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Designing and Implementing IP/MPLS-Based Ethernet Layer 2 VPN Services: An Advanced Guide for VPLS and VLL

Book Description

A guide to designing and implementing VPLS services over an IP/MPLS switched service provider backbone

Today's communication providers are looking for convenience, simplicity, and flexible bandwidth across wide area networks-but with the quality of service and control that is critical for business networking applications like video, voice and data. Carrier Ethernet VPN services based on VPLS makes this a reality. Virtual Private LAN Service (VPLS) is a pseudowire (PW) based, multipoint-to-multipoint layer 2 Ethernet VPN service provided by services providers By deploying a VPLS service to customers, the operator can focus on providing high throughput, highly available Ethernet bridging services and leave the layer 3 routing decision up to the customer.

Virtual Private LAN Services (VPLS) is quickly becoming the number one choice for many enterprises and service providers to deploy data communication networks. Alcatel-Lucent VPLS solution enables service providers to offer enterprise customers the operational cost benefits of Ethernet with the predictable QoS characteristics of MPLS.

  • Explains how Alcatel-Lucent VPLS solution allows operational cost benefits of Ethernet with the characteristics of MPLS

  • Discusses the new service-oriented MPLS technology, such as RSVP-TE, Fast Reroute, Secondary LSP, etc

  • Reviews the IP/MPLS VPN Service Architecture-pseudowire based Layer 2 VPN services

  • Addresses the Ethernet Layer 2 VPN services-Virtual Private LAN Service (VPLS) and Virtual Leased Line (VLL)

  • Covers Advanced Layer 2 VPN topics-Service Resiliency, BGP Auto-discovery for VPLS, Provider Backbone Bridging (PBB) for VPLS, and OAM for VPLS

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. About the Author
  3. Credits
  4. Acknowledgments
  5. Foreword
  6. Introduction
    1. How This Book Is Organized
    2. Conventions Used in This Book
    3. Audience
    4. Alcatel-Lucent Service Routing Certification Program
    5. Feedback Is Welcome
    6. Standard Icons
  7. I. IP/MPLS VPN Service Network Overview
    1. 1. Building Converged Service Networks with IP/MPLS VPN Technology
      1. 1.1. The Increasing Demands on Service Provider Networks
      2. 1.2. MPLS Overview
      3. 1.3. The MPLS Value Proposition
      4. 1.4. MPLS Enables Converged Multi-Service Networks
      5. 1.5. MPLS-Enabled Business VPN Services
      6. 1.6. Summary
    2. 2. IP/MPLS VPN Multi-Service Network Overview
      1. 2.1. IP/MPLS Layer 2 VPN Requirements
      2. 2.2. IP/MPLS Layer 2 VPN Services
        1. 2.2.1. Virtual Leased Line
        2. 2.2.2. Virtual Private LAN Service (VPLS)
      3. 2.3. Meeting the Service Network Requirements Using IP/MPLS VPN Architecture
      4. 2.4. IP/MPLS VPN-Enabled Applications
        1. 2.4.1. The Triple Play Solution
        2. 2.4.2. The Mobile Backhauling Solution
      5. 2.5. Summary
  8. II. IP/MPLS VPN Protocol Fundamentals
    1. 3. Using MPLS Label Switched Paths as Service Transport Tunnels
      1. 3.1. Basic MPLS Concepts Review
        1. 3.1.1. MPLS Tunnel and MPLS Label Stack
        2. 3.1.2. MPLS Headers and MPLS Labels
        3. 3.1.3. The PHP and Implicit Null (3) Label
        4. 3.1.4. Forwarding Equivalent Class
        5. 3.1.5. Control Plane: Label Distribution
        6. 3.1.6. Data Plane: MPLS Label Operations
        7. 3.1.7. Roles and Actions for MPLS Routers
        8. 3.1.8. Label Distribution and Storage (Retention) Modes
      2. 3.2. Label Switch Path Types
        1. 3.2.1. Static-LSP
      3. 3.3. LDP-LSP — LDP Label Distribution
