You are previewing Designing for the Digital Age: How to Create Human-Centered Products and Services.

Designing for the Digital Age: How to Create Human-Centered Products and Services

  1. Copyright
  2. About the Author
  3. Credits
  4. Acknowledgments
  5. Foreword
  6. Introduction
    1. Why an Explicit Method?
    2. Why This Book
  7. 1. Goal-Directed Product and Service Design
    1. 1.1. Digital Product and Service Design
    2. 1.2. Goal-Directed Design
      1. 1.2.1. Origins of Goal-Directed Design
      2. 1.2.2. Components of Goal-Directed Design
    3. 1.3. Summary
  8. 2. Assembling the Team
    1. 2.1. The Design Team
      1. 2.1.1. Interaction designers
      2. 2.1.2. Visual interface designer
      3. 2.1.3. Industrial designer
      4. 2.1.4. Design team lead
    2. 2.2. Close Collaborators
      1. 2.2.1. Project owner
      2. 2.2.2. Design engineer
      3. 2.2.3. Business or systems analyst
      4. 2.2.4. Subject matter expert
      5. 2.2.5. Usability tester
    3. 2.3. Other Product Team Members
    4. 2.4. When You Don't Have the Ideal Team
      1. 2.4.1. Understaffed design team
      2. 2.4.2. No design engineers or subject matter experts
      3. 2.4.3. No clear project owner
      4. 2.4.4. Too many people in working meetings
    5. 2.5. Summary
  9. 3. Project Planning
    1. 3.1. The Ideal Project Starting Point
    2. 3.2. Determining Your Project's Parameters
      1. 3.2.1. Revenue or cost focus
      2. 3.2.2. Desire to innovate
      3. 3.2.3. Length of time horizon
      4. 3.2.4. Understanding the problem before solving it
      5. 3.2.5. Willingness to invest
      6. 3.2.6. Risk factors
    3. 3.3. Developing the Project Plan
      1. 3.3.1. Research
      2. 3.3.2. Modeling and requirements definition
      3. 3.3.3. Framework definition
      4. 3.3.4. Detailed design
      5. 3.3.5. Ongoing support
    4. 3.4. Summary
  10. 4. Research Fundamentals
    1. 4.1. Benefits of Doing Research
    2. 4.2. Barriers to Doing Design Research
      1. 4.2.1. "It will cost too much and take too long."
      2. 4.2.2. "We already did market research."
      3. 4.2.3. "Our subject matter experts know the users."
    3. 4.3. Components of Design Research
    4. 4.4. User Research Methods
      1. 4.4.1. Usability testing
      2. 4.4.2. Focus groups
      3. 4.4.3. Individual interviews
      4. 4.4.4. Direct observation
      5. 4.4.5. Combining observation and interviews
    5. 4.5. The Research Team
    6. 4.6. Essential Research Skills
      1. 4.6.1. Active listening
      2. 4.6.2. Capturing the data
    7. 4.7. Summary
  11. 5. Understanding the Business
    1. 5.1. Identifying Stakeholders and Scheduling Interviews
    2. 5.2. Officially "Kicking Off" the Project
    3. 5.3. Conducting Stakeholder Interviews
      1. 5.3.1. Getting started
      2. 5.3.2. Things to watch out for
      3. 5.3.3. Topics applicable to most stakeholders
      4. 5.3.4. Marketing stakeholders
      5. 5.3.5. Engineering stakeholders
      6. 5.3.6. Sales stakeholders
      7. 5.3.7. Senior executives
      8. 5.3.8. Subject matter experts
      9. 5.3.9. Other product team members
