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Designing for the Digital Age: How to Create Human-Centered Products and Services

Book Description

Whether you're designing consumer electronics, medical devices, enterprise Web apps, or new ways to check out at the supermarket, today's digitally-enabled products and services provide both great opportunities to deliver compelling user experiences and great risks of driving your customers crazy with complicated, confusing technology.

Designing successful products and services in the digital age requires a multi-disciplinary team with expertise in interaction design, visual design, industrial design, and other disciplines. It also takes the ability to come up with the big ideas that make a desirable product or service, as well as the skill and perseverance to execute on the thousand small ideas that get your design into the hands of users. It requires expertise in project management, user research, and consensus-building. This comprehensive, full-color volume addresses all of these and more with detailed how-to information, real-life examples, and exercises. Topics include assembling a design team, planning and conducting user research, analyzing your data and turning it into personas, using scenarios to drive requirements definition and design, collaborating in design meetings, evaluating and iterating your design, and documenting finished design in a way that works for engineers and stakeholders alike.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. About the Author
  3. Credits
  4. Acknowledgments
  5. Foreword
  6. Introduction
    1. Why an Explicit Method?
    2. Why This Book
  7. 1. Goal-Directed Product and Service Design
    1. 1.1. Digital Product and Service Design
    2. 1.2. Goal-Directed Design
      1. 1.2.1. Origins of Goal-Directed Design
      2. 1.2.2. Components of Goal-Directed Design
        1. 1.2.2.1. PRINCIPLES
        2. 1.2.2.2. PATTERNS
        3. 1.2.2.3. PROCESS
        4. 1.2.2.4. Project planning
        5. 1.2.2.5. Research
        6. 1.2.2.6. Modeling
        7. 1.2.2.7. Requirements definition
        8. 1.2.2.8. Framework definition
        9. 1.2.2.9. Detailed design
        10. 1.2.2.10. Implementation support
        11. 1.2.2.11. PRACTICES
    3. 1.3. Summary
  8. 2. Assembling the Team
    1. 2.1. The Design Team
      1. 2.1.1. Interaction designers
        1. 2.1.1.1. SHARED SKILLS AND RESPONSIBILITIES
        2. 2.1.1.2. INTERACTION DESIGNER (GENERATOR)
        3. 2.1.1.3. INTERACTION DESIGNER (SYNTHESIZER)
      2. 2.1.2. Visual interface designer
      3. 2.1.3. Industrial designer
      4. 2.1.4. Design team lead
    2. 2.2. Close Collaborators
      1. 2.2.1. Project owner
      2. 2.2.2. Design engineer
      3. 2.2.3. Business or systems analyst
      4. 2.2.4. Subject matter expert
      5. 2.2.5. Usability tester
    3. 2.3. Other Product Team Members
    4. 2.4. When You Don't Have the Ideal Team
      1. 2.4.1. Understaffed design team
      2. 2.4.2. No design engineers or subject matter experts
      3. 2.4.3. No clear project owner
      4. 2.4.4. Too many people in working meetings
    5. 2.5. Summary
  9. 3. Project Planning
    1. 3.1. The Ideal Project Starting Point
    2. 3.2. Determining Your Project's Parameters
      1. 3.2.1. Revenue or cost focus
      2. 3.2.2. Desire to innovate
      3. 3.2.3. Length of time horizon
      4. 3.2.4. Understanding the problem before solving it
      5. 3.2.5. Willingness to invest
      6. 3.2.6. Risk factors
    3. 3.3. Developing the Project Plan
      1. 3.3.1. Research
      2. 3.3.2. Modeling and requirements definition
      3. 3.3.3. Framework definition
      4. 3.3.4. Detailed design
      5. 3.3.5. Ongoing support
    4. 3.4. Summary
  10. 4. Research Fundamentals
    1. 4.1. Benefits of Doing Research
    2. 4.2. Barriers to Doing Design Research
      1. 4.2.1. "It will cost too much and take too long."
      2. 4.2.2. "We already did market research."
      3. 4.2.3. "Our subject matter experts know the users."
    3. 4.3. Components of Design Research
    4. 4.4. User Research Methods
      1. 4.4.1. Usability testing
      2. 4.4.2. Focus groups
      3. 4.4.3. Individual interviews
      4. 4.4.4. Direct observation
      5. 4.4.5. Combining observation and interviews
    5. 4.5. The Research Team
    6. 4.6. Essential Research Skills
      1. 4.6.1. Active listening
        1. 4.6.1.1. LISTEN WITHOUT THE MOTOR RUNNING
        2. 4.6.1.2. USE PRIMARILY OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONS
        3. 4.6.1.3. USE MINIMAL ENCOURAGERS
        4. 4.6.1.4. LOOK LIKE YOU'RE INTERESTED
        5. 4.6.1.5. PARAPHRASE WHAT YOU'RE HEARING
        6. 4.6.1.6. PRACTICE
      2. 4.6.2. Capturing the data
        1. 4.6.2.1. TAKING NOTES
        2. 4.6.2.2. AUDIO AND VIDEO RECORDING
        3. 4.6.2.3. PHOTOS
    7. 4.7. Summary
  11. 5. Understanding the Business
    1. 5.1. Identifying Stakeholders and Scheduling Interviews
    2. 5.2. Officially "Kicking Off" the Project
    3. 5.3. Conducting Stakeholder Interviews
      1. 5.3.1. Getting started
      2. 5.3.2. Things to watch out for
      3. 5.3.3. Topics applicable to most stakeholders
        1. 5.3.3.1. What's your role with respect to this product?
        2. 5.3.3.2. What did you do before this?
        3. 5.3.3.3. What is this product or service supposed to be?
        4. 5.3.3.4. Who is this product for?
        5. 5.3.3.5. When is the version we're designing going to be released?
        6. 5.3.3.6. What worries you about this project? What's the worst thing that could happen?
        7. 5.3.3.7. What should this project accomplish for the business?
        8. 5.3.3.8. How will you, personally, define success for this project?
        9. 5.3.3.9. Is there anyone you think we need to speak with who isn't on our list? Who are those people?
        10. 5.3.3.10. How would you like to be involved in the rest of the project, and what's the best way to reach you?
      4. 5.3.4. Marketing stakeholders
        1. 5.3.4.1. Who are your customers and users today, and how do you want that to be different in five years?
        2. 5.3.4.2. How does this product fit into the overall product strategy?
        3. 5.3.4.3. Who are the biggest competitors and what worries you about them? How do you expect to differentiate this product?
        4. 5.3.4.4. What three or four qualities do you want people to attribute to your company and your product?
        5. 5.3.4.5. What is the current state of the identity, and could we have a copy of the style guide (if there is one) and examples of it applied to materials?