        1. 3.3.1. An Overview of P Routers, PE Routers, and Transport Tunnels
        2. 3.3.2. LDP Label Generation and Distribution for Service Transport Tunnel
        3. 3.3.3. LSPs Generated by LDP
          1. 3.3.3.1. The RSVP-TE Approach
          2. 3.3.3.2. The LDP Approach
        4. 3.3.4. Active Label
        5. 3.3.5. Equal Cost Multi-Path in LDP
      4. 3.4. RSVP-TE LSPs
        1. 3.4.1. RSVP- TE LSP in a Service Network: LSP, LSP-Path, RSVP Session, Label, and Path
        2. 3.4.2. Determining the LSP-Path's Path
        3. 3.4.3. Hop: Strict versus Loose
        4. 3.4.4. RSVP-TE LSP-Path Path Computation: IGP -Directed versus CSPF-Directed
        5. 3.4.5. Hop Type and Path Calculation Impact on Fast Reroute Protection Availability
      5. 3.5. Configuring RSVP-TE LSP
        1. 3.5.1. Configuring the RSVP-TE LSP
        2. 3.5.2. LSP Configuration Procedure
        3. 3.5.3. Verifying RSVP-TE LSP Components: LSP, LSP-Path, and Path
        4. 3.5.4. GRE Transport Tunnel Overview
        5. 3.5.5. GRE Encapsulation Format
      6. 3.6. Summary
    2. 4. Routing Protocol Traffi c Engineering and CSPF
      1. 4.1. Introducing Traffic Engineering
        1. 4.1.1. What Is Traffic Engineering?
        2. 4.1.2. Why Use Traffic Engineering?
        3. 4.1.3. Deploying Traffic Engineering with MPLS
      2. 4.2. Introducing OSPF-TE
        1. 4.2.1. Legacy OSPF in Routed IP Networks
        2. 4.2.2. Establishing OSPF Adjacency
        3. 4.2.3. OSPF Area, OSPF Routers, and LSAs
        4. 4.2.4. Traffic Engineering in OSPF
        5. 4.2.5. The IGP Database versus the Traffic Engineering Database (TED)
        6. 4.2.6. TE Parameters in the MPLS Interface
      3. 4.3. Introducing IS-IS TE
        1. 4.3.1. Legacy IS-IS in Routed IP Networks
        2. 4.3.2. IS-IS Areas and IS-IS Adjacency
        3. 4.3.3. IS-IS Routing Updates
        4. 4.3.4. Traffic Engineering in IS-IS
      4. 4.4. The CSPF Algorithm
        1. 4.4.1. CSPF Path Calculation for RSVP-TE LSP
        2. 4.4.2. Using CSPF to Check TE Availability
      5. 4.5. RSVP-TE LSP Policy Control: Administrative Groups and SRLG Groups
        1. 4.5.1. Administrative Groups and Link-Coloring Overview
          1. 4.5.1.1. Coloring Links and Advertising in TE Routing
          2. 4.5.1.2. Configuring Link-Coloring
        2. 4.5.2. Shared Risk Link Groups
          1. 4.5.2.1. SRLG Membership Advertisement
          2. 4.5.2.2. SRLG with Secondary LSPs
          3. 4.5.2.3. SRLG with Fast Reroute
          4. 4.5.2.4. SRLG Configuration Example
        3. 4.5.3. Using Administrative Groups and SRLG Together
      6. 4.6. Summary
    3. 5. RSVP-TE Protocol
      1. 5.1. RSVP and RSVP-TE
        1. 5.1.1. RSVP-TE (RFC 3209)
        2. 5.1.2. Introduction to RSVP Session
          1. 5.1.2.1. Tunnel-id versus LSP-id
        3. 5.1.3. LSP, LSP-Path, and RSVP Session
      2. 5.2. RSVP-TE Signaling Procedure
        1. 5.2.1. Setting Up an LSP-Path
        2. 5.2.2. Maintaining the LSP-Path
        3. 5.2.3. RSVP Refresh Mechanism: R, L, and K Values
        4. 5.2.4. Tearing Down an LSP-Path
      3. 5.3. RSVP-TE Messages and Objects
        1. 5.3.1. RSVP-TE Message Format and Type Overview
        2. 5.3.2. PATH Messages
        3. 5.3.3. RESV Messages
        4. 5.3.4. PathTear and ResvTear Messages
        5. 5.3.5. Path Error and RESV Error Messages
        6. 5.3.6. RSVP-TE Objects Used for MPLS LSP Signaling
        7. 5.3.7. RSVP-TE LSP Bandwidth Reservation
        8. 5.3.8. RSVP-TE LSP Reservation Style
      4. 5.4. Make-Before-Break (MBB)
        1. 5.4.1. Example 1 — Shared Explicit Style LSP-Path's MBB: A Success Case
        2. 5.4.2. Example 2 — Fixed Filter Style LSP-Path's MBB: A Failure Case
        3. 5.4.3. Example 3 — What Happens after a Make-Before-Break Failure?