    4. 5.4. Project Management for Stakeholder Interviews
    5. 5.5. When You Can't Interview Stakeholders
    6. 5.6. Summary
  12. 6. Planning User Research
    1. 6.1. Identifying the Number and Type of Interviewees
      1. 6.1.1. Step 1: Identify likely roles
      2. 6.1.2. Step 2: Determine the base number of interviewees per role
      3. 6.1.3. Step 3: Multiply for important factors
      4. 6.1.4. Step 4: Trim the sample and incorporate other factors
      5. 6.1.5. Step 5: Adjust for no-shows and poor interviews
    2. 6.2. Introducing the Practice Design Problems
      1. 6.2.1. Consumer device and service: LocalGuide
      2. 6.2.2. Business application: Room Finder
    3. 6.3. Recruiting and Scheduling
      1. 6.3.1. Enterprise site visits
      2. 6.3.2. Recruiting individuals
      3. 6.3.3. The interview schedule
    4. 6.4. Dealing with Challenges
    5. 6.5. Summary
  13. 7. Understanding Potential Users and Customers
    1. 7.1. Interviewing Customers in a Business Environment
      1. 7.1.1. Useful questions for customers
      2. 7.1.2. What not to do when interviewing customers
    2. 7.2. Interviewing and Observing Prospective Users
      1. 7.2.1. The interview setting
      2. 7.2.2. Essential techniques
      3. 7.2.3. What not to do in user interviews
      4. 7.2.4. Structuring the user interview
      5. 7.2.5. Getting started: introductions
      6. 7.2.6. Essential interview topics
      7. 7.2.7. Observation and the guided tour
      8. 7.2.8. Wrapping up the interview
      9. 7.2.9. Dealing with challenging interview circumstances
    3. 7.3. Project Management for Interviews
      1. 7.3.1. Between interviews
      2. 7.3.2. Staying sane
      3. 7.3.3. Team roles and responsibilities
      4. 7.3.4. Communicating outside the team
    4. 7.4. Summary
  14. 8. Example Interview
    1. 8.1. Summary
  15. 9. Other Sources of Information and Inspiration
    1. 9.1. When You Have Less Time
    2. 9.2. When You Have More Time
    3. 9.3. Supplemental Research Methods
      1. 9.3.1. Public-space observation
      2. 9.3.2. Mystery shopper
      3. 9.3.3. Diaries
      4. 9.3.4. Surveys
      5. 9.3.5. Web analytics and customer support data
      6. 9.3.6. Focus groups
      7. 9.3.7. Card sorting
      8. 9.3.8. Competitive products and services
      9. 9.3.9. Literature and media
    4. 9.4. Summary
  16. 10. Making Sense of Your Data: Modeling
    1. 10.1. Synthesizing Stakeholder Findings
      1. 10.1.1. Topics to cover
      2. 10.1.2. Handling controversy
      3. 10.1.3. Preparing to communicate stakeholder findings
    2. 10.2. Analyzing Customer and User Data
      1. 10.2.1. Qualitative analysis
      2. 10.2.2. Quantitative analysis
      3. 10.2.3. Explanations and relationships
      4. 10.2.4. Risks and opportunities
      5. 10.2.5. Preparing to communicate your user findings
    3. 10.3. Project Management during Modeling
    4. 10.4. Summary
  17. 11. Personas
    1. 11.1. Definition and Uses
      1. 11.1.1. What personas are good for
      2. 11.1.2. Why personas work
      3. 11.1.3. What personas are not
      4. 11.1.4. How many personas do I need?
      5. 11.1.5. How often do I need to create personas?
