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Design for Six Sigma for Green Belts and Champions: Applications for Service Operations—Foundations, Tools, DMADV, Cases, and Certification

Book Description

Most Six Sigma books are targeted at manufacturers, and don't reflect the unique implementation challenges service companies face. This book fills the gap. Using its practical, start-to-finish guidance, service company teams can utilize Six Sigma to drive powerful bottom-line benefits. The authors systematically introduce the management foundation required to implement Six Sigma successfully. Readers will discover how to lead teams to achieve results in shorter time frames, and present projects to executives concisely and effectively. This book thoroughly covers every stage of the DMADV Design for Six Sigma® Management improvement model: Define, Measure, Analyze, Design, and Verify/Validate. Outputs from Minitab, JMP, and SigmaFlow are illustrated and provided on CD-ROM and through downloadable date sets and templates.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
    1. Dedicated to our families
  2. Acknowledgments and Thanks
  3. About the Authors
  4. Preface
    1. Introduction
    2. Design for Six Sigma (DFSS)
    3. The DMADV Model
    4. Complexity
    5. Unique Aspects of This Book
    6. Contacting the Authors
  5. I. Design for Six Sigma Basics
    1. 1. Foundations of Six Sigma Management
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1. Successful Applications of Six Sigma Management
      3. 1.2. Key Ingredients for Success with Six Sigma Management
      4. 1.3. Benefits of Six Sigma Management
      5. 1.4. Fundamentals of Improving a Product, Service, or Process
        1. Process Basics (Voice of the Process [VoP])
          1. Definition of a Process
          2. Variation in a Process
          3. Feedback Loops
          4. Definition of Quality (Voice of the Customer [VoC])
            1. Goal Post View of Quality
            2. Continuous Improvement View of Quality
        2. Definitions of Six Sigma Management (Relationship Between VoC and VoP)
          1. Non-Technical Definitions of Six Sigma Management
          2. Technical Definitions of Six Sigma Management
        3. The DMAIC Model for Improvement
      6. 1.5. Fundamentals of Inventing–Innovating a Product, Service, or Process
        1. Invention
          1. Introduction
          2. Definition
          3. Inventions and History
        2. Innovation
          1. Definition
          2. Reasons for Innovation
          3. Eight Methods for Invention and Innovation
          4. Simple Examples of the Invention and Innovation Process
        3. Design for Six Sigma (DFSS)
        4. Fundamental Principles of “Design for Six Sigma”
        5. Leverage from Professional Design Methods
        6. The DMADV Model for Invention and Innovation
      7. 1.6. What Is New about Six Sigma Management?
      8. 1.7. Six Sigma in Non-Manufacturing Industries
      9. Summary
      10. References
    2. 2. Six Sigma Roles, Responsibilities, and Terminology
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1. Roles and Responsibilities in Six Sigma Management
        1. Senior Executive
        2. Executive Committee
        3. Champion
        4. Process Owner
        5. Master Black Belt
        6. Black Belt
        7. Green Belt
          1. Roles Are Not Mutually Exclusive
          2. Roles Are Not Necessarily Related to Position in the Organization
          3. Green Belt Versus Black Belt Projects
          4. Supervision Ratios Between the Different Levels of Six Sigma Certification
      3. 2.2. Technical Terminology of Six Sigma Management
        1. Process Sigma
        2. SDSA Model
        3. PDSA Model
        4. DMAIC Model
        5. DMADV Model
      4. Summary
      5. References
    3. 3. Macro Model of Six Sigma Management (Dashboards)
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1. Beginning Six Sigma Management
        1. Starting Six Sigma Management
        2. Energy for Transformation to Six Sigma Management
        3. Initiating Action for Six Sigma Management
        4. Retaining Outside Counsel
        5. Window of Opportunity Opens