        4. 5.4.4. Make-Before-Break in Fast Reroute
      5. 5.5. The RSVP-TE Hello Protocol
        1. 5.5.1. The RSVP HELLO Message
      6. 5.6. Reducing RSVP Refresh Overhead
        1. 5.6.1. BUNDLE Messages
        2. 5.6.2. Reliable Message Delivery
        3. 5.6.3. Reliable Message Delivery versus Message Pacing
        4. 5.6.4. Summary-Refresh Message
        5. 5.6.5. Refresh-Reduction Capability Negotiation
      7. 5.7. RSVP MD5 Authentication
      8. 5.8. Summary
    4. 6. MPLS Resiliency — Secondary LSP
      1. 6.1. Ensuring Reliability with MPLS Resiliency
      2. 6.2. An Overview of Primary and Secondary LSPs
        1. 6.2.1. The LSP and Secondary LSP-Paths
          1. 6.2.1.1. Secondary LSPs
          2. 6.2.1.2. Standby Secondary LSPs
        2. 6.2.2. Characteristics of Secondary LSPs
      3. 6.3. What Affects Convergence Performance?
        1. 6.3.1. Failure Detection
        2. 6.3.2. Failure Propagation
        3. 6.3.3. Service Recovery
        4. 6.3.4. Reversion after Failure Is Resolved
      4. 6.4. Rules for Selecting Secondary LSPs
        1. 6.4.1. Secondary LSP Selection Criteria
      5. 6.5. Case Study: Using Administrative Groups in Secondary LSPs
      6. 6.6. Summary
    5. 7. MPLS Resiliency — RSVP-TE LSP Fast Reroute
      1. 7.1. RSVP-TE LSP Resiliency
      2. 7.2. Fast Reroute Overview
        1. 7.2.1. FRR Protection Methods and Types
        2. 7.2.2. FRR Implementation Requirements
        3. 7.2.3. RSVP-TE Enhancement for FRR as Defined in RFC 4090
      3. 7.3. Fast Reroute Architecture
        1. 7.3.1. Requirement for MPLS Fast Reroute
        2. 7.3.2. Network Elements and Their Roles in FRR
        3. 7.3.3. Head-End Router Behavior
        4. 7.3.4. Point-of-Local-Repair (PLR) Router Behavior
        5. 7.3.5. Merge Point (MP) Router Behavior
        6. 7.3.6. Tail Router Behavior
          1. 7.3.6.1. Choosing the MP for the Protection Tunnel
          2. 7.3.6.2. Far-MP Approach
          3. 7.3.6.3. Near-MP Approach
      4. 7.4. One-to-One Backup
        1. 7.4.1. Maintaining the State of the Protected LSP-Path during a Failure
        2. 7.4.2. Data Plane: Forwarding Protected Traffic over Detour LSPs
        3. 7.4.3. Detour Merge Point (DMP)
        4. 7.4.4. One-to-One Backup versus Secondary LSP
        5. 7.4.5. One-to-One Backup Configuration Example
      5. 7.5. Facility Backup
        1. 7.5.1. Maintaining the State of the Protected LSP during Failure — Refresh through the Bypass Tunnel
        2. 7.5.2. Data Plane: Forwarding Protected Traffic over Bypass Tunnel
        3. 7.5.3. Moving Traffic Away from the Protection LSP-Path
        4. 7.5.4. Facility Backup Configuration Example
      6. 7.6. Manual Bypass Tunnel
        1. 7.6.1. Rules of Engagement: Selecting Bypass Tunnels
      7. 7.7. Summary
    6. 8. Label DistributionProtocol
      1. 8.1. LDP Overview
      2. 8.2. LDP Session Establishment and Management
        1. 8.2.1. Link-LDP Adjacency Establishment
        2. 8.2.2. Targeted LDP Session Establishment
        3. 8.2.3. T-LDP Session Auto-Creation for VPN Services
      3. 8.3. Using T-LDP to Signal Pseudowires for Layer 2 VPN Services
        1. 8.3.1. Signaling vc-label for Pseudowires
        2. 8.3.2. Signaling Pseudowire Status