      6. 11.1.6. Personas who aren't users
    2. 11.2. Creating Personas
      1. 11.2.1. Step 1. Divide interviewees by role, if appropriate
      2. 11.2.2. Step 2. Identify behavioral and demographic variables
      3. 11.2.3. Step 3. Map interviewees to variables
      4. 11.2.4. Step 4. Identify patterns
      5. 11.2.5. Step 5. Define goals
      6. 11.2.6. Step 6. Clarify distinctions and add detail
      7. 11.2.7. Step 7. Fill in other persona types as needed
      8. 11.2.8. Step 8. Group and prioritize user personas
      9. 11.2.9. Step 9. Develop the narrative and other communication
      10. 11.2.10. Validating your personas
    3. 11.3. When Time Is Limited: Provisional Personas
    4. 11.4. Persona Pitfalls
    5. 11.5. Project Management for Creating Personas
    6. 11.6. Summary
  18. 12. Defining Requirements
    1. 12.1. The Problems with Requirements
      1. 12.1.1. Requirements cannot be "gathered"
      2. 12.1.2. Requirements are not features
      3. 12.1.3. Requirements are not specifications
    2. 12.2. Generating Effective Requirements
      1. 12.2.1. Sources of requirements
      2. 12.2.2. Types of requirements
      3. 12.2.3. The process for generating requirements
    3. 12.3. Brainstorming
    4. 12.4. Scenarios
      1. 12.4.1. Why use scenarios?
      2. 12.4.2. How Goal-Directed scenarios differ from similar tools
      3. 12.4.3. Crafting effective context scenarios
      4. 12.4.4. Extracting requirements from scenarios
    5. 12.5. Other Requirements from User Personas
      1. 12.5.1. Mental models
      2. 12.5.2. Environments
      3. 12.5.3. Physical and cognitive characteristics
      4. 12.5.4. Skills and knowledge
      5. 12.5.5. Goals
    6. 12.6. Requirements from Business and Other Needs
      1. 12.6.1. Customer persona goals
      2. 12.6.2. Stakeholders
      3. 12.6.3. Lawyers and regulations
      4. 12.6.4. Competitors and media
      5. 12.6.5. Accessibility
      6. 12.6.6. Sustainability
    7. 12.7. Experience Attributes
      1. 12.7.1. Step 1: Compile desirable qualities from research
      2. 12.7.2. Step 2: Group related qualities into clusters
      3. 12.7.3. Step 3: Refine and filter clusters
      4. 12.7.4. Step 4: Optimize terms to guide visual decisions
      5. 12.7.5. Step 5: Choose the best term from each cluster
      6. 12.7.6. Step 6: Describe and optimize relationships
      7. 12.7.7. Step 7: Develop additional communication tools
    8. 12.8. Project Management for Developing Requirements
    9. 12.9. Summary
  19. 13. Putting It All Together: The User and Domain Analysis
    1. 13.1. Typical Structure
      1. 13.1.1. Introduction of the project parameters
      2. 13.1.2. Research activities: what you did
      3. 13.1.3. Research findings: what you learned
      4. 13.1.4. Personas
      5. 13.1.5. Context scenarios
      6. 13.1.6. Requirements
      7. 13.1.7. Next steps
    2. 13.2. Developing an Effective Document
    3. 13.3. Developing an Effective Presentation
    4. 13.4. Conducting the Meeting
      1. 13.4.1. Before the meeting
      2. 13.4.2. Delivering the presentation and leading the discussion
    5. 13.5. Project Management for Developing the U&DA
    6. 13.6. Summary
  20. 14. Framework Definition: Visualizing Solutions
    1. 14.1. Essential Principles of Framework Definition
      1. 14.1.1. Consider the whole system at once
      2. 14.1.2. Learn by sketching and failing
      3. 14.1.3. Focus on structure, not details
      4. 14.1.4. Design for the long term
    2. 14.2. Process Overview for Framework Definition
      1. 14.2.1. Process for design on a novel platform
      2. 14.2.2. Process for design on a known platform
      3. 14.2.3. Process for designing services
    3. 14.3. Project Management for Framework Definition
      1. 14.3.1. How many directions to explore
      2. 14.3.2. Planning your time
