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Designing and Conducting Survey Research: A Comprehensive Guide, 4th Edition by Richard A. Parker, Louis M. Rea

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CHAPTER SEVENCONFIDENCE INTERVALS AND BASIC HYPOTHESIS TESTING

The discussion in chapter 6 made use of population parameters, such as the population mean (μ) and the population standard deviation (σ). However, researchers rarely, if ever, are actually in possession of such information. Probabilistic determinations of the true mean were made using sample sizes and the true population standard deviation, and therein lies a hole in sampling theory. The procedure discussed for estimating m from one sample requires that σ be known, and if μ is not known, then σ will also be unknown.

Equation 6.4 can be adapted to best accommodate the results of a single sample through the process of substitution. In the absence of σ, the researcher can substitute ...

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