        3. 8.3.3. Signaling MAC-Flush for VPLS Topology Change
        4. 8.3.4. Configuring T-LDP Sessions in a Service Network
      4. 8.4. LDP Messages and TLVs
        1. 8.4.1. LDP Messages
      5. 8.5. LDP over RSVP-TE Tunneling
        1. 8.5.1. LDPoRSVP Applications: When to Use LDPoRSVP
          1. 8.5.1.1. LDPoRSVP Scenario 1: End-to-End CSPF and TE in a Hierarchical IGP Network Design
          2. 8.5.1.2. LDPoRSVP Scenario 2: Reducing the Number of LSPs in a Scaled Network
          3. 8.5.1.3. LDPoRSVP Scenario 3: End-to-End LSP with TE Partially Enabled in the Network
        2. 8.5.2. LDPoRSVP Tunneling Architecture
          1. 8.5.2.1. IGP Hierarchy
          2. 8.5.2.2. LDP
          3. 8.5.2.3. RSVP-TE LSP
          4. 8.5.2.4. LDPoRSVP Tunnel-in-Tunnel
          5. 8.5.2.5. Using LDPoRSVP to Transport VPN Service Traffic
        3. 8.5.3. Configuring LDPoRSVP
        4. 8.5.4. LDPoRSVP Tunnel Selecting Criteria
        5. 8.5.5. Encapsulation Overhead and MTU Consideration with LDPoRSVP
        6. 8.5.6. LDPoRSVP Resiliency
      6. 8.6. Summary
  9. III. Ethernet VPN Services
    1. 9. IP/MPLS VPN Service Routing Architecture
      1. 9.1. IP/MPLS VPN Service Network Infrastructure
        1. 9.1.1. The Service Concept and the Roles and Capabilities of a Service Router
          1. 9.1.1.1. "Service" in a Legacy Network
          2. 9.1.1.2. "Service" in an MPLS-Based Multi-Service VPN Network
        2. 9.1.2. Services Offered by Service Router: Internet Service and VPN Service
      2. 9.2. Alcatel-Lucent Service Routing Architecture
        1. 9.2.1. Network Elements in a Multi-Services IP/MPLS VPN Network
        2. 9.2.2. The ALSRP Service Model
      3. 9.3. Service Access Point and SAP Components
        1. 9.3.1. Operational Modes of Physical Ports: Network Mode versus Access Mode
      4. 9.4. Service Distribution Paths and Transport Tunnels
        1. 9.4.1. Pseudowire Signaling Method in SDP
        2. 9.4.2. SDP Metric
        3. 9.4.3. SDP Keep-Alive
        4. 9.4.4. Pseudowire (PW)
      5. 9.5. Multiple Forwarding Paths in the Same SDP
        1. 9.5.1. Load Balancing on SDP Using RSVP-TE LSP
        2. 9.5.2. Load Balancing on SDP Using LDP-LSP or GRE Tunnels
          1. 9.5.2.1. ECMP Load Balancing: LER Hashing versus LSR Hashing
        3. 9.5.3. CoS-Based LSP Forwarding
        4. 9.5.4. A Brief Overview of Quality of Service
        5. 9.5.5. SDP Using RSVP-TE LSPs with CoS-Based LSP Forwarding
        6. 9.5.6. Configuring SDP with CoS-Based LSP Forwarding
      6. 9.6. Maximum Transmission Unit in a Service Network
        1. 9.6.1. Types of MTUs in a Service Network
          1. 9.6.1.1. Physical Access Port MTU
          2. 9.6.1.2. Physical Network Port MTU
          3. 9.6.1.3. LSP-Path MTU
          4. 9.6.1.4. SDP-Path MTU
          5. 9.6.1.5. Service MTU for the L2VPN Service
          6. 9.6.1.6. Virtual Circuit MTU (VC-MTU)
        2. 9.6.2. MTU Calculation and the Relationships among Different Types of MTUs
        3. 9.6.3. Case Study: MTU Configuration
        4. 9.6.4. SDP MTU Discovery
      7. 9.7. IP/MPLS VPN Service Implementation Overview
      8. 9.8. Summary
    2. 10. Virtual Leased Line Services
      1. 10.1. VLL Services Overview
