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Designing Software Product Lines with UML: From Use Cases to Pattern-Based Software Architectures

Book Description

"Designing Software Product Lines with UML is well-written, informative, and addresses a very important topic. It is a valuable contribution to the literature in this area, and offers practical guidance for software architects and engineers."
—Alan Brown
Distinguished Engineer, Rational Software, IBM Software Group

"Gomaa's process and UML extensions allow development teams to focus on feature-oriented development and provide a basis for improving the level of reuse across multiple software development efforts. This book will be valuable to any software development professional who needs to manage across projects and wants to focus on creating software that is consistent, reusable, and modular in nature."
—Jeffrey S Hammond
Group Marketing Manager, Rational Software, IBM Software Group

"This book brings together a good range of concepts for understanding software product lines and provides an organized method for developing product lines using object-oriented techniques with the UML. Once again, Hassan has done an excellent job in balancing the needs of both experienced and novice software engineers."
—Robert G. Pettit IV, Ph.D.
Adjunct Professor of Software Engineering, George Mason University

"This breakthrough book provides a comprehensive step-by-step approach on how to develop software product lines, which is of great strategic benefit to industry. The development of software product lines enables significant reuse of software architectures. Practitioners will benefit from the well-defined PLUS process and rich case studies."
—Hurley V. Blankenship II
Program Manager, Justice and Public Safety, Science Applications International Corporation

"The Product Line UML based Software engineering (PLUS) is leading edge. With the author's wide experience and deep knowledge, PLUS is well harmonized with architectural and design pattern technologies."
—Michael Shin
Assistant Professor, Texas Tech University

Long a standard practice in traditional manufacturing, the concept of product lines is quickly earning recognition in the software industry. A software product line is a family of systems that shares a common set of core technical assets with preplanned extensions and variations to address the needs of specific customers or market segments. When skillfully implemented, a product line strategy can yield enormous gains in productivity, quality, and time-to-market. Studies indicate that if three or more systems with a degree of common functionality are to be developed, a product-line approach is significantly more cost-effective.

To model and design families of systems, the analysis and design concepts for single product systems need to be extended to support product lines. Designing Software Product Lines with UML shows how to employ the latest version of the industry-standard Unified Modeling Language (UML 2.0) to reuse software requirements and architectures rather than starting the development of each new system from scratch. Through real-world case studies, the book illustrates the fundamental concepts and technologies used in the design and implementation of software product lines.

This book describes a new UML-based software design method for product lines called PLUS (Product Line UML-based Software engineering). PLUS provides a set of concepts and techniques to extend UML-based design methods and processes for single systems in a new dimension to address software product lines. Using PLUS, the objective is to explicitly model the commonality and variability in a software product line.

Hassan Gomaa explores how each of the UML modeling views—use case, static, state machine, and interaction modeling—can be extended to address software product families. He also discusses how software architectural patterns can be used to develop a reusable component-based architecture for a product line and how to express this architecture as a UML platform-independent model that can then be mapped to a platform-specific model.

Key topics include:

  • Software product line engineering process, which extends the Unified Development Software Process to address software product lines

  • Use case modeling, including modeling the common and variable functionality of a product line

  • Incorporating feature modeling into UML for modeling common, optional, and alternative product line features

  • Static modeling, including modeling the boundary of the product line and information-intensive entity classes

  • Dynamic modeling, including using interaction modeling to address use-case variability

  • State machines for modeling state-dependent variability

  • Modeling class variability using inheritance and parameterization

  • Software architectural patterns for product lines

  • Component-based distributed design using the new UML 2.0 capability for modeling components, connectors, ports, and provided and required interfaces

  • Detailed case studies giving a step-by-step solution to real-world product line problems

  • Designing Software Product Lines with UML is an invaluable resource for all designers and developers in this growing field. The information, technology, and case studies presented here show how to harness the promise of software product lines and the practicality of the UML to take software design, quality, and efficiency to the next level. An enhanced online index allows readers to quickly and easily search the entire text for specific topics.