    4. 14.4. Essential Skills for Framework Definition
      1. 14.4.1. Sketching and storyboarding
      2. 14.4.2. Collaboration
      3. 14.4.3. Capturing what happens in meetings
    5. 14.5. Summary
  21. 15. Principles and Patterns for Framework Design
    1. 15.1. The Importance of Context
    2. 15.2. Principles for Form and Behavior
      1. 15.2.1. Design values
      2. 15.2.2. Minimizing unnecessary work
    3. 15.3. Patterns for Form and Behavior
      1. 15.3.1. Organizing objects and activities
      2. 15.3.2. Combinations of patterns
      3. 15.3.3. Organizing by nouns or verbs
      4. 15.3.4. Additional ways to manage real estate
    4. 15.4. Summary
  22. 16. Designing the Form Factor and Interaction Framework
    1. 16.1. IxDG and IxDS: Define Data Object Types and Relationships
    2. 16.2. Full Design Team: Define Possible Functional Elements
      1. 16.2.1. Functional elements in product design
      2. 16.2.2. Functional elements in service design
      3. 16.2.3. Making decisions
    3. 16.3. Full Design Team: Define Possible Platforms
      1. 16.3.1. Input and output methods
      2. 16.3.2. Other form factor considerations
    4. 16.4. Full Team: Brainstorm with Sketches
      1. 16.4.1. Brainstorming for software on a fixed platform
      2. 16.4.2. Brainstorming for services and new platforms
    5. 16.5. ID: Refine the Form Factor
    6. 16.6. IxDG and IxDS: Define the Interaction Framework
      1. 16.6.1. Develop a first draft of the framework
      2. 16.6.2. How to approach specific design situations
    7. 16.7. Full Design Team: Iterate Form and Behavior Together
    8. 16.8. Typical Challenges in Designing the Framework
    9. 16.9. Project Management for Defining Platforms and Frameworks
      1. 16.9.1. Internal design team check-ins
      2. 16.9.2. Project owner, SME, and design engineer review
      3. 16.9.3. User feedback
    10. 16.10. Summary
  23. 17. Principles and Patterns in Design Language
    1. 17.1. General Principles
      1. 17.1.1. Visual information + context = meaning
      2. 17.1.2. Visually communicate what elements do
      3. 17.1.3. Have a purpose for every element and a reason for every decision
      4. 17.1.4. Repeat elements for unity
      5. 17.1.5. Be decisive, but use the smallest effective difference
    2. 17.2. Patterns and Principles for Specific Elements
      1. 17.2.1. Color
      2. 17.2.2. Size
      3. 17.2.3. Shape
      4. 17.2.4. Line weight and style
      5. 17.2.5. Type
      6. 17.2.6. Texture
      7. 17.2.7. Images
      8. 17.2.8. Materials and manufacturing
      9. 17.2.9. Signature elements
    3. 17.3. Summary
  24. 18. Developing the Design Language
    1. 18.1. The Process of Developing the Design Language
      1. 18.1.1. Look for inspiration
      2. 18.1.2. Determine how many directions to share
      3. 18.1.3. Determine what elements to represent
      4. 18.1.4. Decide what choices best represent primary attributes
      5. 18.1.5. Adjust for context as needed
      6. 18.1.6. Begin to render the studies
      7. 18.1.7. Adjust for secondary attributes as needed
      8. 18.1.8. Review, iterate, and finalize options to present
    2. 18.2. Example: NetApp
    3. 18.3. Example: Executive Telephone
    4. 18.4. Project Management for Design Language Exploration
    5. 18.5. Summary
  25. 19. Communicating the Framework and Design Language
    1. 19.1. Preparing Stakeholders for the Meeting
    2. 19.2. Crafting the Story
      1. 19.2.1. Project summary and expectations
      2. 19.2.2. Review key personas and requirements
      3. 19.2.3. Introduce the big ideas and major anatomy
      4. 19.2.4. Show how it works using scenario storyboards
      5. 19.2.5. Revisit anatomy in more detail
      6. 19.2.6. Describe how the design serves persona needs
      7. 19.2.7. Introduce the design language(s)
      8. 19.2.8. Discuss and get agreement on direction and next steps