      5. 5.3.5. Engineering stakeholders
        1. 5.3.5.1. What technology decisions have already been made? What's driving them?
        2. 5.3.5.2. How large is the engineering team assigned to the project, and what are their skills?
        3. 5.3.5.3. Could you draw a diagram and tell me in lay terms how the existing system works?
      6. 5.3.6. Sales stakeholders
        1. 5.3.6.1. Who is typically involved in the purchase decision?
        2. 5.3.6.2. Why do customers buy a product like this one, and why this one over a competitor's?
        3. 5.3.6.3. When you lose sales, what are the most common reasons?
        4. 5.3.6.4. What things do customers complain about or ask for most often, and why?
      7. 5.3.7. Senior executives
        1. 5.3.7.1. What do we need to know that you don't think other members of your team have said?
        2. 5.3.7.2. We know that both timeline and functionality are important, but if you had to choose one, which would it be?
      8. 5.3.8. Subject matter experts
        1. 5.3.8.1. What are the typical demographics and skills of potential users, and how much do these vary?
        2. 5.3.8.2. What distinctions in user roles and tasks would you expect us to see?
        3. 5.3.8.3. What sorts of workflows or practices do you think we'll be seeing in the field?
      9. 5.3.9. Other product team members
        1. 5.3.9.1. CHEAT SHEET
        2. 5.3.9.2. Things to watch out for
        3. 5.3.9.3. All stakeholders
        4. 5.3.9.4. Marketing stakeholders
        5. 5.3.9.5. Engineering stakeholders
        6. 5.3.9.6. Sales stakeholders
        7. 5.3.9.7. Senior executives
        8. 5.3.9.8. Subject matter experts
        9. 5.3.9.9. Other product team members
    4. 5.4. Project Management for Stakeholder Interviews
    5. 5.5. When You Can't Interview Stakeholders
    6. 5.6. Summary
  12. 6. Planning User Research
    1. 6.1. Identifying the Number and Type of Interviewees
      1. 6.1.1. Step 1: Identify likely roles
      2. 6.1.2. Step 2: Determine the base number of interviewees per role
      3. 6.1.3. Step 3: Multiply for important factors
        1. 6.1.3.1. ENTERPRISE SETTINGS
        2. 6.1.3.2. CONSUMER ENVIRONMENTS
        3. 6.1.3.3. ACCOUNTING FOR OTHER FACTORS
        4. 6.1.3.4. HOW ALL THIS TRANSLATES INTO NUMBERS
      4. 6.1.4. Step 4: Trim the sample and incorporate other factors
        1. 6.1.4.1. DIVIDING YOUR SAMPLE
        2. 6.1.4.2. ACCOUMTING FOR ACCESIBILITY
        3. 6.1.4.3. TRIMMING YOUR SAMPLE
      5. 6.1.5. Step 5: Adjust for no-shows and poor interviews
    2. 6.2. Introducing the Practice Design Problems
      1. 6.2.1. Consumer device and service: LocalGuide
      2. 6.2.2. Business application: Room Finder
    3. 6.3. Recruiting and Scheduling
      1. 6.3.1. Enterprise site visits
        1. 6.3.1.1. SITE VISITS WITH EXISTING CUSTOMERS
        2. 6.3.1.2. SITE VISITS WITH SOMEONE ELSE'S CUSTOMERS
        3. 6.3.1.3. "UNOFFICIAL" SITE VISITS
        4. 6.3.1.4. ALTERNATIVES TO SITE VISITS
      2. 6.3.2. Recruiting individuals
        1. 6.3.2.1. MARKET RESEARCH FIRMS
        2. 6.3.2.2. Using a screener
        3. 6.3.2.3. ADVERTISING
        4. 6.3.2.4. CONFERENCES AND EVENTS
        5. 6.3.2.5. DESPERATE MEASURES
        6. 6.3.2.6. PREPARING PARTICIPANTS
      3. 6.3.3. The interview schedule
    4. 6.4. Dealing with Challenges
    5. 6.5. Summary
  13. 7. Understanding Potential Users and Customers
    1. 7.1. Interviewing Customers in a Business Environment
      1. 7.1.1. Useful questions for customers
        1. 7.1.1.1. Could you please tell us a little bit about your background and your role here at (company)?
        2. 7.1.1.2. How does (the function or process to be addressed by the product) work here at (company)?
        3. 7.1.1.3. What are the different groups or roles involved in (whatever function or process the product will address) today? How do the various roles work together?
        4. 7.1.1.4. How does this compare to your previous companies?
        5. 7.1.1.5. What are the biggest problems or inefficiencies in this process/function today?
        6. 7.1.1.6. What are the biggest problems with the product/system today?
        7. 7.1.1.7. What are the best things about the product/system? Why did you choose it over other options?
        8. 7.1.1.8. Could you tell us more about the other systems that work with this one?
        9. 7.1.1.9. What issues have you been addressing with homegrown solutions?
        10. 7.1.1.10. What do you expect a system for (process/function) should do for (company)?
        11. 7.1.1.11. What other factors are/were most important to you in selecting a product for (process/function)?
        12. 7.1.1.12. Other questions and wrap-up
      2. 7.1.2. What not to do when interviewing customers
    2. 7.2. Interviewing and Observing Prospective Users
      1. 7.2.1. The interview setting
      2. 7.2.2. Essential techniques
        1. 7.2.2.1. MAKE IT A CONVERSATION, NOT AN INTERROGATION
        2. 7.2.2.2. BE SYMPATHETIC AND NON-JUDGMENTAL
        3. 7.2.2.3. BE THE LEARNER, NOT THE EXPERT
        4. 7.2.2.4. ASK NAÏVE QUESTIONS
        5. 7.2.2.5. ASK PEOPLE TO SHOW YOU
        6. 7.2.2.6. ASK FOR SPECIFIC STORIES, ESPECIALLY ABOUT ANYTHING YOU CAN'T OBSERVE
        7. 7.2.2.7. TAKE OPPORTUNITIES WHEN THEY'RE OFFERED
        8. 7.2.2.8. WATCH FOR INCONSISTENCIES
        9. 7.2.2.9. GO BEYOND THE PRODUCT, BUT NOT BEYOND THE DESIGN PROBLEM
        10. 7.2.2.10. PAY ATTENTION TO NONVERBAL CUES
        11. 7.2.2.11. THINK AHEAD A LITTLE (BUT NOT TOO MUCH)
        12. 7.2.2.12. RELY ON YOUR TEAMMATE(S)
      3. 7.2.3. What not to do in user interviews
        1. 7.2.3.1. DON'T ASK LEADING QUESTIONS
        2. 7.2.3.2. AVOID ASKING THE INTERVIEWEE FOR SOLUTIONS
        3. 7.2.3.3. DON'T SOLVE PROBLEMS DURING THE INTERVIEW
      4. 7.2.4. Structuring the user interview
      5. 7.2.5. Getting started: introductions
        1. 7.2.5.1. OVERVIEW QUESTIONS AND FOLLOW-UP
        2. 7.2.5.2. BUSINESS SETTINGS
        3. 7.2.5.3. CONSUMER OR OTHER BROAD DOMAINS
      6. 7.2.6. Essential interview topics
        1. 7.2.6.1. INFORMATION AND OBJECTS
        2. 7.2.6.2. Mental model objects
        3. 7.2.6.3. Details (attributes of the objects)
        4. 7.2.6.4. Relationships
        5. 7.2.6.5. Quantity
        6. 7.2.6.6. Does every product involve "objects?"