    Table of Contents

    1. Copyright
      1. Dedication
    2. Praise for Designing Software Product Lines with UML
    3. The Addison-Wesley Object Technology Series
    4. The Component Software Series
    5. Foreword
    6. Preface
      1. Overview
      2. What This Book Provides
      3. The PLUS Advantage
        1. Software Product Line Requirements Modeling
        2. Software Product Line Analysis Modeling
        3. Software Product Line Design Modeling
        4. Software Application Engineering
      4. Intended Audience
      5. Ways to Read This Book
      6. Annotated Table of Contents
        1. Chapter 1: Introduction
        2. Chapter 2: Design Concepts for Software Product Lines
        3. Chapter 3: Software Product Line Engineering
        4. Chapter 4: Use Case Modeling for Software Product Lines
        5. Chapter 5: Feature Modeling for Software Product Lines
        6. Chapter 6: Static Modeling in Software Product Lines
        7. Chapter 7: Dynamic Interaction Modeling for Software Product Lines
        8. Chapter 8: Finite State Machines and Statecharts for Software Product Lines
        9. Chapter 9: Feature/Class Dependency Modeling for Software Product Lines
        10. Chapter 10: Architectural Patterns for Software Product Lines
        11. Chapter 11: Software Product Line Architectural Design: Component-Based Design
        12. Chapter 12: Software Application Engineering
        13. Chapter 13: Microwave Oven Software Product Line Case Study
        14. Chapter 14: Electronic Commerce Software Product Line Case Study
        15. Chapter 15: Factory Automation Software Product Line Case Study
        16. Appendix A: Overview of the UML Notation
        17. Appendix B: Catalog of Software Architectural Patterns
      7. Contact
    7. Acknowledgments
    8. I. Overview
      1. 1. Introduction
        1. 1.1. Software Reuse
          1. 1.1.1. Software Reuse Libraries
          2. 1.1.2. Software Architecture and Design Reuse
        2. 1.2. Software Product Lines
          1. 1.2.1. Modeling Variability in Software Product Lines
        3. 1.3. Modeling Requirements Variability in Software Product Lines: Feature Modeling
        4. 1.4. Modeling Design Variability in Software Product Lines
          1. 1.4.1. Modeling Variability Using Parameterization
          2. 1.4.2. Modeling Variability Using Information Hiding
          3. 1.4.3. Modeling Variability Using Inheritance
          4. 1.4.4. Comparison of Approaches for Modeling Design Variability
        5. 1.5. Reusable Design Patterns
        6. 1.6. Modeling Single Systems with UML
        7. 1.7. COMET: A UML-Based Software Design Method for Single Systems
          1. 1.7.1. Requirements Modeling
          2. 1.7.2. Analysis Modeling
          3. 1.7.3. Design Modeling
        8. 1.8. Modeling Software Product Lines with UML
        9. 1.9. UML as a Standard
          1. 1.9.1. Model-Driven Architecture with UML for Software Product Lines
        10. 1.10. Related Texts
        11. 1.11. Summary
      2. 2. Design Concepts for Software Product Lines
        1. 2.1. Object-Oriented Concepts
          1. 2.1.1. Objects and Classes
        2. 2.2. Information Hiding
          1. Example of Information Hiding
        3. 2.3. Relationships between Classes
          1. 2.3.1. Associations
          2. 2.3.2. Composition and Aggregation Hierarchies
          3. 2.3.3. Inheritance and Generalization/Specialization
        4. 2.4. Dynamic Modeling
        5. 2.5. Sequential and Concurrent Applications
          1. 2.5.1. Concurrent Objects
          2. 2.5.2. Cooperation between Concurrent Objects
            1. Example of Cooperation between Concurrent Objects
        6. 2.6. Software Architecture and Components
          1. 2.6.1. Components and Component Interfaces
          2. 2.6.2. Connectors
          3. 2.6.3. Middleware
          4. 2.6.4. Distributed Component Communication Protocols
          5. 2.6.5. Application Services
          6. 2.6.6. Registration Services
          7. 2.6.7. Brokering and Discovery Services
          8. 2.6.8. Wrapper Components
        7. 2.7. Summary
      3. 3. Software Product Line Engineering
        1. 3.1. Evolutionary Software Product Line Engineering Process
        2. 3.2. Software Product Line Engineering Phases
          1. 3.2.1. Software Product Line Requirements Modeling
          2. 3.2.2. Software Product Line Analysis Modeling
