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Developing High Quality Data Models

Book Description

Note: Supplemental content is not included with the electronic edition of this book.

Developing High Quality Data Models provides an introduction to the key principles of data modeling. It explains the purpose of data models in both developing an Enterprise Architecture and in supporting Information Quality; common problems in data model development; and how to develop high quality data models, in particular conceptual, integration, and enterprise data models.
The book is organized into four parts. Part 1 provides an overview of data models and data modeling including the basics of data model notation; types and uses of data models; and the place of data models in enterprise architecture. Part 2 introduces some general principles for data models, including principles for developing ontologically based data models; and applications of the principles for attributes, relationship types, and entity types. Part 3 presents an ontological framework for developing consistent data models. Part 4 provides the full data model that has been in development throughout the book. The model was created using Jotne EPM Technologys EDMVisualExpress data modeling tool.

This book was designed for all types of modelers: from those who understand data modeling basics but are just starting to learn about data modeling in practice, through to experienced data modelers seeking to expand their knowledge and skills and solve some of the more challenging problems of data modeling.

* Uses a number of common data model patterns to explain how to develop data models over a wide scope in a way that is consistent and of high quality

*Offers generic data model templates that are reusable in many applications and are fundamental for developing more specific templates

*Develops ideas for creating consistent approaches to high quality data models

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Image
  2. Table of Contents
  3. Front-matter
  4. Copyright
  5. Preface
  6. Part 1 Motivations and Notations
  7. 1. Introduction
  8. 1.1. Some Questions about Data Models
  9. 1.2. Purpose
  10. 1.3. Target Audience
  11. 1.4. What Is a Data Model?
  12. 1.5. Why Do We Do Data Models?
  13. 1.6. Approach to Data Modeling
  14. 1.7. Structure of This Book
  15. 2. Entity Relationship Model Basics
  16. 2.1. Oh, It’s Boxes and Lines Again…
  17. 2.2. Graphical or Lexical
  18. 2.3. Graphical Notations: Complexity vs. Understandability vs. Capability
  19. 2.4. Language and Notation Elements
  20. 2.5. Express-G
  21. 2.6. Notation for Instances and Classes
  22. 2.7. Layout of Data Models
  23. 2.8. Reflections
  24. 3. Some Types and Uses of Data Models
  25. 3.1. Different Types of Data Models
  26. 3.2. Integration of Data and Data Models
  27. 3.3. Concluding Remarks
  28. 4. Data Models and Enterprise Architecture
  29. 4.1. The Business Process Model
  30. 4.2. Information Architecture
  31. 4.3. Information Operations
  32. 4.4. Organization
  33. 4.5. Methodologies and Standards
  34. 4.6. Management
  35. 4.7. Wider Infrastructure
  36. 4.8. Enterprise Architecture Mappings
  37. 4.9. The Process/Data Balance
  38. 5. Some Observations on Data Models and Data Modeling
  39. 5.1. Limitations of Data Models
  40. 5.2. Challenges in Data Modeling
  41. Part 2 General Principles for Data Models
  42. 6. Some General Principles for Conceptual, Integration, and Enterprise Data Models
  43. 6.1. Data Modeling Approach
  44. 6.2. General Principles
  45. 6.3. Understanding Relationships
  46. 6.4. Principles for Data Models
  47. 6.5. Naughtiness Index
  48. 7. Applying the Principles for Attributes
  49. 7.1. Looking for Attributes Representing Relationships
  50. 7.2. Identifiers
  51. 7.3. What Other Attributes Might You Expect?
  52. 7.4. Concluding Remarks on Attributes
  53. 8. General Principles for Relationships
  54. 8.1. Example of Inappropriate Cardinalities—Batch and Product Type
  55. 8.2. Example of Inappropriate Cardinalities—Packed Products
  56. 8.3. An Example of Inappropriate Cardinalities—Ship
