Benefits
        1. For Cinematographers
        2. For Visual Effects and Postproduction Facilities
        3. For Content Owners
      3. ACES Color Space Encoding
      4. Viewing ACES
      5. Preparation for Using ACES
    9. Digital Cinema Color Spaces: P3, XYZ, and ACES
  12. Chapter 4 The Color-Space Conundrum
    1. What Is Color Space?
    2. Human Color Perception
    3. Quantifying Human Color Perception—CIE 1931
    4. Color Photography
    5. Color in Cinematography
    6. Color in Television
    7. CIE 1976—CIE L*a*b*
    8. The Birth of High-Definition Video
    9. Managing the Digital Revolution
    10. The Birth of Digital Imaging
    11. Hybrid Workflows—Film and Digital Coexist
    12. Nyquist Sampling Theory (Again!)
    13. Modulation Transfer Function and Contrast Sensitivity Function
    14. Preserving Image Quality Across File Formats
    15. Look-Up Tables (LUTs)
    16. Compression
    17. Looking Into the Digital Future
  13. Chapter 5 MTF, Resolution, Contrast, and Nyquist Theory
    1. Contrast Is Decreased as a Function of Frequency
    2. Modulation Transfer Function of a Solid-State Camera
    3. Optical Low Pass Filters
      1. Cascading Nyquist MTF Percentages—A Loose and General Example
      2. Resolution Does Not Equal Sharpness
    4. Important Factors to Consider in Achieving Picture Sharpness
    5. The Case for 4K
    6. There Is 4K and Then There Is 4K
    7. Resizing and Resampling
    8. MTF and the Final Step in the Imaging Chain: Projection
  14. Chapter 6 Frame Rates and Aspect Ratios
    1. The Range of Frame Rates for Acquisition
    2. Progressive and Interlace Frame Rates
      1. Progressive Frame Rates
        1. 24p and 23.976p
        2. 25p
        3. 29.97p/30p
        4. 50p and 60p
      2. Interlace Frame Rates
        1. 60i
        2. 50i
    3. Interlace Versus Progressive Frames
    4. Problems Caused by Interlacing
      1. Combing
      2. Interline Twitter
    5. Resizing and Resampling of Interlaced Images
    6. Progressive Scan
      1. Advantages of Progressive Scan
    7. Variable Frame Rates and High Frame Rates
    8. Higher Frame Rates in Exhibition and 3D Exhibition
    9. Historical Perspectives
      1. Todd-AO–65mm at 30 fps
      2. Showscan at 60 Frames per Second in 65mm (Figure 6.12)
    10. Coming Soon to a Theater Near You—Even Higher Frame Rates!
    11. Formats and Aspects Ratios
      1. Aspect Ratio
    12. Cinema Terminology
      1. 1.33:1 or 4 × 3 Academy
      2. 1.66:1 or 3 × 2
      3. 1:85:1
      4. 2.39:1 or CinemaScope, Scope, or Panavision
      5. 1.78:1 or 16 × 9
      6. Why 16 × 9?
      7. 1.33:1 Pillar Boxed Inside of 1.78:1 Frame
      8. 2.39:1 Letterboxed Inside 1.78:1 Frame
      9. 2.39:1 Panned and Scanned to Fit Inside a Narrower Screen Format
    13. Film Camera Aperture Sizes and HD Sensor Sizes
  15. Chapter 7 Lenses
    1. Distinctions That Go Into Evaluating Lens Quality
      1. Resolution
      2. Speed
      3. Contrast
      4. Color Matching
      5. Flare Characteristics
      6. Close Focus
      7. Breathing
      8. Lens Design
      9. Geometry
      10. Chromatic Aberration
      11. Bokeh
      12. Flat Field/Uniformity Across the Entire Stop Range
      13. Lens Group
      14. Focus and Zoom Scaling
      15. Construction, Dimension, Durability, and Design
    2. Angenieux Optimo Zoom Lenses
    3. Optimo Anamorphic 56–152mm 2× Squeeze Zoom Lens
    4. ARRI/Fujinon Alura Zoom Lenses
    5. Canon Cine Lenses
      1. Canon EF Cinema Zoom Lenses
      2. Canon EF Cinema Prime Lenses
    6. Cooke Lenses
      1. Cooke 5/i Prime Lenses, T1.4
      2. Cooke Anamorphic/i Prime Lenses
      3. Cooke S4/i Prime Lenses
      4. Cooke mini S4/i
      5. Cooke Zoom Lenses
      6. /i Technology
    7. What Value Does Lens Metadata Hold?
    8. Fujinon Cine Lenses
      1. Fujinon PL Mount Cine Lenses
      2. Fujinon E Series 2/3-Inch 3CCD B4 Mount HD Prime Lenses
      3. Fujinon E Series 2/3-Inch B4 Mount HD Zoom Lenses
      4. Fujinon C Series 2/3-Inch B4 Mount HD Zoom Lenses
    9. Hawk 2× and 1.3× Squeeze Anamorphic Primes and Zooms
      1. Hawk V-Lite 2× Squeeze Anamorphic Lenses
      2. Hawk V-Lite Vintage ’74 Primes
      3. Hawk V-Plus Series 2× Squeeze Anamorphic Lenses
      4. Hawk V Series and C Series 2× Squeeze Anamorphic Lenses
      5. Hawk V-Lite 1.3 Squeeze Anamorphic Lenses
      6. Hawk V-Lite 16 Anamorphic Lenses
    10. Leica Summilux-C Lenses
    11. Panavision Lenses