          3. 3.2.3. Software Product Line Design Modeling
          4. 3.2.4. Incremental Component Implementation
          5. 3.2.5. Product Line Testing
        3. 3.3. Forward and Reverse Evolutionary Engineering
          1. 3.3.1. Forward Evolutionary Engineering
          2. 3.3.2. Reverse Evolutionary Engineering
        4. 3.4. Integration of PLUS with the Spiral Model
          1. 3.4.1. Spiral Model
          2. 3.4.2. Double Spiral Model for Software Product Line Engineering
        5. 3.5. Integration of PLUS with Unified Software Development Process
          1. 3.5.1. Unified Software Development Process
          2. 3.5.2. How PLUS Relates to USDP
          3. 3.5.3. Inception
          4. 3.5.4. Elaboration—Iteration #1: Kernel First
          5. 3.5.5. Elaboration—Iteration #2: Product Line Evolution
          6. 3.5.6. Construction—Iteration #1: Construction of the Kernel Components
          7. 3.5.7. Transition—Iteration #1: Testing of the Kernel System
          8. 3.5.8. Further Iterations of Product Line Engineering
          9. 3.5.9. The Unified Process with Software Application Engineering
        6. 3.6. Requirements, Analysis, and Design Modeling in Software Product Lines
          1. 3.6.1. Activities in Requirements Modeling for Software Product Lines
          2. 3.6.2. Activities in Analysis Modeling for Software Product Lines
          3. 3.6.3. Activities in Design Modeling for Software Product Lines
        7. 3.7. Software Product Line Scoping
        8. 3.8. Summary
    9. II. Requirements, Analysis, and Design Modeling for Software Product Lines
      1. 4. Use Case Modeling for Software Product Lines
        1. 4.1. The Use Case Model in Single Systems
          1. 4.1.1. Use Cases
          2. 4.1.2. Actors
        2. 4.2. The Use Case Model for Software Product Lines
        3. 4.3. Identifying Use Cases
        4. 4.4. Documenting Product Line Use Cases
        5. 4.5. Example of a Use Case Description
        6. 4.6. Modeling Variability in Use Cases
        7. 4.7. Modeling Small Variations
          1. 4.7.1. Modeling Optional Functionality with Variation Points
          2. 4.7.2. Modeling Alternative Functionality with Variation Points
        8. 4.8. Modeling Variability with the Extend Relationship
          1. 4.8.1. The Extend Relationship in Single Systems
          2. 4.8.2. Extension Points in Software Product Lines
            1. Example of Extension Points in Software Product Lines
          3. 4.8.3. Modeling Product Line Variability with Extension Points
        9. 4.9. Modeling Variability with the Include Relationship
          1. 4.9.1. The Include Relationship in Single Systems
          2. 4.9.2. The Include Relationship in Software Product Lines
            1. Example of the Include Relationship in Software Product Lines
          3. 4.9.3. Some Guidelines on Using Abstract Use Cases
        10. 4.10. Use Case Development Strategies
          1. 4.10.1. Forward Evolutionary Engineering
          2. 4.10.2. Reverse Evolutionary Engineering
        11. 4.11. Summary
      2. 5. Feature Modeling for Software Product Lines
        1. 5.1. Introduction to Feature Analysis
          1. 5.1.1. Modeling Product Line Variability with Features
        2. 5.2. Commonality/Variability Feature Analysis
          1. 5.2.1. Common Features
          2. 5.2.2. Optional Features
          3. 5.2.3. Alternative Features
          4. 5.2.4. Parameterized Features
          5. 5.2.5. Prerequisite Features
          6. 5.2.6. Mutually Inclusive Features
        3. 5.3. Features and Use Cases
          1. 5.3.1. Modeling Functional Features as Groups of Use Cases
          2. 5.3.2. Modeling Feature Dependencies as Use Case Dependencies
          3. 5.3.3. Modeling Functional Features with Variation Points
          4. 5.3.4. Modeling Parameterized Features as Variation Points
        4. 5.4. Feature Modeling with UML
          1. 5.4.1. Modeling Features as a Use Case Package
          2. 5.4.2. Modeling Features as Metaclasses
          3. 5.4.3. Representing Features in Tables
        5. 5.5. Feature Groups
          1. 5.5.1. Mutually Exclusive Features
          2. 5.5.2. Exactly-One-Of Feature Group
          3. 5.5.3. At-Least-One-Of Feature Group
          4. 5.5.4. Zero-or-More-of Feature Group
          5. 5.5.5. Representing Feature Groups in Tables