        7. 7.2.6.7. ACTIONS
        8. 7.2.6.8. Reasons for each activity
        9. 7.2.6.9. How tasks are performed and described
        10. 7.2.6.10. Task frequency and priority
        11. 7.2.6.11. The role of the current product
        12. 7.2.6.12. Relationships with other people
        13. 7.2.6.13. Workarounds
        14. 7.2.6.14. FRUSTRATIONS
        15. 7.2.6.15. SKILL
        16. 7.2.6.16. GOALS
      7. 7.2.7. Observation and the guided tour
        1. 7.2.7.1. ERGONOMICS
        2. 7.2.7.2. CONTENTS OF THE ENVIRONMENT
        3. 7.2.7.3. UNUSUALLY HARSH CONDITIONS
        4. 7.2.7.4. SIGNS OF DESIGN FAILURE OR UNMET NEEDS
        5. 7.2.7.5. GETTING PHOTOS
      8. 7.2.8. Wrapping up the interview
      9. 7.2.9. Dealing with challenging interview circumstances
        1. 7.2.9.1. LANGUAGE AND CULTURAL DIFFERENCES
        2. 7.2.9.2. CHILDREN AND TEENAGERS
        3. 7.2.9.3. REMOTE INTERVIEWS
        4. 7.2.9.4. LITTLE OR NO ACCESS TO THE CONTEXT OF USE
        5. 7.2.9.5. PERIPATETIC OR HARD-TO-INTERRUPT ACTIVITIES
        6. 7.2.9.6. ACCESS TO SENSITIVE DATA
        7. 7.2.9.7. GROUP INTERVIEWS
        8. 7.2.9.8. INTERVIEWS IN THE HOME
        9. 7.2.9.9. NO RAPPORT WITH THE INTERVIEWEE
        10. 7.2.9.10. UPSET INTERVIEWEES
        11. 7.2.9.11. "BAD" INTERVIEWS
    3. 7.3. Project Management for Interviews
      1. 7.3.1. Between interviews
      2. 7.3.2. Staying sane
      3. 7.3.3. Team roles and responsibilities
      4. 7.3.4. Communicating outside the team
    4. 7.4. Summary
  14. 8. Example Interview
    1. 8.1. Summary
  15. 9. Other Sources of Information and Inspiration
    1. 9.1. When You Have Less Time
    2. 9.2. When You Have More Time
    3. 9.3. Supplemental Research Methods
      1. 9.3.1. Public-space observation
      2. 9.3.2. Mystery shopper
      3. 9.3.3. Diaries
      4. 9.3.4. Surveys
        1. 9.3.4.1. FINDING EXISTING SURVEY DATA
        2. 9.3.4.2. DEVELOPING YOUR OWN SURVEY
        3. 9.3.4.3. Step 1: Identify your audience and goals
        4. 9.3.4.4. Step 2: Craft questions and instructions
        5. 9.3.4.5. Step 3: Determine your sample size
        6. 9.3.4.6. Step 4: Decide how to recruit participants
        7. 9.3.4.7. Step 5: Decide when and for how long to conduct the survey
      5. 9.3.5. Web analytics and customer support data
      6. 9.3.6. Focus groups
      7. 9.3.7. Card sorting
      8. 9.3.8. Competitive products and services
      9. 9.3.9. Literature and media
    4. 9.4. Summary
  16. 10. Making Sense of Your Data: Modeling
    1. 10.1. Synthesizing Stakeholder Findings
      1. 10.1.1. Topics to cover
      2. 10.1.2. Handling controversy
      3. 10.1.3. Preparing to communicate stakeholder findings
    2. 10.2. Analyzing Customer and User Data
      1. 10.2.1. Qualitative analysis
        1. 10.2.1.1. TECHNIQUES COMMON TO SINGLE-CASE AND CROSSE-CASE AND ANALYSISIS
        2. 10.2.1.2. SINGLE-CASE ANALYSIS
        3. 10.2.1.3. Reducing and organizing your data (coding)
        4. 10.2.1.4. Articulating models within a case
        5. 10.2.1.5. CROSS-CASE ANALYSIS
        6. 10.2.1.6. Affinity diagrams
        7. 10.2.1.7. Composite models
      2. 10.2.2. Quantitative analysis
        1. 10.2.2.1. PREPARING YOUR QUALITATIVE DATA
        2. 10.2.2.2. UNDERSTANDING QUANTITATIVE DATA
        3. 10.2.2.3. GAINING INSIGHT QUANTITATIVELY
        4. 10.2.2.4. Cross-tab analysis
        5. 10.2.2.5. Graphs and charts
        6. 10.2.2.6. When qualitative and quantitative findings conflict
      3. 10.2.3. Explanations and relationships
      4. 10.2.4. Risks and opportunities
      5. 10.2.5. Preparing to communicate your user findings
    3. 10.3. Project Management during Modeling
    4. 10.4. Summary
  17. 11. Personas
    1. 11.1. Definition and Uses
      1. 11.1.1. What personas are good for
        1. 11.1.1.1. GENERATING AND ITERATING SOLUTIONS
        2. 11.1.1.2. COMMUNICATING AND BUILDING CONSENSUS
        3. 11.1.1.3. OTHER USES FOR PERSONAS
      2. 11.1.2. Why personas work
      3. 11.1.3. What personas are not
        1. 11.1.3.1. PERSONAS VERSUS MARKET SEGMENTS
        2. 11.1.3.2. PERSONAS VERSUS ROLES
        3. 11.1.3.3. PERSONAS VERSUS "AVERAGE" PEOPLE
      4. 11.1.4. How many personas do I need?
      5. 11.1.5. How often do I need to create personas?