        1. 10.1.1. VLL Common Infrastructure
        2. 10.1.2. Point-to-Point versus Multipoint-to-Multipoint VPN Services
        3. 10.1.3. VLL Services Types
      2. 10.2. VLL Services Architecture
        1. 10.2.1. VLL Service Components
        2. 10.2.2. Pseudowire Establishment Using T-LDP Messages
        3. 10.2.3. Pseudowire Status Signaling
        4. 10.2.4. Tear Down the Pseudowire
      3. 10.3. Pseudowire Switching for VLL Services
        1. 10.3.1. Signaling Multi-Segment Pseudowire
        2. 10.3.2. Generation and/or Propagation of LDP Notification Messages in S-PE
      4. 10.4. VLL Example: Epipe — Ethernet P2P VPN
        1. 10.4.1. Epipe Service Access Point (SAP)
        2. 10.4.2. Epipe Pseudowire (SDP-Binding) Signaling
        3. 10.4.3. Epipe Data Encapsulation
      5. 10.5. VLL Connection Admission Control
        1. 10.5.1. VLL CAC Architecture
        2. 10.5.2. Pseudowire Signaling with VLL CAC
        3. 10.5.3. Bandwidth Calculation in VLL CAC
        4. 10.5.4. SDP Traffic Forwarding with VLL CAC
        5. 10.5.5. Configuring VLL CAC
        6. 10.5.6. VLL CAC with PW-Redundancy and PW-Switching
      6. 10.6. Summary
    3. 11. Virtual Private LAN Service
      1. 11.1. VPLS Service Overview
      2. 11.2. VPLS Architecture
        1. 11.2.1. Ethernet Transparent Bridging
        2. 11.2.2. VPLS Virtual Switching Instance (VSI)
        3. 11.2.3. VPLS Forwarding Decisions
        4. 11.2.4. VPLS Data Frame Encapsulation
      3. 11.3. VPLS Mesh-Pseudowires
        1. 11.3.1. VPLS Mesh-Pseudowire Learning and Forwarding Behavior
        2. 11.3.2. VPLS Mesh-Pseudowire Signaling Process
        3. 11.3.3. Mesh-Pseudowire Configuration Example
        4. 11.3.4. VPLS Static Mesh-Pseudowire
        5. 11.3.5. Data Traffic Format on the Pseudowire: vc-type
      4. 11.4. VPLS Service Access Points
        1. 11.4.1. SAP Types Supported by VPLS
        2. 11.4.2. SAP Encapsulation Type and Value
          1. 11.4.2.1. Null-Encapsulated SAP
          2. 11.4.2.2. Dot1q-Encapsulated SAP
          3. 11.4.2.3. Qinq-Encapsulated SAP
        3. 11.4.3. SAP Tagging Summary
        4. 11.4.4. VLAN Translation
        5. 11.4.5. The Effect of VLAN Translation on Multicast-Based Protocols
        6. 11.4.6. Case Study: VLAN Design and VLAN Translation in VPLS
        7. 11.4.7. Policy-Based Forwarding in VPLS
      5. 11.5. VPLS Forwarding Database Management
      6. 11.6. Summary
    4. 12. Hierarchical VPLS
      1. 12.1. Hierarchical-VPLS Overview
        1. 12.1.1. Using Spoke-Pseudowires to Improve Scalability and Efficiency
        2. 12.1.2. VPLS Network Topology: Mesh versus Hub and Spoke
      2. 12.2. Spoke-Pseudowire Details
        1. 12.2.1. VPLS Spoke-Pseudowire Learning and Forwarding Behavior
        2. 12.2.2. VPLS Spoke-Pseudowire Signaling Process
        3. 12.2.3. Spoke-Pseudowire Configuration Example
        4. 12.2.4. Static Spoke-Pseudowire Configuration and Inter-AS VPLS
        5. 12.2.5. Split-Horizon Group for Spoke-Pseudowire
      3. 12.3. H-VPLS Topologies
        1. 12.3.1. H-VPLS: Connecting VPLS Meshes with Spoke-Pseudowires
        2. 12.3.2. H-VPLS: Connecting Spoke Sites with Spoke-Pseudowire
      4. 12.4. H-VPLS Design Case Study — Where to Break the Mesh?