        6. 5.6. Advanced Feature Modeling with UML
          1. 5.6.1. Example of Advanced Feature Modeling
        7. 5.7. Summary
      3. 6. Static Modeling in Software Product Lines
        1. 6.1. Modeling Commonality and Variability in Product Lines
          1. 6.1.1. Categorization and UML Stereotypes
        2. 6.2. Static Modeling of the Software Product Line Problem Domain
        3. 6.3. Static Modeling of the Software Product Line Scope
          1. 6.3.1. Product Line External Classes
          2. 6.3.2. Development Stategies for the Software Product Line Context Model
            1. Examples of Developing Software Product Line Context Models
        4. 6.4. Static Modeling of Entity Classes
          1. 6.4.1. Developing Entity Class Models in Software Product Lines
            1. Example of Entity Class Modeling in Software Product Lines
        5. 6.5. Modeling Application Classes and Objects
          1. 6.5.1. Interface Objects
          2. 6.5.2. Entity Objects
          3. 6.5.3. Control Objects
          4. 6.5.4. Application Logic Objects
          5. 6.5.5. Applying Object and Class Structuring Criteria
        6. 6.6. Summary
      4. 7. Dynamic Interaction Modeling for Software Product Lines
        1. 7.1. Dynamic Modeling in Single Systems
          1. 7.1.1. Object Interaction Modeling with Communication Diagrams
          2. 7.1.2. Sequence Diagrams
          3. 7.1.3. Sequence Diagram versus Communication Diagram
          4. 7.1.4. Use Cases and Scenarios
          5. 7.1.5. Generic and Instance Forms of Interaction Diagrams
        2. 7.2. Evolutionary Dynamic Modeling in Software Product Lines
          1. 7.2.1. Evolutionary Dynamic Analysis for Software Product Lines
        3. 7.3. Kernel First Approach
          1. 7.3.1. Kernel First Approach: Non-State-Dependent Dynamic Analysis
          2. 7.3.2. Examples of the Kernel First Approach
        4. 7.4. Software Product Line Evolution Approach
          1. 7.4.1. Optional Communication Diagrams
          2. 7.4.2. Alternative Communication Diagrams
          3. 7.4.3. Variant Communication Diagrams
        5. 7.5. Message Sequence Numbering on Interaction Diagrams
          1. 7.5.1. Message Labels on Interaction Diagrams
          2. 7.5.2. Message Sequence Numbering on Interaction Diagrams
          3. 7.5.3. Concurrent and Alternative Message Sequences
        6. 7.6. Example of Evolutionary Dynamic Analysis for the Microwave Oven Product Line
          1. 7.6.1. Example of the Kernel First Approach
          2. 7.6.2. Example of the Product Line Evolution Approach
          3. 7.6.3. Analyzing the Impact of Variation Points and Features
        7. 7.7. Summary
      5. 8. Finite State Machines and Statecharts for Software Product Lines
        1. 8.1. Finite State Machines for Kernel and Single Systems
          1. 8.1.1. Events
          2. 8.1.2. States
          3. 8.1.3. Examples of Statecharts
          4. 8.1.4. Events and Guard Conditions
          5. 8.1.5. Actions
          6. 8.1.6. Entry and Exit Actions
          7. 8.1.7. Activities
        2. 8.2. Hierarchical Statecharts
          1. 8.2.1. Hierarchical State Decomposition
          2. 8.2.2. History State
          3. 8.2.3. Orthogonal Statecharts
        3. 8.3. Finite State Machines and Statecharts for Software Product Lines
        4. 8.4. Inherited State Machines in Software Product Lines
          1. Examples of Inherited State Machines
        5. 8.5. Parameterized State Machines in Software Product Lines
        6. 8.6. Comparison of Approaches
          1. Examples of Inherited and Parameterized State Machines
        7. 8.7. Kernel First Approach: State-Dependent Dynamic Analysis
          1. 8.7.1. Determining Objects and Interactions
          2. 8.7.2. Modeling Interaction Scenarios on Communication Diagrams and Statecharts
          3. 8.7.3. Example of the Kernel First Approach
        8. 8.8. Software Product Line Evolution Approach
        9. 8.9. Dynamic Analysis with Communicating State-Dependent Objects
        10. 8.10. Summary
      6. 9. Feature/Class Dependency Modeling for Software Product Lines
        1. 9.1. Classes and Variation Points
          1. 9.1.1. Abstract Classes
          2. 9.1.2. Abstract Classes in Software Product Lines
            1. Example of Abstract Classes and Subclasses
          3. 9.1.3. Parameterized Classes in Software Product Lines