      6. 11.1.6. Personas who aren't users
        1. 11.1.6.1. CUSTOMER PERSONAS
        2. 11.1.6.2. SERVED PERSONAS
    2. 11.2. Creating Personas
      1. 11.2.1. Step 1. Divide interviewees by role, if appropriate
        1. 11.2.1.1. WHAT YOU SHOULD HAVE AT THE END OF THIS STEP
      2. 11.2.2. Step 2. Identify behavioral and demographic variables
        1. 11.2.2.1. TYPICAL BEHAVIORAL VARIABLES
        2. 11.2.2.2. Mental models
        3. 11.2.2.3. Motivations and goals
        4. 11.2.2.4. Frequency and duration of key tasks
        5. 11.2.2.5. Quantity of data objects
        6. 11.2.2.6. Attitude toward tasks
        7. 11.2.2.7. Technology and domain skill
        8. 11.2.2.8. Tasks people perform
        9. 11.2.2.9. DEMOGRAPHIC AND OTHER VARIABLES
        10. 11.2.2.10. WHAT YOU SHOULD HAVE AT THE END OF THIS STEP
      3. 11.2.3. Step 3. Map interviewees to variables
        1. 11.2.3.1. APPROACHES TO MAPPING
        2. 11.2.3.2. TRICKY MAPPING SITUATIONS
        3. 11.2.3.3. Behavior that varied by circumstance
        4. 11.2.3.4. Speculation about behavior
        5. 11.2.3.5. Third-party behavior
        6. 11.2.3.6. Missing data
        7. 11.2.3.7. WHAT YOU SHOULD HAVE AT THE END OF THIS STEP
      4. 11.2.4. Step 4. Identify patterns
        1. 11.2.4.1. SPOTTING POTENTIAL PATTERNS
        2. 11.2.4.2. HANDLING OUTLIERS
        3. 11.2.4.3. WHAT YOU SHOULD HAVE AT THE END OF THIS STEP
      5. 11.2.5. Step 5. Define goals
        1. 11.2.5.1. GOAL TYPES
        2. 11.2.5.2. WHAT YOU SHOULD HAVE AT THE END OF THIS STEP
      6. 11.2.6. Step 6. Clarify distinctions and add detail
        1. 11.2.6.1. COMPONENTS OF A PERSONA
        2. 11.2.6.2. Behaviors
        3. 11.2.6.3. Frustrations
        4. 11.2.6.4. Environment
        5. 11.2.6.5. Skills and capabilities
        6. 11.2.6.6. Feelings, attitudes, and aspirations
        7. 11.2.6.7. Interactions with other people, products, and services
        8. 11.2.6.8. Demographics
        9. 11.2.6.9. Relationships among personas
        10. 11.2.6.10. Organizational Archetypes
        11. 11.2.6.11. Names
        12. 11.2.6.12. What not to include
        13. 11.2.6.13. WHAT YOU SHOULD HAVE AT THE END OF THIS STEP
      7. 11.2.7. Step 7. Fill in other persona types as needed
        1. 11.2.7.1. SUPPLEMENTAL USER PERSONAS
        2. 11.2.7.2. NEGATIVE USER PERSONAS
        3. 11.2.7.3. NONEXISTENT PERSONAS
        4. 11.2.7.4. WHAT YOU SHOULD HAVE AT THE END OF THIS STEP
      8. 11.2.8. Step 8. Group and prioritize user personas
        1. 11.2.8.1. WHAT YOU SHOULD HAVE AT THE END OF THIS STEP
      9. 11.2.9. Step 9. Develop the narrative and other communication
        1. 11.2.9.1. DESCRIBING INDIVIDUAL PERSONAS
        2. 11.2.9.2. Photos
        3. 11.2.9.3. Narrative
        4. 11.2.9.4. Carla Ramirez
        5. 11.2.9.5. Diagrams
        6. 11.2.9.6. HELPING PEOPLE UNDERSTAND THE PERSONAS AS A SET
      10. 11.2.10. Validating your personas
    3. 11.3. When Time Is Limited: Provisional Personas
    4. 11.4. Persona Pitfalls
    5. 11.5. Project Management for Creating Personas
    6. 11.6. Summary
  18. 12. Defining Requirements
    1. 12.1. The Problems with Requirements
      1. 12.1.1. Requirements cannot be "gathered"
      2. 12.1.2. Requirements are not features
      3. 12.1.3. Requirements are not specifications
    2. 12.2. Generating Effective Requirements
      1. 12.2.1. Sources of requirements
      2. 12.2.2. Types of requirements
        1. 12.2.2.1. DATA NEEDS
        2. 12.2.2.2. FUNCTIONAL NEEDS
        3. 12.2.2.3. PRODUCT OR SERVICE QUALITIES
        4. 12.2.2.4. CONSTRAINTS
      3. 12.2.3. The process for generating requirements
    3. 12.3. Brainstorming
    4. 12.4. Scenarios
      1. 12.4.1. Why use scenarios?
      2. 12.4.2. How Goal-Directed scenarios differ from similar tools
        1. 12.4.2.1. A SCENARIO DESCRIBES THE FUTURE, NOT THE PRESENT
        2. 12.4.2.2. A SCENARIO DESCRIBES A PERSONA'S POINT OF VIEW
        3. 12.4.2.3. A SCENARIO IS A STORY WITH A BEGINNING AND AN END
      3. 12.4.3. Crafting effective context scenarios
        1. 12.4.3.1. STEP 1: IDENTIFY WHAT CONTEXT SCENARIOS YOU NEED
        2. 12.4.3.2. STEP 2. DEVELOP EACH STORY
        3. 12.4.3.3. Answer the right questions
        4. 12.4.3.4. Use the right level of detail
        5. 12.4.3.5. Start with an optimistic mind-set
        6. 12.4.3.6. Stay true to the personas
        7. 12.4.3.7. Apply important design principles
        8. 12.4.3.8. Have someone review your scenarios
        9. 12.4.3.9. STEP 3. PREPARE TO COMMUNICATE YOUR SCENARIOS
      4. 12.4.4. Extracting requirements from scenarios
    5. 12.5. Other Requirements from User Personas
      1. 12.5.1. Mental models
      2. 12.5.2. Environments
      3. 12.5.3. Physical and cognitive characteristics
      4. 12.5.4. Skills and knowledge
      5. 12.5.5. Goals
    6. 12.6. Requirements from Business and Other Needs
      1. 12.6.1. Customer persona goals
      2. 12.6.2. Stakeholders
      3. 12.6.3. Lawyers and regulations
      4. 12.6.4. Competitors and media
      5. 12.6.5. Accessibility
      6. 12.6.6. Sustainability
    7. 12.7. Experience Attributes
      1. 12.7.1. Step 1: Compile desirable qualities from research
      2. 12.7.2. Step 2: Group related qualities into clusters
      3. 12.7.3. Step 3: Refine and filter clusters
      4. 12.7.4. Step 4: Optimize terms to guide visual decisions
      5. 12.7.5. Step 5: Choose the best term from each cluster
      6. 12.7.6. Step 6: Describe and optimize relationships
      7. 12.7.7. Step 7: Develop additional communication tools
    8. 12.8. Project Management for Developing Requirements
    9. 12.9. Summary
  19. 13. Putting It All Together: The User and Domain Analysis
    1. 13.1. Typical Structure
      1. 13.1.1. Introduction of the project parameters
      2. 13.1.2. Research activities: what you did
      3. 13.1.3. Research findings: what you learned
        1. 13.1.3.1. WHAT YOU HEARD FROM STAKEHOLDERS
        2. 13.1.3.2. WHAT YOU LEARNED ABOUT THE INDUSTRY
        3. 13.1.3.3. WHAT YOU LEARNED ABOUT POTENTIAL CUSTOMERS AND USERS
        4. 13.1.3.4. WHAT YOU LEARNED ABOUT THE CURRENT PRODUCT OR SERVICE
      4. 13.1.4. Personas
      5. 13.1.5. Context scenarios
      6. 13.1.6. Requirements
      7. 13.1.7. Next steps
    2. 13.2. Developing an Effective Document
    3. 13.3. Developing an Effective Presentation
    4. 13.4. Conducting the Meeting
      1. 13.4.1. Before the meeting
      2. 13.4.2. Delivering the presentation and leading the discussion
        1. 13.4.2.1. INTRODUCTION, RESEARCH ACTIVITIES, AND FINDINGS
        2. 13.4.2.2. HANDLING QUESTIONS AND CHALLENGES
        3. 13.4.2.3. PERSONAS
        4. 13.4.2.4. How can one person represent all of our user needs?
