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Digital Audio Watermarking Techniques and Technologies: Applications and Benchmarks

Book Description

"Digital audio watermarking has been proposed as a new and alternative method to enforce intellectual property rights and protect digital audio from tampering.

Digital Audio Watermarking Techniques and Technologies: Applications and Benchmarks is a comprehensive compilation of the major theoretical frameworks, research findings, and practical applications of this method. With inclusive coverage of the most authoritative research in the area, Digital Audio Watermarking Techniques and Technologies: Applications and Benchmarks will serve as a vital reference to researchers and practitioners in a variety of disciplines, including engineering, information technology, and digital audio. With value to a diverse range of users, this Premier Reference Source suits libraries in numerous settings."

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Preface
    1. Basic Definitions and Terms in Digital Watermarking
    2. Digital Audio Watermarking and the Human Auditory System
    3. Contents of the Book
    4. REFERENCES
  3. Acknowledgment
  4. 1. Introduction to Digital Audio Watermarking
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
      1. Requirements for Audio Watermarking Algorithms
      2. Perceptual Transparency
      3. Watermark Bit Rate
      4. Robustness
      5. Blind or Informed Watermark Detection
      6. Security
      7. Computational Complexity
    3. ATTACKS AGAINST AUDIO WATERMARKING ALGORITHMS
    4. AUDIO WATERMARKING APPLICATIONS
      1. Ownership Protection
      2. Proof of Ownership
      3. Authentication and Tampering Detection
      4. Fingerprinting
      5. Broadcast Monitoring
      6. Copy Control and Access Control
      7. Information Carrier
    5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    6. REFERENCES
    7. ADDITIONAL READING
  5. II. Spread Spectrum for Digital Audio Watermarking
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BASIC THEORY OF SPREAD SPECTRUM AND WATERMARKING
      1. Communication Model for Watermarking
    4. THEORY OF SPREAD SPECTRUM TECHNOLOGY IN COMMUNICATION
      1. Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum
      2. Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum
      3. Spread Spectrum for Audio Watermarking
      4. Analysis of Traditional SS Watermarking Systems
    5. SURVEY OF CURRENT AUDIO WATERMARKING SCHEMES BASED ON SPREAD SPECTRUM
      1. Basic Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum from Cox et al. (1997)
      2. Time Domain Spread Spectrum Watermarking Scheme by Cvejic, Keskinarkaus, and Seppänen (2001)
      3. Spread Spectrum Watermarking with Psychoacoustic Model and 2-D Interleaving Array by Garcia(1999)
      4. An Improved Spread Spectrum Method by Malvar and Florencio (2003)
      5. Novel Spread Spectrum Approach by Kirovski et al. (2001, 2002, 2003)
      6. Enhanced Spread Spectrum Watermarking for AAC Audio from Cheng, Yu, and Xiong (2002)
      7. Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum by Cvejic and Seppänen (2004)
    6. EFFECTIVE SPREAD SPECTRUM WATERMARK DETECTION AND ATTACK RESISTANCE
      1. Techniques to Improve Spread Spectrum Detection
        1. Matched Filter Approach
        2. Savitzky-Golay Smoothing Filters
        3. Cepstrum Filtering
        4. Spectral Envelop Filtering
        5. The Linear Prediction Method
      2. Desynchronization Attacks and Traditional Solutions
        1. Exhaustive Search
        2. Redundant Watermark Eembedding
        3. Invariant Domain Embedding
        4. Using Synchronization Marks
        5. Use of Self-Synchronized Watermarks
        6. Feature Points or Content Synchronization
        7. An Improved Synchronization Method
        8. Feature Points Extraction
        9. PN Sequence Scrambling and Multiple PN Sequences Embedding
    7. PSYCHOACOUSTIC MODELING FOR SPREAD SPECTRUM WATERMARKING
      1. Brief Review of Previous Psychoacoustic Models
      2. A Novel Psychoacoustic Model
        1. Signal Decomposition with the DWPT
        2. Wavelet Decomposition Evaluation
        3. Window Size Switching and Temporal Masking
    8. CONCLUSION
    9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    10. REFERENCES
    11. ADDITIONAL READING
  6. III. Audio Watermarking Through Parametric Synthesis Models
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. BACKGROUND
      1. Parametric Modeling in Digital Audio: A Brief Tutorial
      2. Watermarking Through Parametric Modeling
        1. Transform-Domain Amplitude Manipulation
        2. Phase Manipulation
        3. Frequency Manipulation
        4. Modifying Speech Models
        5. Salient Point Extraction
    3. METHODS: IMPLEMENTING THE F-QIM SCHEME
      1. Spectral Decomposition
        1. Window Selection