            1. Example of a Parameterized Class
        2. 9.2. Class Reuse Categorization for Software Product Lines
        3. 9.3. Feature/Class Dependencies
        4. 9.4. Feature-Based Impact Analysis
          1. 9.4.1. Feature-Based Impact Analysis of Optional Features
          2. 9.4.2. Feature-Based Impact Analysis of Alternative Features
        5. 9.5. Feature/Object and Feature/Class Dependency Modeling in UML
          1. 9.5.1. Feature-Based Communication Diagrams
          2. 9.5.2. Feature-Based Class Diagrams
          3. 9.5.3. Feature/Class Dependency Tables
        6. 9.6. Summary
      7. 10. Architectural Patterns for Software Product Lines
        1. 10.1. Categorization of Software Patterns
        2. 10.2. Software Architectural Structure Patterns
          1. 10.2.1. Layers of Abstraction Architectural Pattern
            1. Software Product Line Implications of the Layers of Abstraction Pattern
          2. 10.2.2. Kernel Architectural Pattern
            1. Software Product Line Implications of the Kernel Pattern
          3. 10.2.3. Client/Server Architectural Pattern
            1. Software Product Line Implications of the Client/Server Pattern
          4. 10.2.4. Broker Architectural Pattern
            1. Software Product Line Implications of the Broker Pattern
          5. 10.2.5. Client/Agent/Server Architectural Pattern
          6. 10.2.6. Centralized Control Architectural Pattern
          7. 10.2.7. Distributed Control Architectural Pattern
          8. 10.2.8. Hierarchical Control Architectural Pattern
          9. 10.2.9. Implications of Control Patterns
          10. 10.2.10. Communicating Components Architectural Pattern
        3. 10.3. Software Architectural Communication Patterns
          1. 10.3.1. Asynchronous Message Communication Pattern
          2. 10.3.2. Bidirectional Asynchronous Message Communication Pattern
          3. 10.3.3. Synchronous Message Communication with Reply Pattern
          4. 10.3.4. Asynchronous Message Communication with Callback Pattern
          5. 10.3.5. Synchronous Message Communication without Reply Pattern
          6. 10.3.6. Broker Communication Patterns
            1. Broker Forwarding
            2. Broker Handle
          7. 10.3.7. Discovery Pattern
          8. 10.3.8. Group Message Communication Patterns
          9. 10.3.9. Negotiated Communication Patterns
          10. 10.3.10. Product Line Implications of Communication Patterns
        4. 10.4. Software Architectural Transaction Patterns
          1. 10.4.1. Two-Phase Commit Protocol Pattern
          2. 10.4.2. Compound Transaction Pattern
          3. 10.4.3. Long-Living Transaction Pattern
        5. 10.5. Documenting Software Architectural Patterns
        6. 10.6. Applying Software Architectural Patterns
        7. 10.7. Summary
      8. 11. Software Product Line Architectural Design: Component-Based Design
        1. 11.1. Software Architecture Issues
        2. 11.2. Configurable Architectures and Software Components
        3. 11.3. Steps in Designing Distributed Applications
        4. 11.4. Design of Software Architecture
          1. 11.4.1. Decisions about Message Communication between Components
          2. 11.4.2. Decisions about Integrating Communication Models
        5. 11.5. Design of Component-Based Software Architecture
          1. 11.5.1. Designing Distributed Components
        6. 11.6. Separation of Concerns in Component Design
          1. 11.6.1. Composite Object
          2. 11.6.2. Geographical Location
          3. 11.6.3. Clients and Servers
          4. 11.6.4. User Interface
          5. 11.6.5. Proximity to the Source of Physical Data
          6. 11.6.6. Localized Autonomy
          7. 11.6.7. Performance
          8. 11.6.8. Specialized Hardware
          9. 11.6.9. Interface to External Objects
          10. 11.6.10. Scope of Control
        7. 11.7. Aggregate and Composite Subsystems
        8. 11.8. Component Structuring Criteria
          1. 11.8.1. Client Component
          2. 11.8.2. User Interface Component
          3. 11.8.3. Server Component
          4. 11.8.4. Control Component
          5. 11.8.5. Coordinator Component
          6. 11.8.6. Data Collection Component
          7. 11.8.7. Data Analysis Component
          8. 11.8.8. I/O Component
        9. 11.9. Design of Server Components
          1. 11.9.1. Sequential Server Component