        1. 12.4.1. VPLS Design for Customer 1: Many Sites Requiring Any-to-Any Connectivity
        2. 12.4.2. VPLS Design for Customer 2: Fully Meshed VPLS for Optimal Forwarding
        3. 12.4.3. VPLS Design for Customer 3: Hub-Spoke Topology with Split-Horizon Group
      5. 12.5. Summary
    5. 13. High Availability in an IP/MPLS VPN Network
      1. 13.1. Building a Network with High Availability
        1. 13.1.1. Nodal Resiliency
        2. 13.1.2. Service and Network Resiliency
      2. 13.2. Bidirectional Forwarding Detection
        1. 13.2.1. BFD Control Packets and Session Parameters
        2. 13.2.2. BFD Session Establishment and Operation
        3. 13.2.3. BFD Protocol Dependency
        4. 13.2.4. Configuring and Monitoring BFD
        5. 13.2.5. Ethernet in the First Mile (EFM) OAM
      3. 13.3. Link Aggregation Group Overview
        1. 13.3.1. Bandwidth Requirements
        2. 13.3.2. What Is LACP and How Does It Work?
        3. 13.3.3. LAG Subgroups
        4. 13.3.4. LAG Configuration Example
      4. 13.4. Multi Chassis Link Aggregation Group
        1. 13.4.1. MC-LAG Control Protocol Overview
        2. 13.4.2. MC-LAG Adjacency: Peer Definition, Authentication, and Timers
        3. 13.4.3. MC-LAG with Pseudowire Redundancy in a VPLS Network
        4. 13.4.4. MC-LAG Switchover: flush-all-from-me
      5. 13.5. Traffic Load Balancing in Link Aggregation Groups
        1. 13.5.1. Load Balancing and Hashing Algorithms
        2. 13.5.2. Ethernet LAG Load Balancing in Ethernet Bridged and IP Routed Networks
        3. 13.5.3. Ethernet LAG Load Balancing in IP/MPLS VPN Networks
        4. 13.5.4. Improving Load Balancing in LAGs Carrying IP/MPLS VPN Traffic on LSRs
      6. 13.6. Summary
    6. 14. VLL Service Resiliency
      1. 14.1. VLL Service Resiliency Overview
        1. 14.1.1. Using LAG to Protect Attachment Circuit Failures
        2. 14.1.2. Using Pseudowire Redundancy to Protect PE Router Failures
        3. 14.1.3. Combining MC-LAG with Pseudowire Redundancy
      2. 14.2. VLL Service Resiliency Using Pseudowire Redundancy
        1. 14.2.1. Using Pseudowire Redundancy to Protect a Service from PE Router Failure
          1. 14.2.1.1. Endpoints in a VLL Service Instance
          2. 14.2.1.2. Pseudowire Status Bit
          3. 14.2.1.3. Pseudowire Redundancy: Selection of the Active Forwarding Object
      3. 14.3. VLL Network Design Using MC-LAG with Pseudowire Redundancy
        1. 14.3.1. Inter-Chassis Backup Pseudowire
        2. 14.3.2. Initial Stage: Determining the Best Active Forwarding Topology
        3. 14.3.3. Failover and Restoration
        4. 14.3.4. Deploying MC-LAG Epipe Service Redundancy with ICB-PW
      4. 14.4. Summary
    7. 15. VPLS Service Resiliency
      1. 15.1. Introduction to VPLS Service Resiliency
      2. 15.2. Access Resiliency
        1. 15.2.1. Using LAG to Protect Attachment Circuits
        2. 15.2.2. Using MC-LAG to Protect Attachment Circuits
        3. 15.2.3. Using Multiple Attachment Circuits with STP
        4. 15.2.4. Using Other Loop-Avoidance Mechanisms on Attachment Circuits
      3. 15.3. H-VPLS Backbone Resiliency
        1. 15.3.1. Using Pseudowire Redundancy to Protect PE Router Failure