        5. 13.4.2.5. Why isn't [a particular sort of person] in the set?
        6. 13.4.2.6. How do these relate to our market segments?
        7. 13.4.2.7. How can you be sure these are the right personas?
        8. 13.4.2.8. What if we pick the wrong primary?
        9. 13.4.2.9. That persona is [someone the stakeholder knows].
        10. 13.4.2.10. What if another Hugo down the hall is different?
        11. 13.4.2.11. I don't think this persona should be [something].
        12. 13.4.2.12. SCENARIOS
        13. 13.4.2.13. REQUIREMENTS
        14. 13.4.2.14. NEXT STEPS
        15. 13.4.2.15. Developing your skills
        16. 13.4.2.16. KNOW YOUR SLIDES.
        17. 13.4.2.17. SCHEDULE DRESS REHEARSALS.
        18. 13.4.2.18. ASK FOR CONSTRUCTICVE FEEDBACK.
        19. 13.4.2.19. DRESS FOR SUCESS.
        20. 13.4.2.20. PRACTICE ACTIVE LISTENING.
        21. 13.4.2.21. GET HELP.
    5. 13.5. Project Management for Developing the U&DA
    6. 13.6. Summary
  20. 14. Framework Definition: Visualizing Solutions
    1. 14.1. Essential Principles of Framework Definition
      1. 14.1.1. Consider the whole system at once
      2. 14.1.2. Learn by sketching and failing
      3. 14.1.3. Focus on structure, not details
      4. 14.1.4. Design for the long term
    2. 14.2. Process Overview for Framework Definition
      1. 14.2.1. Process for design on a novel platform
      2. 14.2.2. Process for design on a known platform
      3. 14.2.3. Process for designing services
    3. 14.3. Project Management for Framework Definition
      1. 14.3.1. How many directions to explore
      2. 14.3.2. Planning your time
    4. 14.4. Essential Skills for Framework Definition
      1. 14.4.1. Sketching and storyboarding
        1. 14.4.1.1. THE ROLE OF DRAWING SKILLS IN INTERACTION DESIGN
        2. 14.4.1.2. REPRESENTING INTERACTION IN SKETCHES: STORYBOARDING
      2. 14.4.2. Collaboration
        1. 14.4.2.1. TEAM ROLES
        2. 14.4.2.2. RUNNING AN EFFECTIVE DESING MEETING
        3. 14.4.2.3. Determine what you need to accomplish
        4. 14.4.2.4. Let the best idea win
        5. 14.4.2.5. Look down the rat hole, but don't go in
        6. 14.4.2.6. Elicit and understand before assessing or suggesting
        7. 14.4.2.7. "Park" questions and comments when necessary
        8. 14.4.2.8. Have a reason for every decision
        9. 14.4.2.9. Make decisions in the meeting, not at your desk
        10. 14.4.2.10. Use the 15-minute rule
      3. 14.4.3. Capturing what happens in meetings
    5. 14.5. Summary
  21. 15. Principles and Patterns for Framework Design
    1. 15.1. The Importance of Context
    2. 15.2. Principles for Form and Behavior
      1. 15.2.1. Design values
        1. 15.2.1.1. GOOD DESIGN IS ETHICAL
        2. 15.2.1.2. GOOD DESIGN IS PURPOSEFUL
        3. 15.2.1.3. GOOD DESIGN IS PRAGMATIC
        4. 15.2.1.4. GOOD DESIGN IS ELEGANT
      2. 15.2.2. Minimizing unnecessary work
        1. 15.2.2.1. FOUR TYPES OF WORK
        2. 15.2.2.2. Cognitive work
        3. 15.2.2.3. Visual work
        4. 15.2.2.4. Memory work
        5. 15.2.2.5. Physical work
        6. 15.2.2.6. IMPORTANT PRINCIPLES FOR FRAMEWORK DESIGN
        7. 15.2.2.7. Give users all of what they need, but only what they need
        8. 15.2.2.8. Don't force users to configure anything you can make a reasonable guess about
        9. 15.2.2.9. Rely on mental models instead of metaphors or implementation models
        10. 15.2.2.10. Have a compelling reason for inconsistency
        11. 15.2.2.11. Design for the probable, provide for the possiblexy
    3. 15.3. Patterns for Form and Behavior
      1. 15.3.1. Organizing objects and activities
        1. 15.3.1.1. COMMAND LINE
        2. 15.3.1.2. ORGANIZER/WORKSPACE
        3. 15.3.1.3. HUB-AND-SPOKE / HIERARCHICAL MENU
        4. 15.3.1.4. PARALLEL WORKSPACES AND MODES
        5. 15.3.1.5. WIZARDS AND TUNNELS
        6. 15.3.1.6. MULTIPLE DOCUMENT INTERFACE
        7. 15.3.1.7. FIRST-PERSON ENVIRONMENT
        8. 15.3.1.8. THIRD-PERSON ENVIRONMENT
      2. 15.3.2. Combinations of patterns
      3. 15.3.3. Organizing by nouns or verbs
      4. 15.3.4. Additional ways to manage real estate
        1. 15.3.4.1. FLEXIBLE PALETTES AND DRAWERS
        2. 15.3.4.2. PROGRESSIVE DISCLOSURE
    4. 15.4. Summary
  22. 16. Designing the Form Factor and Interaction Framework
    1. 16.1. IxDG and IxDS: Define Data Object Types and Relationships
    2. 16.2. Full Design Team: Define Possible Functional Elements
      1. 16.2.1. Functional elements in product design
      2. 16.2.2. Functional elements in service design
      3. 16.2.3. Making decisions
    3. 16.3. Full Design Team: Define Possible Platforms
      1. 16.3.1. Input and output methods
      2. 16.3.2. Other form factor considerations
    4. 16.4. Full Team: Brainstorm with Sketches
      1. 16.4.1. Brainstorming for software on a fixed platform
      2. 16.4.2. Brainstorming for services and new platforms
    5. 16.5. ID: Refine the Form Factor
    6. 16.6. IxDG and IxDS: Define the Interaction Framework