    3. 19.3. Managing Your Time and Preparing for the Meeting
    4. 19.4. Conducting the Meeting
      1. 19.4.1. Presenting the material
      2. 19.4.2. Facilitating discussion and handling concerns
    5. 19.5. Summary
  26. 20. Detailed Design: Making Your Ideas Real
    1. 20.1. Essential Principles of Detailed Design
      1. 20.1.1. Collaborate, collaborate, collaborate
      2. 20.1.2. Drive to complete detail, but maintain a systems view
      3. 20.1.3. Touch everything a second time after it's documented
      4. 20.1.4. Design for the appropriate time horizon
      5. 20.1.5. Settle the big issues quickly
      6. 20.1.6. Consider the cost-benefit equation
      7. 20.1.7. Reinforce the experience attributes
    2. 20.2. Process and Project Management for Detailed Design
      1. 20.2.1. Expanding the team
      2. 20.2.2. Integration with engineering methods
      3. 20.2.3. Typical detailed design tasks by role
      4. 20.2.4. Drafting a work list and detailed project plan
    3. 20.3. Summary
  27. 21. Detailed Design Principles and Patterns
    1. 21.1. Principles: a Bit of Science, a Bit of Common Sense
    2. 21.2. Communicating Flow, Priority, and Relationships
      1. 21.2.1. Map visual flow to workflow
      2. 21.2.2. Align elements for readability and simplicity
      3. 21.2.3. Use visual properties to establish a clear hierarchy
      4. 21.2.4. Use visual properties to establish association
    3. 21.3. Communicating Data: Information Design
    4. 21.4. Using Icons to Communicate about Objects and Tools
      1. 21.4.1. Making icons recognizable
      2. 21.4.2. Making icons understandable
      3. 21.4.3. A summary of useful icon guidelines
    5. 21.5. Text and Type
      1. 21.5.1. Type size
      2. 21.5.2. Additional principles
    6. 21.6. Widgets and Data Entry
      1. 21.6.1. Use widgets appropriate to the task and input method
      2. 21.6.2. Allow flexible input even in bounded widgets
      3. 21.6.3. Use custom controls only with good reason
      4. 21.6.4. Considerations for touch screens
    7. 21.7. Managing Large Data Sets
      1. 21.7.1. Search versus categories
      2. 21.7.2. Detailed queries
    8. 21.8. Audible and Speech Interfaces
      1. 21.8.1. Personality, emotion, and anthropomorphism
      2. 21.8.2. Minimizing frustration
    9. 21.9. Products Involving Safety Concerns
    10. 21.10. Accessibility
    11. 21.11. "That Little Extra Something"
    12. 21.12. Summary
  28. 22. Detailed Design Process and Practices
    1. 22.1. Evolving the Interaction Design: Round One
      1. 22.1.1. Supplemental research
      2. 22.1.2. Detailed design meetings
      3. 22.1.3. Additional iteration through individual work
    2. 22.2. Defining the Visual System: Round One
      1. 22.2.1. Incorporating early stakeholder feedback
      2. 22.2.2. The visual system first draft: archetype screens
      3. 22.2.3. Continued expansion and evolution
      4. 22.2.4. Personas, scenarios, and experience attributes
    3. 22.3. Shared Image Files
    4. 22.4. Evolving the Industrial Design
      1. 22.4.1. Refining the form and materials
      2. 22.4.2. Refining color and surface details
      3. 22.4.3. Appearance models as design and communication tools
    5. 22.5. Design Reviews and Collaboration
      1. 22.5.1. Within the design team
      2. 22.5.2. With design engineers, SMEs, and business analysts
      3. 22.5.3. With other stakeholders
      4. 22.5.4. Remote collaboration
    6. 22.6. Iteration After Feedback
    7. 22.7. Common Challenges During Detailed Design
      1. 22.7.1. Framework flaws
      2. 22.7.2. Unavailable or unhelpful SMEs or engineers
      3. 22.7.3. Shifting assumptions and constraints
      4. 22.7.4. Team member time management
      5. 22.7.5. Consistency within a brand or product family
      6. 22.7.6. Uneven depth
      7. 22.7.7. Using later work to improve earlier work