      1. Primo Standard Prime Lenses
      2. Primo “Classic Series” Prime Lenses
      3. Primo Close Focus Lenses
      4. Primo Zoom Lenses
      5. 4:1 Primo Zoom—SLZ
      6. 11:1 Primo Zoom—SLZ11
      7. 3:1 Primo Zoom—SLZ3
      8. Primo Macro Zoom—PMZ
      9. Primo Digital Lenses
      10. Panavision PVintage Lenses
      11. Standard Primes—SP
      12. Super Speeds and Ultra Speeds
      13. Super Speeds “Z” Series and Ultra Speeds “Z” Series
      14. Panavision Macro and Specialty Lenses
        1. Macro SM Series Lenses
      15. Panavision Frazier Lens System
      16. 6mm T2.8 Fisheye Lens–SF6
      17. 6mm T3.5 Nikon Fisheye Lens–SPN6
      18. Portrait Lenses
      19. Flare Lenses
      20. Slant Focus Lenses
      21. Panavision/Century Swing Shift System—PVB
      22. Panavision Anamorphics
      23. G Series Anamorphic Prime Lenses
      24. E Series Anamorphic Prime Lenses
      25. C Series Anamorphic Prime Lenses
      26. Front Anamorphic Zooms—AWZ2 and ATZ
      27. Anamorphic Wide-Angle Zoom—AWZ2
      28. Anamorphic Telephoto Zoom—ATZ
      29. 3:1 Primo Anamorphic Zoom—ALZ3
      30. 11:1 Primo Anamorphic Zoom—ALZ11
      31. Specialty Anamorphic Lenses
    12. RED Prime Lenses and Zooms
    13. Schneider Lenses
      1. Schneider Cine Xenar I, II, III Lenses
      2. Schneider Full Frame Prime Lenses
    14. Sony CineAlta 4K Lenses
    15. UniQoptics
    16. Vantage ONE Lenses
    17. Zeiss Lenses
      1. Zeiss Master Primes
      2. Zeiss Master Zoom
      3. ARRI Lens Data System
      4. Zeiss Ultraprimes
      5. Zeiss Master Anamorphics
      6. Zeiss Compact Primes
      7. Zeiss Compact Prime Super Speeds
      8. Zeiss Compact Zooms and Lightweight Zoom
      9. Zeiss DigiPrimes and DigiZooms
      10. Zeiss DigiZooms
    18. Depth of Field
      1. Hyperfocal Distance
      2. Depth of Field
    19. Depth of Focus
    20. How Do Film Camera Aperture Sizes and HD Sensor Sizes Affect Lenses?
    21. Filter Factor
    22. Back Focus in 2/3-inch HD Lenses
    23. Focus with Zeiss Sharp Max
      1. Setting Back Focus With the SharpMax and Similar Portable Collimators
      2. Setting Back Focus With a Focus Chart
    24. Evaluating Lenses
    25. Lens Test Criteria and Methods
    26. Projecting Lenses for Evaluation
  16. Chapter 8 Camera Issues
    1. Camera and Lens Package Types
    2. “Ready to Roll” Capabilities, Boot-Up Time, Pre-Roll On-Set Management of Expectations
    3. Viewing the Image While Shooting
    4. Viewfinders—A Cautionary Note
    5. Video Village
    6. Creating, Storing, and Recalling Camera Settings
    7. Weight and Balance Issues
    8. Onboard Video Recording Versus Outboard Recording
    9. Onboard Sound Recording Versus Outboard Sound Recording
    10. Onboard Camera Controls Versus Outboard Camera Controls
    11. Ease of Use of Camera Controls
    12. Accessory Design: Focusers, Matte Boxes, and More
    13. In-Camera, Behind-the-Lens Filtration
    14. Cables, Cables, and More Cables
    15. Camera Power
    16. Lens Mount/Optical Block and Back-Focus Problems
    17. Shooting Log and Shooting Raw
    18. Digital Still Cameras Used for HD Shooting
    19. Shooting Handheld
    20. Digital Media, X-Rays/Magnetometers, and the Transportation Security Administration
    21. Digital Cameras and Cosmic Rays
  17. Chapter 9 High-Resolution Digital Motion Picture Cameras
    1. ARRI Cameras
      1. ARRI ALEXA/ALEXA XT
      2. ALEXA Workflows
      3. ALEXA XT Plus
      4. ALEXA XT M
      5. ALEXA XT Studio
    2. Blackmagic Cameras
      1. Blackmagic Camera
      2. Blackmagic Production Camera 4K
    3. Canon Cameras
      1. Canon EOS C100
      2. Canon EOS C300
      3. Canon EOS C500
    4. Ikonoscop A-Cam dII
    5. Panasonic AJ-HPX 3700
    6. Panavision Genesis
    7. RED Cameras
      1. 6K RED DRAGONTM Sensor
      2. RED One
      3. RED Epic-X/M Cameras
      4. RED Scarlet Camera
    8. Silicon Imaging SI-2K
    9. Sony Cameras
      1. Sony PMW-F3
      2. Sony NEX-FS700U
      3. Sony F23
      4. Sony F35
      5. Sony PMW-F5
      6. Sony PMW-F55
      7. Sony F65
    10. Vision Research Phantom High Speed Cameras
      1. Phantom Flex
      2. Vision Research Phantom 65
      3. Vision Research Phantom HD Gold
      4. Vision Research Phantom 4K
    11. Weisscam HS-2
  18. Chapter 10 Camera Setup and Operation
    1. Bars and Tone
    2. SMPTE Timecode
    3. Timecode On Set
    4. How Timecode Is Carried
    5. 29.97 Frames per Second?