      1. 16.6.1. Develop a first draft of the framework
        1. 16.6.1.1. DEVELOP KEY PATH SCENARIOS
        2. 16.6.1.2. Example—a veterinary hospital management application
        3. 16.6.1.3. GROUP FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS
        4. 16.6.1.4. START TO STORYBOARD SCREENS AND NAVIGATION
        5. 16.6.1.5. ADD TO THE DESIGN AND ADJUST IT FOR ADDITIONAL SCENARIOS
        6. 16.6.1.6. HOW THE SKETCH-FIRST APPROACH DIFFERS
        7. 16.6.1.7. EVALUATE, ITERATE, AND REFINE THE FRAMEWORK
      2. 16.6.2. How to approach specific design situations
        1. 16.6.2.1. TIGHT CONSTRAINTS
        2. 16.6.2.2. MULTIPLE INTERFACES
        3. 16.6.2.3. WEB SITES
        4. 16.6.2.4. Getting users to the right information
        5. 16.6.2.5. Focusing on differing persona needs
        6. 16.6.2.6. DEVICES
        7. 16.6.2.7. New devices
        8. 16.6.2.8. Existing platforms
        9. 16.6.2.9. VEHICLE INTERFACES
        10. 16.6.2.10. AUDIBLE INTERFACES
        11. 16.6.2.11. GAMES
    7. 16.7. Full Design Team: Iterate Form and Behavior Together
    8. 16.8. Typical Challenges in Designing the Framework
    9. 16.9. Project Management for Defining Platforms and Frameworks
      1. 16.9.1. Internal design team check-ins
      2. 16.9.2. Project owner, SME, and design engineer review
        1. 16.9.2.1. DETERMINING WHOM TO INVITE
        2. 16.9.2.2. SETTING EXPECTATIONS
        3. 16.9.2.3. PREPARING YOUR AGENDA AND MATERIALS
        4. 16.9.2.4. CONDUCTING THE MEETING
      3. 16.9.3. User feedback
    10. 16.10. Summary
  23. 17. Principles and Patterns in Design Language
    1. 17.1. General Principles
      1. 17.1.1. Visual information + context = meaning
      2. 17.1.2. Visually communicate what elements do
      3. 17.1.3. Have a purpose for every element and a reason for every decision
      4. 17.1.4. Repeat elements for unity
      5. 17.1.5. Be decisive, but use the smallest effective difference
    2. 17.2. Patterns and Principles for Specific Elements
      1. 17.2.1. Color
        1. 17.2.1.1. USING COLOR TO ENHANCE USABILITY
        2. 17.2.1.2. A little color goes a long way
        3. 17.2.1.3. Use warm, bright, saturated colors for emphasis
        4. 17.2.1.4. Dominant brand identity colors may make poor dominant interface colors
        5. 17.2.1.5. Use different values to minimize perceived device size
        6. 17.2.1.6. Dont rely solely on hue to communicate
        7. 17.2.1.7. PATTERNS FOR COMMUNICATING EMOTION WITH COLOR
      2. 17.2.2. Size
      3. 17.2.3. Shape
      4. 17.2.4. Line weight and style
      5. 17.2.5. Type
      6. 17.2.6. Texture
      7. 17.2.7. Images
      8. 17.2.8. Materials and manufacturing
        1. 17.2.8.1. AUTHENTICITY
        2. 17.2.8.2. "TEMPERATURE"
        3. 17.2.8.3. "SOFTNESS"
        4. 17.2.8.4. "DURABILITY" AND SUITABILITY
        5. 17.2.8.5. MANUFACTURING AND PART ASSEMBLY METHODS
      9. 17.2.9. Signature elements
    3. 17.3. Summary
  24. 18. Developing the Design Language
    1. 18.1. The Process of Developing the Design Language
      1. 18.1.1. Look for inspiration
      2. 18.1.2. Determine how many directions to share
      3. 18.1.3. Determine what elements to represent
      4. 18.1.4. Decide what choices best represent primary attributes
      5. 18.1.5. Adjust for context as needed
      6. 18.1.6. Begin to render the studies
      7. 18.1.7. Adjust for secondary attributes as needed
      8. 18.1.8. Review, iterate, and finalize options to present
    2. 18.2. Example: NetApp
    3. 18.3. Example: Executive Telephone
    4. 18.4. Project Management for Design Language Exploration
    5. 18.5. Summary
  25. 19. Communicating the Framework and Design Language
    1. 19.1. Preparing Stakeholders for the Meeting
    2. 19.2. Crafting the Story
      1. 19.2.1. Project summary and expectations
      2. 19.2.2. Review key personas and requirements
      3. 19.2.3. Introduce the big ideas and major anatomy
        1. 19.2.3.1. EXPLAIN FORM FACTOR(S) AND RATIONALE
        2. 19.2.3.2. INTRODUCE BASIC INTERACTION DESING ANATOMY
        3. 19.2.3.3. Illustrating the interaction framework
        4. 19.2.3.4. Why to separate functional explanation from scenarios
      4. 19.2.4. Show how it works using scenario storyboards
      5. 19.2.5. Revisit anatomy in more detail
      6. 19.2.6. Describe how the design serves persona needs
      7. 19.2.7. Introduce the design language(s)
      8. 19.2.8. Discuss and get agreement on direction and next steps
    3. 19.3. Managing Your Time and Preparing for the Meeting
    4. 19.4. Conducting the Meeting
      1. 19.4.1. Presenting the material
      2. 19.4.2. Facilitating discussion and handling concerns
        1. 19.4.2.1. SOME GENERAL PRINCIPLES
        2. 19.4.2.2. COMMON QUESTIONS AND CONCERNS
        3. 19.4.2.3. "How does __________________ work?"
        4. 19.4.2.4. "This is a big change. Won't users be confused?"
        5. 19.4.2.5. "How do you know this is right? Will you do a usability test?"