          2. 11.9.2. Concurrent Server Component with Multiple Readers and Writers
          3. 11.9.3. Concurrent Server Component with Subscription and Notification
        10. 11.10. Distribution of Data
          1. 11.10.1. Distributed Server
          2. 11.10.2. Data Replication
        11. 11.11. Design of Component Interfaces
          1. 11.11.1. Modeling Components in UML 2.0
          2. 11.11.2. Component Interfaces in UML
          3. 11.11.3. Component Interfaces: Provided and Required Interfaces
        12. 11.12. Design of Components
          1. 11.12.1. Designing Composite Components
          2. 11.12.2. Designing “Plug-Compatible” Components
          3. 11.12.3. Design of Variable Component Architectures
          4. 11.12.4. Design of Component Interface Inheritance
        13. 11.13. Summary
      9. 12. Software Application Engineering
        1. 12.1. Phases in Software Application Engineering
          1. 12.1.1. Application Requirements Modeling
          2. 12.1.2. Application Analysis Modeling
          3. 12.1.3. Application Design Modeling
          4. 12.1.4. Incremental Application Implementation
          5. 12.1.5. Application Testing
        2. 12.2. Software Application Engineering with the USDP
          1. 12.2.1. Inception
          2. 12.2.2. Elaboration—Iteration 1: Evolution
          3. 12.2.3. Elaboration—Iteration 2: Adaptation
          4. 12.2.4. Construction
          5. 12.2.5. Transition
        3. 12.3. Application Deployment
          1. 12.3.1. Application Deployment Issues
          2. 12.3.2. Example of Application Deployment
        4. 12.4. Tradeoffs in Software Application Engineering
        5. 12.5. Example of Software Application Engineering
          1. 12.5.1. Feature Model for the Microwave Oven Application
          2. 12.5.2. Use Case Model for the Microwave Oven Application
          3. 12.5.3. Static Model for the Microwave Oven Application
          4. 12.5.4. Dynamic Model for the Microwave Oven Application
          5. 12.5.5. Feature/Class Dependency for the Microwave Oven Application
          6. 12.5.6. Software Architecture for the Microwave Oven Application
        6. 12.6. Summary
    10. III. Case Studies
      1. 13. Microwave Oven Software Product Line Case Study
        1. 13.1. Problem Description
        2. 13.2. Use Case Modeling
          1. 13.2.1. Cook Food Kernel Use Case
          2. 13.2.2. Variation Points in the Cook Food Use Case
          3. 13.2.3. Set Time of Day Use Case
            1. Variation Points in the Set Time of Day Use Case
          4. 13.2.4. Display Time of Day Use Case
            1. Variation Points in the Display Time of Day Use Case
          5. 13.2.5. Cook Food with Recipe Use Case
            1. Variation Points in the Cook Food with Recipe Use Case
        3. 13.3. Feature Modeling
          1. 13.3.1. Commonality Analysis
          2. 13.3.2. Optional Features
          3. 13.3.3. Alternative Features and Feature Groups
          4. 13.3.4. Optional Features with Prerequisite and Mutually Inclusive Features
          5. 13.3.5. Parameterized Features
          6. 13.3.6. Feature Dependency Diagram
        4. 13.4. Static Modeling
          1. 13.4.1. Static Modeling of the Problem Domain
          2. 13.4.2. Software Product Line Context Model
        5. 13.5. Dynamic Modeling
          1. 13.5.1. Object and Class Structuring: Kernel Classes
          2. 13.5.2. Dynamic Modeling: Kernel First Approach
          3. 13.5.3. Kernel Statechart for Microwave Oven Control
          4. 13.5.4. Kernel Statechart for Oven Timer
        6. 13.6. Software Product Line Evolution
          1. 13.6.1. Impact Analysis of the Beeper Feature
          2. 13.6.2. Impact Analysis of the Multi-Line Display Feature
          3. 13.6.3. Impact Analysis of the Display Language Feature
          4. 13.6.4. Impact Analysis of the Light Feature
          5. 13.6.5. Impact Analysis of the Turntable Feature
          6. 13.6.6. Impact Analysis of the Minute Plus Feature
          7. 13.6.7. Impact Analysis of the Power Level and Multi-level Heating Features
          8. 13.6.8. Impact Analysis of the TOD Clock Feature
          9. 13.6.9. Impact Analysis of the Recipe Feature
          10. 13.6.10. Impact Analysis of the Statechart for Microwave Oven Control
          11. 13.6.11. Impact Analysis of the Statechart for Oven Timer
        7. 13.7. Feature/Class Dependency Analysis