    6. Drop-Frame and Non-Drop-Frame Timecode
    7. Five Running Modes for Generating Timecode
    8. Shutter and Exposure Time
    9. Exposure Time—Speed Versus Shutter Angles
    10. Going Beyond 180-Degree Maximum Shutter Angle
    11. Camera Setup and Operation—Menus
      1. White Balance
      2. Black Balance
      3. Gamma
      4. Gain
      5. Knee
      6. Master Black
      7. Master Black Gamma
      8. White Clip
      9. Detail
      10. Matrix
      11. Hue
      12. Saturation
      13. Lens Shading
      14. Gamut
      15. Log Output Signals
      16. ARRI Log C
      17. Panalog
      18. Sony S-Log
      19. HyperGamma Curves
    12. HD-SDI Outputs
    13. Raw Output
    14. Viewing Output—A Cautionary Tale
    15. Dual-Link Outputs—A Cautionary Tale
    16. Sync and Black Burst
    17. Test Signal Outputs
    18. How to Use the Waveform Vectorscope
    19. How and Why to Use Color Charts
    20. DSC Color Charts
    21. Electronic Viewfinders
      1. Viewfinder Magnification
      2. Zebras
      3. Crispening and Peaking
      4. False Color
      5. Histogram
    22. The “One-Eyed Jack” Exposure Ball
    23. Sensor Cleaning—Shooting a Sensor Dust Check Image
    24. How to Clean the Sensor
    25. Dead or “Lit” Pixels
  19. Chapter 11 Prep, Workflow Design, and Testing
    1. Failing to Prepare Is Preparing to Fail
    2. Sharing a Visual Language With Your Director
    3. Breaking Down the Script
    4. Location Scouting
    5. The Tools of Location Scouting
    6. Crew Size for Shooting Digital
    7. Hire a Great Gaffer
    8. Lighting Plots for Sets
    9. Hire a Great Key Grip
    10. Hire the Best Focus Puller You Can Get!
    11. Equipment Lists
    12. Digital Imaging Technician
    13. Workflow
    14. A Checklist for Determining a Workflow
    15. LTO, LTFS Offline/Online, and Conform from LTO
    16. Sample Workflows
    17. The Warner Brothers’ Next Generation Production Workflow Report
      1. Representative Samples of Workflow Diagrams
        1. Category 1: “Custom Configured” Workflow
        2. Category 2: “Plug and Play” Workflow
        3. Category 3: “Facility provided solutions” Workflow
      2. How Much Data?
      3. Bandwidth
      4. 10-Gig E/Fibre Channel
      5. WAN Transport
      6. Sohonet
      7. Latisys/Datacenters
      8. Aspera, Netflight, Ekinops, and Others
      9. PIX Systems
      10. Test, Test, Test!
        1. The 2009 Camera Assessment Series
        2. The 2012 Image Control Assessment Series
        3. Makeup Tests
        4. Wardrobe Tests
        5. Lighting Tests
        6. Color Temperature Is Not the Same Thing as Spectral Power Distribution
        7. Location Tests
        8. Workflow Tests
        9. Filmout Tests
  20. Chapter 12 The Shoot
    1. Monitors, Tents, and Directors
    2. You Are the Producer’s Business Partner
    3. You Are the Director’s Hardest Working Best Friend
    4. The Studio—What Time Did You Get the First Shot of the Day?
    5. Making a Shot
    6. Picking Up the Pieces at the End of the Day—The Crew
    7. Dailies
  21. Chapter 13 Color Management, Compression, and Workflow
    1. Baked-In Look Versus Full Range Data
    2. On-Set Look Management
    3. The Need for Look Management
    4. The Look Management Challenge for Cameras That Exceed HD Video