        2. Calculating the Masking Curve
        3. Spectral Interpolation
        4. Spectral Subtraction
        5. Residual Postprocessing
        6. Transient Detection
      2. Sinusoidal Synthesis
        1. Peak Tracking
        2. Overlap-Add and Phase Continuation
        3. Entering and Exiting Transient Regions
      3. Watermark Embedding at the Encoder
        1. Designing Frequency Quantization Codebooks
        2. Watermark Encoding
      4. Watermark Retrieval at the Decoder
        1. Maximum-Likelihood Combination of "Opinions"
    4. EVALUATION
      1. Performance Against Colored Noise
      2. Choosing the F-QIM Step Size
      3. Resilience to Common Operations
        1. Low-Pass Filtering (LPF)
        2. Reverberation (RVB)
        3. Gain Fading (GF)
        4. Playback Speed Wowing (WOW)
        5. Pitch Scaling (PSC)
    5. SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION
      1. Lowering the Probability of Error by Introducing Redundancy
    6. FUTURE RESEARCH TRENDS
      1. Watermark Assisted Sound Source Segregation
      2. Cocktail Audio Watermarking
      3. Counter-Measure to Collusion
    7. REFERENCES
    8. ADDITIONAL READINGS
    9. ENDNOTES
  7. A. APPENDIX: FISHER INFORMATION AND CRAMéR-RAO BOUNDS
      1. Probabilistic Attack Characterization
      2. Fisher Information when Attack is Gaussian
      3. Geometric Interpretations
        1. Single-Parameter Signal Modeling
        2. Generalization to Multiple Parameter Estimation
  8. IV. Robust Zero-Bit and Multi-Bit Audio Watermarking Using Correlation Detection and Chaotic Signals
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. TRANSFORM-DOMAIN CORRELATION-BASED ZERO-BIT AUDIO WATERMARKING USING MARKOV CHAOTIC SEQUENCES
      1. Motivation for Using High-frequency Chaotic Sequences as Watermark Signals
      2. Watermark Generation and Embedding
      3. Watermark Detection
      4. Analytical Detection Performance Evaluation
      5. Simulation Results
    4. TEMPORAL DOMAIN MULTIPLE-BIT AUDIO WATERMARKING
      1. Watermark generation
      2. Embedding Procedure
      3. Detection Procedure
      4. Experimental Performance Evaluation
    5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    7. REFERENCES
    8. ADDITIONAL READING
  9. V. Three Techniques of Digital Audio Watermarking
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. NONBLIND WATERMARKING TECHNIQUE
      1. Overview of the Technique
      2. Watermark Embedding
      3. Watermark Recovery
      4. Performance of the Technique
    4. BLIND WATERMARKING TECHNIQUE WITHOUT ADDITIONAL SYNCHRONISATION INFORMATION
      1. Overview of the Technique
      2. Identification of Synchronisation Points
    5. WATERMARK EMBEDDING
      1. Watermark Recovery
      2. Performance of the Technique
    6. BLIND WATERMARKING TECHNIQUE WITH INFORMATION ON SYNCHRONISATION
      1. Overview of the Technique
      2. Watermark Embedding
        1. Segmentation
        2. Mask Computation and Echo Encoding
        3. Watermark Checking
        4. Watermark Recovery
      3. Performance of the Technique
      4. Watermark Security
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    9. REFERENCES
    10. ADDITIONAL READING
  10. VI. Advanced Audio Watermarking Based on Echo Hiding: Time-Spread Echo Hiding
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. TIME-SPREAD ECHO KERNEL USING PN SEQUENCES
    4. DECODING PROCESS
      1. Basic Idea
        1. Formulation of the Decoding Process
    5. EVALUATION
      1. Decoding Performance
      2. Comparison with Single Echo Hiding
      3. Robustness
      4. Listening Test
    6. DECODING COMBINED WITH LOG SCALING
    7. DISCUSSION AND FUTURE WORK
    8. CONCLUSION
    9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    10. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    11. REFERENCES
    12. ADDITIONAL READING
  11. VII. Analysis-by-Synthesis Echo Watermarking
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. THEORETICAL FOUNDATION OF ECHO WATERMARKING
      1. Embedding
    4. EXTRACTING
      1. Perception of Echoes
    5. CONVENTIONAL ECHO WATERMARKING SCHEMES
    6. PROPOSED ECHO WATERMARKING SCHEME
      1. Comparison of Echo Watermarking Scbemes
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    9. REFERENCES
    10. ADDITIONAL READING
  12. VIII. Robustness Analysis of Patchwork Watermarking Schemes
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. SECURITY EVALUATION OF GENERALIZED PATCHWORK ALGORITHM
      1. Bit Embedding
      2. Bit Extraction
      3. Cryptanalysis
      4. Experimental Results
    4. MODIFIED PATCHWORK ALGORITHM AND ITS ROBUSTNESS
      1. Modified Patchwork Algorithm
      2. Robustness Analysis
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. FURTHER RESEARCH DIRECTION
    7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    8. REFERENCES