  57. 8.4. A Good Example of Applying the Principles for Relationships—Transfer and Storage
  58. 8.5. Concluding Remarks
  59. 9. General Principles for Entity Types
  60. 9.1. An Example—Combined Entity Types
  61. 9.2. An Example—Stock
  62. 9.3. Getting Subtypes Wrong
  63. 9.4. An Example of Fixed Hierarchies—Stock Classification
  64. 9.5. Getting the Right Level of Abstraction
  65. 9.6. Impact of Using the Principles
  66. Part 3 An Ontological Framework for Consistent Data Models
  67. 10. Motivation and Overview for an Ontological Framework
  68. 10.1. Motivation
  69. 10.2. Ontological Foundation
  70. 10.3. A Data Model for the Ontological Foundations
  71. 10.4. Closing Remarks
  72. 11. Spatio-Temporal Extents
  73. 11.1. Parts
  74. 11.2. Individuals and States
  75. 11.3. Inheritance of Properties by Substates
  76. 11.4. Space and Time
  77. 11.5. Ordinary Physical Objects
  78. 11.6. Levels of Reality
  79. 11.7. Activities and Events
  80. 11.8. Associations
  81. 11.9. A Data Model for Individuals
  82. 12. Classes
  83. 12.1. What Is a Set?
  84. 12.2. Sets and Four-Dimensionalism
  85. 12.3. Some Different Kinds of Set Theory
  86. 12.4. A High Level Data Model for Classes
  87. 12.5. Properties and Quantities
  88. 12.6. Scales and Units
  89. 12.7. Kinds
  90. 12.8. Concluding Remarks
  91. 13. Intentionally Constructed Objects
  92. 13.1. Introduction
  93. 13.2. Functional Objects
  94. 13.3. Socially Constructed Objects
  95. 13.4. Ownership
  96. 13.5. Agreements
  97. 13.6. Contracts
  98. 13.7. Organizations
  99. 13.8. Product
  100. 13.9. Representation
  101. 13.10. Concluding Remarks
  102. 14. Systems and System Components
  103. 14.1. What Are Systems and System Components?
  104. 14.2. The Nature of System Components
  105. 14.3. Another Example: A Football Match
  106. 14.4. Similarities, Differences, and Relationships to Other Things
  107. 14.5. Do I Need a Separate Set of Classes for System Components?
  108. 14.6. Extending the Framework for System and System Component
  109. 14.7. Concluding Remarks
  110. Chapter 15. Requirements Specification
  111. 15.1. A Process for Procurement
  112. 15.2. Requirements Specification
  113. Chapter 16. Concluding Remarks
  114. Part 4 The HQDM Framework Schema
  115. 17. HQDM_Framework
  116. 17.1. Thing and Abstract Object
  117. 17.2. Class and Class of Class
  118. 17.3. Relationship and Class of Relationship
  119. 17.4. Spatio-Temporal Extent and Class of Spatio-Temporal Extent
  120. 17.5. Event, Class of Event, and Point in Time
  121. 17.6. State and Individual
  122. 17.7. Physical Object
  123. 17.8. Ordinary Physical Object
  124. 17.9. Kind of Individual and Subtypes
  125. 17.10. Kind of System and System Component
  126. 17.11. Period of Time and Possible Worlds
  127. 17.12. Physical Properties and Physical Quantities
  128. 17.13. Association
  129. 17.14. Activity
  130. 17.15. Participant
  131. 17.16. Role, Class of Activity, and Class of Association
  132. 17.17. System
  133. 17.18. System Component
  134. 17.19. Installed Object
  135. 17.20. Biological Object
  136. 17.21. Ordinary Biological Object
  137. 17.22. Biological System
  138. 17.23. Person
  139. 17.24. Biological System Component
  140. 17.25. Intentionally Constructed Object
  141. 17.26. Functional Object
  142. 17.27. Ordinary Functional Object
  143. 17.28. Functional System
  144. 17.29. Socially Constructed Object
  145. 17.30. Party
  146. 17.31. Organization and Language Community
  147. 17.32. Employment
  148. 17.33. Organization Component and Position
  149. 17.34. Money
  150. 17.35. Ownership
  151. 17.36. Transfer of Ownership
  152. 17.37. Socially Constructed Activity
  153. 17.38. Class of Socially Constructed Activity
  154. 17.39. Agreement
  155. 17.40. Contract
  156. 17.41. Offer and Acceptance of Offer
  157. 17.42. Sale of Goods
  158. 17.43. Sales Product, Product Brand, and Sales Product Version
  159. 17.44. Offering
  160. 17.45. Sign and Pattern
  161. 17.46. Requirement and Requirement Specification
  162. Appendix. A Mapping Between the HQDM Schema and ISO 15926-2
  163. Index