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Designing Software Synthesizer Plug-Ins in C++ by Will Pirkle

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Chapter 12DXSynth: FM Synthesizer

In 1973, John Chowning published “The Synthesis of Complex Audio Spectra by Means of Frequency Modulation” in the Journal of the Audio Engineering Society. It described a method of synthesizing sounds with potentially dense spectra from just a few sinusoidal oscillators and envelope generators. Frequency Modulation (FM) produces multiple harmonics from just two sinusoids. The ability to alter the spectrum in realtime is so powerful that filtering is not required. This synthesis technique is one of the filter-less varieties, along with additive synthesis in which spectral components were directly synthesized and modified. For stable operation, the oscillators need to be digital so that their outputs are exactly ...

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