        6. 19.4.2.6. "I don't like it" or "I wouldn't use it that way."
        7. 19.4.2.7. "Why didn't you design it [like this]?"
        8. 19.4.2.8. "Why didn't you give us multiple ideas to choose from?"
        9. 19.4.2.9. "We can't build this. It's not technically feasible."
    5. 19.5. Summary
  26. 20. Detailed Design: Making Your Ideas Real
    1. 20.1. Essential Principles of Detailed Design
      1. 20.1.1. Collaborate, collaborate, collaborate
      2. 20.1.2. Drive to complete detail, but maintain a systems view
      3. 20.1.3. Touch everything a second time after it's documented
      4. 20.1.4. Design for the appropriate time horizon
      5. 20.1.5. Settle the big issues quickly
      6. 20.1.6. Consider the cost-benefit equation
      7. 20.1.7. Reinforce the experience attributes
    2. 20.2. Process and Project Management for Detailed Design
      1. 20.2.1. Expanding the team
      2. 20.2.2. Integration with engineering methods
        1. 20.2.2.1. WATERFALL METHODS
        2. 20.2.2.2. AGILE METHODS
      3. 20.2.3. Typical detailed design tasks by role
        1. 20.2.3.1. INTERACTION DESIGNERS
        2. 20.2.3.2. VISUAL INTERFACE DESIGNER(S)
        3. 20.2.3.3. INDUSTRIAL DESIGNER
        4. 20.2.3.4. DESIGN TEAM LEAD
      4. 20.2.4. Drafting a work list and detailed project plan
        1. 20.2.4.1. DEVELOP A TOPIC LIST AND TIME ESTIMATES
        2. 20.2.4.2. OTHER ISSUES THAT WILL AFFECT YOUR TIME ESTIMATES
        3. 20.2.4.3. Delivery approach
        4. 20.2.4.4. Usability testing
        5. 20.2.4.5. DISCUSS SCOPE AND PRIORITIES WITH STAKEHOLDERS
        6. 20.2.4.6. CREATING THE PROJECT PLAN
        7. 20.2.4.7. Know what everyone is working on every day
        8. 20.2.4.8. Put the big rocks in first
        9. 20.2.4.9. Insert check-ins where they make sense
        10. 20.2.4.10. If you have a fixed deadline, work backward from it
    3. 20.3. Summary
  27. 21. Detailed Design Principles and Patterns
    1. 21.1. Principles: a Bit of Science, a Bit of Common Sense
    2. 21.2. Communicating Flow, Priority, and Relationships
      1. 21.2.1. Map visual flow to workflow
      2. 21.2.2. Align elements for readability and simplicity
      3. 21.2.3. Use visual properties to establish a clear hierarchy
      4. 21.2.4. Use visual properties to establish association
    3. 21.3. Communicating Data: Information Design
    4. 21.4. Using Icons to Communicate about Objects and Tools
      1. 21.4.1. Making icons recognizable
      2. 21.4.2. Making icons understandable
      3. 21.4.3. A summary of useful icon guidelines
    5. 21.5. Text and Type
      1. 21.5.1. Type size
      2. 21.5.2. Additional principles
    6. 21.6. Widgets and Data Entry
      1. 21.6.1. Use widgets appropriate to the task and input method
      2. 21.6.2. Allow flexible input even in bounded widgets
      3. 21.6.3. Use custom controls only with good reason
      4. 21.6.4. Considerations for touch screens
    7. 21.7. Managing Large Data Sets
      1. 21.7.1. Search versus categories
      2. 21.7.2. Detailed queries
    8. 21.8. Audible and Speech Interfaces
      1. 21.8.1. Personality, emotion, and anthropomorphism
        1. 21.8.1.1. GENDER, PERSONALITY, AND THE SIMILAR-TO-ME EFFECT
        2. 21.8.1.2. Gender
        3. 21.8.1.3. Regional accents
        4. 21.8.1.4. Personality
        5. 21.8.1.5. Emotion
        6. 21.8.1.6. BEING MORE HUMAN (BUT NOT TOO HUMAN)
      2. 21.8.2. Minimizing frustration
        1. 21.8.2.1. MINIMIZE SHORTCOMINGS BY MINIMIZING CONTRAST
        2. 21.8.2.2. PLAN FOR ERRORS
        3. 21.8.2.3. OTHER USEFUL SOLUTIONS
    9. 21.9. Products Involving Safety Concerns
    10. 21.10. Accessibility
    11. 21.11. "That Little Extra Something"
    12. 21.12. Summary
  28. 22. Detailed Design Process and Practices
    1. 22.1. Evolving the Interaction Design: Round One
      1. 22.1.1. Supplemental research
      2. 22.1.2. Detailed design meetings
        1. 22.1.2.1. PROCESS DIFFERENCES FOR SPECIFIC DESIGN PROBLEMS
        2. 22.1.2.2. Web sites
        3. 22.1.2.3. Devices in general
        4. 22.1.2.4. Mobile devices and in-vehicle applications
        5. 22.1.2.5. Telephones
        6. 22.1.2.6. Audible and speech interfaces
        7. 22.1.2.7. Services
      3. 22.1.3. Additional iteration through individual work
        1. 22.1.3.1. THE IXD GENERATOR'S DESK WORK: DRAWING
        2. 22.1.3.2. THE IXD SYNTHESIZER'S DESK WORK: DOCUMENTATION
        3. 22.1.3.3. BEHAVIORAL PROTOTYPES
    2. 22.2. Defining the Visual System: Round One
      1. 22.2.1. Incorporating early stakeholder feedback
      2. 22.2.2. The visual system first draft: archetype screens
        1. 22.2.2.1. SELECTING SCREENS FOR ARCHETYPE DEVELOPMENT
        2. 22.2.2.2. DEFINING A GRID
        3. 22.2.2.3. Determine your canvas size
        4. 22.2.2.4. Determine horizontal spacing
        5. 22.2.2.5. Determine vertical spacing
        6. 22.2.2.6. Lay out the first screen using guides
        7. 22.2.2.7. Tweak if necessary, break by rare exception
        8. 22.2.2.8. Dynamic versus fixed grids
        9. 22.2.2.9. DEFINING THE BACKDROP: FRAMES, SURFACES, AND DIMENSIONALITY
        10. 22.2.2.10. DEVELOPING A HIERARCHICAL LANGUAGE OF CONTENT AND CONTROLS
        11. 22.2.2.11. DESIGNING A COHERENT SYSTEM OF VISUAL FEEDBACK
        12. 22.2.2.12. REFINING AS YOU GO
      3. 22.2.3. Continued expansion and evolution
      4. 22.2.4. Personas, scenarios, and experience attributes
    3. 22.3. Shared Image Files
    4. 22.4. Evolving the Industrial Design
      1. 22.4.1. Refining the form and materials
      2. 22.4.2. Refining color and surface details
      3. 22.4.3. Appearance models as design and communication tools
    5. 22.5. Design Reviews and Collaboration
      1. 22.5.1. Within the design team
        1. 22.5.1.1. WHAT TO LOOK FOR
        2. 22.5.1.2. HOW TO GIVE FEEDBACK
        3. 22.5.1.3. HOW TO TAKE FEEDBACK
      2. 22.5.2. With design engineers, SMEs, and business analysts
      3. 22.5.3. With other stakeholders
      4. 22.5.4. Remote collaboration
    6. 22.6. Iteration After Feedback
    7. 22.7. Common Challenges During Detailed Design
      1. 22.7.1. Framework flaws
      2. 22.7.2. Unavailable or unhelpful SMEs or engineers
      3. 22.7.3. Shifting assumptions and constraints
      4. 22.7.4. Team member time management
      5. 22.7.5. Consistency within a brand or product family
      6. 22.7.6. Uneven depth
      7. 22.7.7. Using later work to improve earlier work
    8. 22.8. Summary
  29. 23. Evaluating Your Design
    1. 23.1. Why, When, and What to Evaluate
    2. 23.2. Types of Evaluation
      1. 23.2.1. Focus groups
      2. 23.2.2. Expert reviews
      3. 23.2.3. Usability testing
        1. 23.2.3.1. PLANNING A TEST
        2. 23.2.3.2. Deciding what you need to learn
        3. 23.2.3.3. Identifying participants
        4. 23.2.3.4. Determining your focus
        5. 23.2.3.5. Designing tasks
        6. 23.2.3.6. Deciding what kind of prototype to use
        7. 23.2.3.7. WHO SHOULD FACILITATE A TEST AND INTERPRET DATA?