        2. 15.3.2. Using Multi Chassis End Point to Protect the Gateway PE
        3. 15.3.3. Using mVPLS/STP in MTU Dual-Homing
        4. 15.3.4. Primary/Backup Pseudowire Peering in PE/MTU Dual-Homing
        5. 15.3.5. Pseudowire Status Bit
        6. 15.3.6. Standby PW Signaling — PW-Forwarding-Standby
        7. 15.3.7. Ignoring Standby Pseudowire Signaling
      4. 15.4. Using MAC-Flush to Avoid Blackholes
        1. 15.4.1. Understanding MAC-Flush
        2. 15.4.2. LDP Address Withdraw Messages — The MAC-Flush of VPLS
          1. 15.4.2.1. flush-all-from-me
          2. 15.4.2.2. flush-all-but-me
        3. 15.4.3. Propagating a MAC-Flush Message
          1. 15.4.3.1. Path Vector TLV (0x104)
          2. 15.4.3.2. Scenario A: Propagation of flush-all-from-me Messages
          3. 15.4.3.3. Scenario B: Propagation of flush-all-but-me Messages
        4. 15.4.4. MAC-Flush and Propagation Recommendations
        5. 15.4.5. Using Block-on-Mesh-Failure to Avoid Blackholes
      5. 15.5. Summary
  10. IV. Advanced Ethernet VPN Topics
    1. 16. VPLS BGP Auto-Discovery
      1. 16.1. VPLS BGP-AD Overview
      2. 16.2. BGP Auto-Discovery for LDP-VPLS
        1. 16.2.1. MP-BGP Update for VPLS Membership Auto-Discovery
        2. 16.2.2. Creating or Selecting SDPs for Pseudowires
        3. 16.2.3. SDP Selection Criteria in BGP-AD LDP-VPLS
        4. 16.2.4. Pseudowire Endpoint Identification: FEC Element PW-id and G-PW-id
        5. 16.2.5. Automatically Signaling Pseudowires: Pseudowire Establishment
        6. 16.2.6. Automatically Signaling Pseudowires: Pseudowire Status Notification
        7. 16.2.7. Automatically Signaling Pseudowires: Tearing Down Pseudowires
        8. 16.2.8. Case Study: LDP-VPLS with BGP-AD
      3. 16.3. SDPs, Transport Tunnels, and Pseudowires Created Using BGP-AD
        1. 16.3.1. Automatically Created SDPs
        2. 16.3.2. Auto-Created Pseudowires
        3. 16.3.3. Combining Manually Provisioned PWs with BGP-AD PWs
      4. 16.4. Using Pre-Provisioned SDPs
        1. 16.4.1. SDP Selection Criteria
      5. 16.5. Using BGP-AD Import and Export Policies to Control the Forwarding Topology of VPLS
        1. 16.5.1. Differences between Route Distinguisher and Route Target
        2. 16.5.2. Deploying Fully Meshed VPLS Connectivity with BGP-AD
        3. 16.5.3. Hub-Spoke VPLS
        4. 16.5.4. Hierarchical VPLS
      6. 16.6. Summary
    2. 17. PBB-VPLS
      1. 17.1. Provider Backbone Bridge Overview
        1. 17.1.1. Potential VPLS Scaling Issue — MAC Explosion
        2. 17.1.2. Provider Backbone Bridging
      2. 17.2. PBB-VPLS Architecture
        1. 17.2.1. PBB-VPLS Building Blocks
        2. 17.2.2. I-VPLS
        3. 17.2.3. B-VPLS
        4. 17.2.4. PBB-VPLS Traffic Encapsulation
      3. 17.3. PBB-VPLS Learning and Forwarding
        1. 17.3.1. Control Plane: Learning MAC Addresses
        2. 17.3.2. Data Plane: Forwarding Encapsulation and De-Encapsulation
      4. 17.4. Controlling Flooding in PBB-VPLS
        1. 17.4.1. Suboptimal Flooding Behavior of PBB-VPLS
        2. 17.4.2. 802.1ak Multiple Registration Protocol
        3. 17.4.3. How Does MMRP Build the Flooding Tree?