    5. Look Management from On-Set and/or Near-Set Through Final Color Grading
    6. Viewing Environment and Monitor Calibration
    7. On-Set Color Correction—A Cautionary Tale
    8. LUTs, Exchange Spaces, and Working Spaces
    9. ASC CDL
    10. ASC CDL Transfer Functions
      1. Slope
      2. Offset
      3. Power
      4. Saturation
    11. Behavior for Different Image Encodings
    12. Video-Gamma and Linear (Gamma 1.0)
      1. Slope
      2. Offset
      3. Power
      4. Saturation
    13. Video-Gamma Examples
    14. Log
      1. Slope
      2. Offset
      3. Power
      4. Saturation
    15. Log Examples
      1. ASC CDL Interchange Formats
    16. On-Set Look Management Hardware and Software
      1. Adobe SpeedGrade On Set
      2. Assimilate Scratch
    17. Black Magic DaVinci Resolve
      1. CineTal DAVIO LUT Box
      2. Colorfront On-Set Dailies and Express Dailies
      3. FilmLight Truelight
      4. FilmLight Image Processor (FLIP)
      5. FotoKem nextLab
      6. Fujifilm CCBOXX
      7. Gamma & Density 3cP
      8. LUTher Box
      9. MTI Film Control Dailies
      10. Panavision Genesis Display Processor
    18. Pandora Pluto/YoYo
      1. Pomfort LiveGrade
      2. Technicolor DP Lights
    19. Workflow
    20. Compression
    21. Interframe Versus Intraframe Compression Schemes
      1. Interframe Compression
      2. Intraframe Compression
    22. JPEG 2000 Wavelet Compression
      1. How JPEG 2000 Works (Figure 13.56)
      2. Pre-Processing
      3. The Discrete Wavelet Transform
      4. Compression of the Wavelet Coefficients
      5. The Entropy Coding Unit
      6. Rate Control
      7. Data Ordering
    23. JPEG 2000 Decoding Architecture
      1. JPEG 2000 Parser
      2. Entropy Decoder
      3. Inverse Quantizer
      4. External Memory
      5. Inverse Discrete Wavelet Transform (IDWT)
      6. Multiple Component Transformation (MCT)
      7. Error Handling
      8. Process Control
    24. Delivering Materials From Acquisition to Editorial
    25. Who Is Making the Dailies and How?
      1. Codecs and Wrappers
      2. AVID Codecs
      3. Apple ProRes Codecs
    26. What Are ALE and XML Files?
      1. ALE Files
      2. XML Files
      3. AAF Files
      4. EDL Files
      5. Metadata
  22. Chapter 14 Recorders
    1. How Is the Project Being Recorded?
    2. AJA Recorders
      1. AJA Ki Pro
      2. AJA Ki Pro Rack Mount
      3. AJA Ki Pro Mini
      4. AJA Ki Pro Quad
    3. Astrodesign Recorders
      1. Astrodesign HR-7502-A
      2. Astrodesign HR-7510
    4. Atomos Recorder
      1. Atomos Samurai
      2. Atomos Ronin Recorder
      3. Atomos Samurai Blade Recorder
    5. Blackmagic Recorders
      1. Blackmagic HyperDeck Shuttle 2 and Studio Decks
      2. Blackmagic HyperDeck Studio Pro Deck
    6. Cinedeck Recorders
      1. Cinedeck EX
      2. Cinedeck RX
      3. Cinedeck MX
      4. Codex Digital Onboard S Recorder
      5. Codex Digital Onboard M Recorder
      6. Codex Digital ARRIRAW Recorder
    7. Convergent Design Gemini
    8. Keisoku Giken Recorders
      1. Keisoku Giken UDR D100
      2. Keisoku Giken UDR-5S
      3. Keisoku Giken UDR-10S
      4. Keisoku Giken UDR-20S
      5. Keisoku Giken UDR-N50A
    9. Panasonic Recorders
      1. Panasonic AG-HPD24PJ
      2. Panasonic AG-HPG20
      3. Panasonic AJ-HPM200
      4. Panasonic AJ-HPD2500