          1. 13.7.1. Input Device Interface Classes
          2. 13.7.2. Output Device Interface Classes
          3. 13.7.3. Control Classes
          4. 13.7.4. Entity Classes
          5. 13.7.5. Product Line Composition Hierarchy
        8. 13.8. Design Modeling
          1. 13.8.1. Component-Based Software Architecture
          2. 13.8.2. Architectural Communication Patterns
          3. 13.8.3. System Deployment
          4. 13.8.4. Product Line Evolution: Optional and Variant Components
          5. 13.8.5. Product Line Evolution: Component Communication
          6. 13.8.6. Product Line Architecture and Component Interfaces
          7. 13.8.7. Design of Composite Components
        9. 13.9. Software Application Engineering
      2. 14. Electronic Commerce Software Product Line Case Study
        1. 14.1. Problem Description
        2. 14.2. Use Case Modeling
          1. 14.2.1. Business-to-Business Electronic Commerce Use Case Model
          2. 14.2.2. Business-to-Consumer Electronic Commerce Use Case Model
          3. 14.2.3. Optional Purchase Order Use Cases
          4. 14.2.4. Use Case Model for the Electronic Commerce Software Product Line
        3. 14.3. Feature Modeling
        4. 14.4. Static Modeling
          1. 14.4.1. Software Product Line Context Modeling
          2. 14.4.2. Agent Support for Electronic Commerce
          3. 14.4.3. Broker Support for Electronic Commerce
          4. 14.4.4. Static Entity Class Modeling of the Problem Domain
            1. Entity Classes
          5. 14.4.5. Object and Class Structuring
        5. 14.5. Dynamic Modeling
          1. 14.5.1. Dynamic Modeling for Browse Catalog
          2. 14.5.2. Dynamic Modeling for Make Purchase Request
          3. 14.5.3. Dynamic Modeling for Process Delivery Order
          4. 14.5.4. Dynamic Modeling for Confirm Shipment
        6. 14.6. Software Product Line Evolution
          1. 14.6.1. Dynamic Modeling for Create Requisition
          2. 14.6.2. Dynamic Modeling for Confirm Delivery
          3. 14.6.3. Dynamic Modeling for Send Invoice
          4. 14.6.4. Dynamic Modeling for Prepare Purchase Order
          5. 14.6.5. Dynamic Modeling for Deliver Purchase Order
          6. 14.6.6. Dynamic Modeling for Check Customer Account
          7. 14.6.7. Dynamic Modeling for Bill Customer
        7. 14.7. Feature/Class Dependency Analysis
        8. 14.8. Design Modeling
          1. 14.8.1. Static Modeling
          2. 14.8.2. Layered Software Architecture
            1. Supplier Organization Subsystem
            2. Home Customer Subsystem
            3. Business Customer Organization Subsystem
            4. Purchase Order Subsystem
            5. Bank and Authorization Subsystems
          3. 14.8.3. Architectural Communication Patterns
          4. 14.8.4. Component-Based Software Architecture
          5. 14.8.5. Component Ports and Interfaces
        9. 14.9. Software Application Engineering
      3. 15. Factory Automation Software Product Line Case Study
        1. 15.1. Problem Description
          1. 15.1.1. Factory Monitoring Systems
          2. 15.1.2. High-Volume Manufacturing Systems
          3. 15.1.3. Flexible Manufacturing Systems
        2. 15.2. Use Case Modeling
          1. 15.2.1. Factory Monitoring Use Cases
          2. 15.2.2. High-Volume Manufacturing System Use Cases
          3. 15.2.3. Flexible Manufacturing System Use Cases
        3. 15.3. Feature Modeling
        4. 15.4. Static Modeling
          1. 15.4.1. Static Model for Factory Monitoring Systems
          2. 15.4.2. Static Model for High-Volume Manufacturing Systems
          3. 15.4.3. Static Model for Flexible Manufacturing Systems
          4. 15.4.4. Static Model for the Factory Automation Product Line
          5. 15.4.5. Product Line Context Class Diagram
        5. 15.5. Dynamic Modeling
          1. 15.5.1. Object Structuring
          2. 15.5.2. Communication Diagrams for Kernel Use Cases
            1. Communication Diagrams for Client/Server Use Cases
            2. Communication Diagrams for Subscription/Notification Use Cases
        6. 15.6. Software Product Line Evolution
          1. 15.6.1. Communication Diagrams for High-Volume Manufacturing Use Cases
          2. 15.6.2. Communication Diagrams for Workflow and Work Order Use Cases
            1. Communication Diagrams for Workflow Planning Use Cases
            2. Communication Diagrams for Work Order Management Use Cases