        4. 17.4.4. MRP Convergence and B-VPLS Flooding Switchover
      5. 17.5. FDB Management in I-VPLS and B-VPLS
        1. 17.5.1. FDB Content: I-VPLS versus B-VPLS
        2. 17.5.2. Discard Unknown: I-VPLS versus B-VPLS
      6. 17.6. OAM in a PBB-VPLS Network
      7. 17.7. Service Resiliency in PBB-VPLS Networks
      8. 17.8. MAC-Flush in PBB-VPLS
        1. 17.8.1. Quick Review of MAC-Flush
        2. 17.8.2. send-bvpls-flush — Propagating MAC-Flush from I-VPLS to B-VPLS
      9. 17.9. PBB Epipe
        1. 17.9.1. How Does PBB-Epipe Work?
        2. 17.9.2. Preventing Flooding Epipe Traffic in the B-Domain
      10. 17.10. Summary
    3. 18. OAM in a VPLS Service Network
      1. 18.1. OAM Functional Overview
      2. 18.2. Ethernet in the First Mile (EFM) OAM (802.3ah)
        1. 18.2.1. EFM OAM PDUs
        2. 18.2.2. EFM OAM Discovery Process
        3. 18.2.3. Detecting Failures
        4. 18.2.4. Remote Loopback
        5. 18.2.5. Tunneling 802.3ah EFM OAM PDU in an Epipe Service
      3. 18.3. Ethernet Connectivity Fault Management
        1. 18.3.1. CFM Terminology
        2. 18.3.2. CFM Messages
        3. 18.3.3. CFM Configuration Example
        4. 18.3.4. MIPs in CFM
        5. 18.3.5. Loopback Test
        6. 18.3.6. Link Trace Test
        7. 18.3.7. Continuity Check Test
        8. 18.3.8. CFM in PBB-VPLS
      4. 18.4. OAM in an IP/MPLS VPN Service Network
        1. 18.4.1. OAM Tools
        2. 18.4.2. Checking LSP Connectivity and Paths
        3. 18.4.3. LSP-ping
        4. 18.4.4. LSP-trace
        5. 18.4.5. SDP-ping
        6. 18.4.6. Service Ping
        7. 18.4.7. Virtual Circuit Connectivity Verification (VCCV)
      5. 18.5. OAM in VPLS Services
        1. 18.5.1. VPLS FDB OAM Overview
        2. 18.5.2. MAC-ping
        3. 18.5.3. MAC-trace
        4. 18.5.4. CPE-ping
        5. 18.5.5. MAC Populate
        6. 18.5.6. MAC Purge
      6. 18.6. Summary
    4. A. Spanning Tree Protocol
      1. A.1. Spanning Tree Protocol
        1. A.1.1. How Does STP Prevent Forwarding Loops?
        2. A.1.2. BPDU Content
        3. A.1.3. BPDU Storage: Local Version versus Received Version
        4. A.1.4. BPDU Comparison: Four Comparison Criteria
        5. A.1.5. Building a Loop-Free Topology
          1. A.1.5.1. Step 1: Elect the Root Bridge
          2. A.1.5.2. Step 2: Elect the Root Port in Every Non-Root Switch
          3. A.1.5.3. Step 3: Elect the Designated Port
        6. A.1.6. STP Port States
        7. A.1.7. Controlling the Forwarding Path in STP
        8. A.1.8. STP Timers and Convergence
        9. A.1.9. STP Topology Changes
      2. A.2. Spanning Tree Protocol Variations
        1. A.2.1. Rapid STP (RSTP) 802.1w and 802.1d-2004
        2. A.2.2. Per-VLAN Spanning Tree
        3. A.2.3. Multiple-Instance STP (802.1s)
      3. A.3. VPLS Service Loop Prevention with STP
        1. A.3.1. Potential Forwarding Loops in the VPLS Core
        2. A.3.2. STP in VPLS: Transparent Mode versus Participation Mode
        3. A.3.3. Compatible STP Protocol Variations in Participation Mode
      4. A.4. Altered STP Behavior in the VPLS Core
      5. A.5. Using VPLS STP to Eliminate Customer Forwarding Loops
      6. A.6. Using VPLS STP to Block Redundant Spoke-Pseudowires in H-VPLS
      7. A.7. LDP MAC-Flush in STP Convergence
      8. A.8. Management VPLS
        1. A.8.1. Using mVPLS to Eliminate Forwarding Loops in Customer Networks
        2. A.8.2. Using mVPLS to Eliminate Forwarding Loops in H-VPLS with Spoke-Pseudowire Redundancy
    5. B. B RFC and IEEE Standards
    6. Glossary