    10. Panavision SSR Solid-State Recorder
    11. Pix 240i
    12. RED Drive
    13. S-Two Recorders
      1. S-Two OB-1 On-Camera Recorder
      2. S-Two DFR2K-AR Recorder
    14. Sony Recorders
      1. Sony SRR4 Recorder
      2. Sony SR-R1 Recorder
      3. Sony HDCam SRW-1
      4. SxS Cards
      5. Sony Solid-State XDCAM and XDCAM EX Recorders
    15. Vision Research CineMag and CineStation
  23. Chapter 15 Displays
    1. The Waveform Monitors and Vectorscopes
    2. Display Technologies
      1. Cathode Ray Tube Monitors
      2. Liquid Crystal Displays
      3. Light-Emitting Diode Displays
      4. Gas Plasma Displays
      5. Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays
    3. Calibration
      1. Manual Monitor Calibration
      2. Datacolor Imaging Resource
      3. NEC Spectraview
      4. THX CineSpace
      5. X-Rite
    4. Monitors for Use On Set
      1. Onboard Monitors
      2. Small Viewing Monitors
      3. On-Set Monitors
    5. Digital Projection for Dailies, Previews, and Digital Cinema
      1. Dailies Projectors
      2. Digital Projectors—DCI and SMPTE Compliant
    6. PR 730 Spectroradiometer
  24. Chapter 16 Postproduction and Digital Intermediate
    1. The Digital Intermediate
      1. The Tools of Finishing—The Digital Media Ingest
      2. The Tools of Finishing—The Digital Intermediate Color Correction
    2. Color Correction Systems
      1. Adobe Speedgrade
      2. Apple Color
      3. Assimilate Scratch
      4. Autodesk Lustre
      5. Avid Artist Color
      6. Blackmagic DaVinci Resolve
      7. Digital Vision Nucoda
      8. FilmLight Baselight
      9. Pandora Revolution
      10. Mistika
      11. Quantel Pablo
      12. Red Giant Magic Bullet Colorista II
    3. Primary Color Corrections
      1. Color Correction Parameters
    4. Lift, Gamma, and Gain
      1. Lift, Offset
        1. Gamma
        2. Gain
        3. Hue
        4. Saturation
    5. Secondary Color Corrections
      1. Power Windows and Shapes
      2. Color Vectors
      3. Color Curves
      4. Masks, Mattes, and Keys
      5. Dynamics
    6. Color Correction and Decimation—Cautionary Notes
    7. Decimation, Downsampling, or Subsampling
    8. The Tools of Finishing—The Digital Intermediate Output
    9. What Possibilities Does ACES Hold for Color Grading?
      1. Images Corrected in a 10-Bit Log Environment
      2. Images Corrected in a 16-Bit ACES Environment
    10. Additional Useful Resources AJA
      1. Blackmagic Design
      2. Gluetools
      3. Pomfort
      4. PIX Systems and VICI Post Solutions
  25. Chapter 17 Delivering and Archiving Digital Movies
    1. Delivering a Motion Picture
    2. Archiving a Motion Picture in the Digital Age
    3. Taking Digital Out to Archival Film
    4. The Digital Dilemma
    5. The Digital Cinema Package
    6. The Migration From Film to Digital
    7. The Structure of Digital Exhibition—Virtual Print Fees
    8. A Simplified Motion Picture Studio Archival Deliverables List
      1. Media
      2. Distribution Elements
      3. Editorial Items
      4. Sound Elements (on Firewire Drive and DVDR)
      5. International Elements
      6. Trailer Material
      7. Videotape Master Material
      8. Publicity Materials
      9. DVD Blu-ray Bonus Materials
      10. Clearance Documents
      11. Legal Materials
  26. Index