        8. 23.2.3.8. USABILITY TESTING RESOURCES
      4. 23.2.4. Comparative evaluations
    3. 23.3. Summary
  30. 24. Communicating Detailed Design
    1. 24.1. The Form and Behavior Specification
      1. 24.1.1. Background
      2. 24.1.2. Executive summary
      3. 24.1.3. Personas and critical requirements
      4. 24.1.4. Product or service overview
      5. 24.1.5. Interaction framework overview
      6. 24.1.6. Scenarios for each interface
      7. 24.1.7. Overview and details for each screen or function
        1. 24.1.7.1. OVERVIEW
        2. 24.1.7.2. FULL SCREEN ANATOMY AND RELATIONSHIPS
        3. 24.1.7.3. INDIVIDUAL COMPONENT OR FUNCTION DESCRIPTIONS
        4. 24.1.7.4. EXACT MEASUREMENTS AND COLORS
        5. 24.1.7.5. Visual system or style guide
        6. 24.1.7.6. USE OF THE CORPORATE IDENTITY
        7. 24.1.7.7. COLOR PALETTE
        8. 24.1.7.8. TYPE SPECIFICATIONS
        9. 24.1.7.9. PHOTOGRAPHY GUIDELINES
        10. 24.1.7.10. ICONS
        11. 24.1.7.11. WIDGETS
        12. 24.1.7.12. LAYOUT
        13. 24.1.7.13. SCREEN AND ELEMENT SPECIFICATIONS
      8. 24.1.8. Ways to expand or cut back: the F&BS as a product roadmap
    2. 24.2. Qualities of an Effective Spec
      1. 24.2.1. Prescriptive, not suggestive
      2. 24.2.2. Clear and professional, not pretentious
      3. 24.2.3. Unsurprising
      4. 24.2.4. Persona-focused
      5. 24.2.5. Standardized
      6. 24.2.6. Effectively formatted
        1. 24.2.6.1. SIZE AND ORIENTATION
        2. 24.2.6.2. LAYOUT AND WAYFINDING
        3. 24.2.6.3. TEXT FORMATTING
    3. 24.3. Documentation Process and Practices
      1. 24.3.1. Documenting as you go
      2. 24.3.2. Managing images
      3. 24.3.3. Technical review and document QA
      4. 24.3.4. Documentation tools
    4. 24.4. Presenting Detailed Design
      1. 24.4.1. Structuring and delivering a stakeholder presentation
      2. 24.4.2. Comprehensive walkthroughs
        1. 24.4.2.1. SOFTWARE REVIEW
        2. 24.4.2.2. HARDWARE REVIEW
    5. 24.5. Summary
  31. 25. Supporting Implementation and Launch
    1. 25.1. Supporting Software Construction
      1. 25.1.1. Asset production
      2. 25.1.2. Questions and reviews
    2. 25.2. Supporting Hardware Manufacturing
    3. 25.3. Common Challenges
      1. 25.3.1. Specification as suggestion
      2. 25.3.2. Insufficient engineering skills or resources
    4. 25.4. Summary
  32. 26. Improving Design Capabilities in Individuals and Organizations
    1. 26.1. Realizing Your Own Design Potential
      1. 26.1.1. Academic Programs
      2. 26.1.2. Self-education
      3. 26.1.3. Experience and mentoring
    2. 26.2. Expanding Design's Role in an Organization
      1. 26.2.1. Characteristics of successful change efforts
        1. 26.2.1.1. INTEGRATING DESIGN IS A PROCESS, NOT AN EVENT
        2. 26.2.1.2. ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE DEPENDS ON INDIVIDUAL CHANGE
        3. 26.2.1.3. REAL CHANGE TAKES EFFECTIVE (AND SENIOR) LEADERSHIP
        4. 26.2.1.4. INDIVIDUALS MUST BELIEVE THEY'LL GAIN MORE THAN THEY LOSE
      2. 26.2.2. Overcoming the sense of loss
        1. 26.2.2.1. DENIAL
        2. 26.2.2.2. ANGER
        3. 26.2.2.3. BARGAINING
        4. 26.2.2.4. DEPRESSION
        5. 26.2.2.5. ACCEPTANCE (AND ACTION)
      3. 26.2.3. Instigating change from the bottom (or the middle)
        1. 26.2.3.1. ESTABLISHING A SENSE OF URGENCY
        2. 26.2.3.2. BUILD A GUIDING COALITION
        3. 26.2.3.3. DEVELOP A VISION AND HIGH-LEVEL PLAN
        4. 26.2.3.4. COMMUNICATE THE VISION
        5. 26.2.3.5. ENABLE ACTION
        6. 26.2.3.6. GET SHORT-TERM WINS
        7. 26.2.3.7. CELEBRATE SUCCESS AND THEN BULID ON IT
        8. 26.2.3.8. LATHER, RINSE, REPEAT: DRIVE THE CHANGE INTO THE CULTURE
    3. 26.3. Concluding Thoughts