    8. 22.8. Summary
  29. 23. Evaluating Your Design
    1. 23.1. Why, When, and What to Evaluate
    2. 23.2. Types of Evaluation
      1. 23.2.1. Focus groups
      2. 23.2.2. Expert reviews
      3. 23.2.3. Usability testing
      4. 23.2.4. Comparative evaluations
    3. 23.3. Summary
  30. 24. Communicating Detailed Design
    1. 24.1. The Form and Behavior Specification
      1. 24.1.1. Background
      2. 24.1.2. Executive summary
      3. 24.1.3. Personas and critical requirements
      4. 24.1.4. Product or service overview
      5. 24.1.5. Interaction framework overview
      6. 24.1.6. Scenarios for each interface
      7. 24.1.7. Overview and details for each screen or function
      8. 24.1.8. Ways to expand or cut back: the F&BS as a product roadmap
    2. 24.2. Qualities of an Effective Spec
      1. 24.2.1. Prescriptive, not suggestive
      2. 24.2.2. Clear and professional, not pretentious
      3. 24.2.3. Unsurprising
      4. 24.2.4. Persona-focused
      5. 24.2.5. Standardized
      6. 24.2.6. Effectively formatted
    3. 24.3. Documentation Process and Practices
      1. 24.3.1. Documenting as you go
      2. 24.3.2. Managing images
      3. 24.3.3. Technical review and document QA
      4. 24.3.4. Documentation tools
    4. 24.4. Presenting Detailed Design
      1. 24.4.1. Structuring and delivering a stakeholder presentation
      2. 24.4.2. Comprehensive walkthroughs
    5. 24.5. Summary
  31. 25. Supporting Implementation and Launch
    1. 25.1. Supporting Software Construction
      1. 25.1.1. Asset production
      2. 25.1.2. Questions and reviews
    2. 25.2. Supporting Hardware Manufacturing
    3. 25.3. Common Challenges
      1. 25.3.1. Specification as suggestion
      2. 25.3.2. Insufficient engineering skills or resources
    4. 25.4. Summary
  32. 26. Improving Design Capabilities in Individuals and Organizations
    1. 26.1. Realizing Your Own Design Potential
      1. 26.1.1. Academic Programs
      2. 26.1.2. Self-education
      3. 26.1.3. Experience and mentoring
    2. 26.2. Expanding Design's Role in an Organization
      1. 26.2.1. Characteristics of successful change efforts
      2. 26.2.2. Overcoming the sense of loss
      3. 26.2.3. Instigating change from the bottom (or the middle)
    3. 26.3. Concluding Thoughts
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Chapter 13. Putting It All Together: The User and Domain Analysis

Putting It All Together: The User and Domain Analysis

As you've been conducting your research and figuring out what it all means, you've probably been having plenty of informal communication with your project owner or other stakeholders. E-mail, hallway conversations, and brief check-ins help everyone feel informed, get necessary support, or review ideas in a low-risk environment. Design team intranets and other shared virtual workspaces can give others easy access to work in progress. However, these informal methods are seldom effective for resolving big issues, and they don't ensure involvement and understanding on the part of the necessary people. More formal communication is an essential part of the design process because it promotes common understanding, shared expectations, and commitment among stakeholders in a way that no other approach can. The "User and Domain Analysis (U&DA, for short) is a critical milestone that helps ensure you have all three before you start designing.

There are several important reasons for formal communication at this point. The first is to have all the relevant stakeholders review your work for potential flaws. Experienced design teams rarely need major corrections, but no one is infallible. Any issues stakeholders can spot now will save you time and grief later. This review is especially important if you've had to compress your research ...

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