          3. 15.6.3. Dynamic Modeling of High-Volume Manufacturing
          4. 15.6.4. Statechart for Line Workstation Controller
          5. 15.6.5. Communication Diagrams for Manufacture High-Volume Part Use Cases
            1. Communication Diagram for the Receive Part Use Case
            2. Communication Diagram for the Process Part at High-Volume Workstation Use Case
          6. 15.6.6. Dynamic Modeling of Flexible Manufacturing Use Cases
          7. 15.6.7. Statechart for Part Agent
          8. 15.6.8. Communication Diagrams for Flexible Manufacturing Use Cases
            1. Communication Diagram for the Start Work Order Use Case
            2. Communication Diagram for the Move Part to Workstation Use Case
            3. Communication Diagram for the Move Part from Workstation Use Case
          9. 15.6.9. Dynamic Modeling for Flexible Workstation Control
            1. Statechart for Flexible Workstation Controller
            2. Communication Diagram for the Process Part at Flexible Workstation Use Case
        7. 15.7. Feature/Class Dependency Analysis
          1. 15.7.1. Common Feature and Kernel Classes
          2. 15.7.2. Optional Features and Classes
          3. 15.7.3. Alternative High-Volume Manufacturing Features and Feature/Class Dependencies
          4. 15.7.4. Alternative Flexible Manufacturing Features and Feature/Class Dependencies
          5. 15.7.5. Alternative Factory Monitoring Feature and Feature/Class Dependencies
        8. 15.8. Design Modeling
          1. 15.8.1. Layered Component-Based Architecture
          2. 15.8.2. Architectural Communication Patterns
          3. 15.8.3. Software Architecture and Components
        9. 15.9. Software Application Engineering
      4. A. Overview of the UML Notation
        1. A.1. UML Diagrams
        2. A.2. Use Case Diagrams
        3. A.3. Classes and Objects
        4. A.4. Class Diagrams
          1. A.4.1. Associations
          2. A.4.2. Aggregation and Composition Hierarchies
          3. A.4.3. Generalization/Specialization Hierarchy
          4. A.4.4. Visibility
        5. A.5. Interaction Diagrams
          1. A.5.1. Communication Diagrams
          2. A.5.2. Sequence Diagrams
        6. A.6. Statechart Diagrams
        7. A.7. Packages
        8. A.8. Concurrent Communication Diagrams
          1. A.8.1. Message Communication on Concurrent Communication Diagrams
        9. A.9. Deployment Diagrams
        10. A.10. UML Extension Mechanisms
          1. A.10.1. Stereotypes
          2. A.10.2. Tagged Values
          3. A.10.3. Constraints
        11. A.11. Conventions Used in This Book
          1. A.11.1. Requirements Modeling
          2. A.11.2. Analysis Modeling
            1. Classes
            2. Objects
            3. Messages
            4. Statecharts
          3. A.11.3. Design Modeling
            1. Active and Passive Classes
            2. Active and Passive Objects
            3. Messages
        12. A.12. Summary
      5. B. Catalog of Software Architectural Patterns
        1. B.1. Software Architectural Structure Patterns
          1. B.1.1. Broker Pattern
          2. B.1.2. Centralized Control Pattern
          3. B.1.3. Client/Agent/Server Pattern
          4. B.1.4. Client/Server Pattern
          5. B.1.5. Distributed Control Pattern
          6. B.1.6. Hierarchical Control Pattern
          7. B.1.7. Kernel Pattern
          8. B.1.8. Layers of Abstraction Pattern
        2. B.2. Software Architectural Communication Patterns
          1. B.2.1. Asynchronous Message Communication Pattern
          2. B.2.2. Asynchronous Message Communication with Callback Pattern
          3. B.2.3. Bidirectional Asynchronous Message Communication Pattern
          4. B.2.4. Broadcast Pattern
          5. B.2.5. Broker Forwarding Pattern
          6. B.2.6. Broker Handle Pattern
          7. B.2.7. Discovery Pattern
          8. B.2.8. Negotiation Pattern
          9. B.2.9. Subscription/Notification Pattern
          10. B.2.10. Synchronous Message Communication with Reply Pattern
          11. B.2.11. Synchronous Message Communication without Reply Pattern
        3. B.3. Software Architectural Transaction Patterns
          1. B.3.1. Compound Transaction Pattern
          2. B.3.2. Long-Living Transaction Pattern
          3. B.3.3. Two-Phase Commit Protocol Pattern
      6. Glossary
      7. Bibliography