    9. ADDITIONAL READING
  13. IX. Time-Frequency Analysis of Digital Audio Watermarking
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. DIGITAL RIGHTS MANAGEMENT
      1. Components of DRM
      2. Technologies for Digital Management of Rights
    4. TIME-FREQUENCY SIGNAL PROCESSING
    5. DIGITAL AUDIO WATERMARKING
      1. IMF-Based Watermarking
      2. Chirp-based Watermarking
    6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    8. REFERENCES
    9. ADDITIONAL READING
    10. ENDNOTE
  14. X. Digital Audio Watermarking Techniques for MP3 Audio Files
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. SIGNIFICANCE AND RESEARCH QUESTIONS
    4. MPEG AUDIO LAYER III COMPRESSION STANDARD
    5. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
      1. Audio Watermarking Techniques
      2. Complexity Theory and the Difference between Discovering and Verifying
      3. Interactive Proofs: How Randomness Expands Verification capabilities
      4. Zero Knowledge Interactive Proofs: Verification without Revelation
      5. Threshold Phenomena: Randomness Meets Complexity
      6. Locating ‘Hard’ Formulas: Experiments with 3-SAT
    6. KOUKOPOULOS-STAMATIOU AUDIO WATERMARKING SCHEME FOR MP3 AUDIO FILES
      1. General scheme
      2. Extraction Mechanism
      3. Embedding Mechanism
      4. Detection Mechanism
    7. IMPLEMENTATION SOLUTIONS OF OUR WATERMARKING SCHEME
    8. EVALUATION RESULTS OF OUR AUDIO WATERMARKING SCHEME
      1. Evaluation
    9. CONCLUSION
    10. REFERENCES
    11. ADDITIONAL READING
  15. XI. Digital Watermarking of Speech Signals
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
      1. Speech Watermarking Applications
    4. SPEECH WATERMARKING
      1. Choice of domain and speech features for Watermarking
      2. Perceptual Aspects of Speech
      3. Evaluation of Stegosignal Fidelity
      4. Watermark data Payload, Robustness, and Security
    5. ROBUST SPEECH WATERMARKING
      1. Spread-Spectrum Signaling
      2. Parametric Watermarking
      3. Speech Watermarking Through Transform Encryption Coding
    6. FRAGILE SPEECH WATERMARKING
      1. Fragile Watermarking Through Pitch and Duration Modification of Speech Segments
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. REFERENCES
  16. XII. Robustness Against DA/AD Conversion: Concepts, Challenges, and Examples
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. ANALOGUE RECORDING CATEGORIES
    4. RESULTING DISTORTIONS
    5. DISTORTIONS CAUSED BY DA/AD CONVERSION HARDWARE
    6. ACOUSTICS: REVERBERATION AND ECHO
    7. PREVIOUS WORK
    8. DA/AD EVALUATION: MICROPHONE RECORDINGS
    9. DA/AD ROBUSTNESS OPTIMISATION STRATEGIES
    10. DOWNMIX ROBUSTNESS
      1. Playback Speed Robustness
    11. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
    12. REFERENCES
  17. XIII. Subjective and Objective Quality Evaluation of Watermarked Audio
    1. ABSTRACT
      1. Evaluation of Watermarked Audio Data
      2. Subjective Evaluation Standards and Methods
      3. Testing Transparency
        1. The ABX Double Blind Test
      4. Rating the Quality
        1. The ITU-R BS.1116 Standard
      5. Testing Intermediate Quality
        1. The ITU-R BS.1534 Standard
      6. Objective Evaluation Standards
        1. The ITU-R BS.1387 Standard
      7. Practical Limitations
      8. Implementation of a Quality Evaluation
      9. Project Objective
      10. Test objective
      11. Selection of Items
      12. Design of the Test
      13. Selection of Test Technique
      14. Selecting and Training Subjects
      15. Number of Subjects
      16. Recording Results
      17. Listening Environment
      18. Test Equipment, Setup, and Implementation
      19. Conducting the Listening Test
      20. Analyzing Results
      21. Interpretation and Reporting
    2. SUMMARY
    3. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    4. REFERENCES
    5. ENDNOTES
  18. XIV. Watermarking Security
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. WATERMARKING SECURITY
    3. BACKGROUND
      1. Birth of a New concept
      2. Elements of Definition
      3. Notation
      4. A Theory for Watermarking security
        1. A Methodology Inspired by Cryptanalysis
        2. Measure of Information Leakages and Physical Interpretation
      5. Examples of the Theoretical security Analysis
        1. Mathematical Model of Substitutive Watermarking Security
        2. Perfect Covering
        3. Watermarked Only Attack
        4. Known Message Attack
        5. Known Original Attack
        6. Spread Spectrum Watermarking Schemes
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
      1. Careful Comparison with Cryptography
        1. Practical Approaches
        2. Computational Security Assessment
    5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. ADDITIONAL READING
  19. Compilation of References
  20. About the Contributors