        6. Develop a Six Sigma Transformation Plan
        7. Window of Opportunity Begins to Close
        8. Implement the Transformation Plan
      3. 3.2. Benefits of a Dashboard
      4. 3.3. Structure of a Dashboard
      5. 3.4. Components of a Dashboard
        1. Mission Statement
        2. Key Objectives (as Measured by Key Indicators)
          1. Financial Key Objectives
          2. Process Improvement and Innovation Key Objectives
          3. Customer Satisfaction Key Objectives
          4. Employee Growth and Development Key Objectives
          5. Leading and Lagging Indicators
        3. Key Indicators
          1. Attribute Key Indicators
          2. Measurement Key Indicators
          3. Binary Key Indicators
          4. List Key Indicators
          5. Gantt Chart Key Indicators
        4. Flag Diagrams
          1. Additive Flag Diagram
          2. Non-Additive Flag Diagram
        5. Tasks and Projects
          1. Zero Project or Task
          2. Increase Project or Task
          3. Decrease Project or Task
      6. 3.5. Example of a Dashboard
      7. 3.6. Another Example of a Dashboard
      8. 3.7. Managing with a Dashboard
      9. 3.8. Project Prioritization for a Dashboard
      10. 3.9. Management Decides if a Project Team Is Necessary
      11. 3.10. Types of Six Sigma Projects
      12. Summary
      13. References
  6. II. The Design for Six Sigma (Dfss) Model
    1. 4. Define Phase
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1. Steps of the Define Phase
      3. 4.2. Inputs to the Define Phase
      4. 4.3. Develop the Business Case
      5. 4.4. Prepare the Opportunity Statement
      6. 4.5. Develop the Initial Project Objective
      7. 4.6. Develop the Project Scope
      8. 4.7. Develop the Project Plan
      9. 4.8. Develop the Document Control System
      10. 4.9. Assess the Benefits of the Six Sigma Project
        1. Taxonomy 1: Cost Reduction Versus Cost Avoidance
        2. Taxonomy 2: Tangible Costs Versus Intangible Costs
        3. Dormitory Example
      11. 4.10. Assess the Risks to the Project’s Success
        1. Technical Reasons for Risk
        2. Human Factors Affecting Risk
        3. Team Dynamics Affecting Risk
        4. Planning Issues Affecting Risk
        5. Business Sources of Risk
        6. Organizational and Political Sources of Risk
        7. External Sources of Risk
        8. Identify Risk Elements
        9. Reduce Risk with Risk Reduction Plans
      12. 4.11. Activate the DFSS Development Team (DT)
        1. Team Formation
        2. Ground Rules
      13. 4.12. Finalize the Project Objective
      14. 4.13. Conduct Tollgate Review
      15. 4.14. Define Phase Tollgate Review (Check Sheet)
      16. 4.15. Key Outputs of the Define Phase
      17. Summary
      18. References
    2. 5. Measure Phase
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1. Steps of the Measure Phase
      3. 5.2. Inputs to the Measure Phase
      4. 5.3. Market Segmentation
        1. Definition
      5. 5.4. Finding Cognitive Images with Kano Surveys
      6. 5.5. Convert Cognitive Images into CTQs with Quality Function Deployment
        1. Introduction
        2. Room 1 in the House of Quality
        3. Room 2 in the House of Quality
        4. Room 3 in the House of Quality
        5. Room 4 in the House of Quality
        6. Room 5 in the House of Quality
        7. Room 6 in the House of Quality
        8. Room 7 in the House of Quality
      7. 5.6. Select Final Set of CTQs
      8. 5.7. Develop and Validate a Measurement System for the CTQs
        1. Construct Operational Definitions for CTQs
          1. Background
          2. Effect of No Operational Definition
          3. Examples of an Operational Definition
        2. Establish the Validity of the Measurement System for Each CTQ
          1. Questions to Ask About a Measurement System
          2. Measurement System Studies
      9. 5.8. Develop a Design Scorecard
      10. 5.9. Review Intellectual Property Issues
      11. 5.10. Plan to Manage the Risk
      12. 5.11. Revise the Project Objective, if Necessary
      13. 5.12. Update the Multi-Generational Product Plan (MGPP)
      14. 5.13. Conduct Tollgate Review (Check Sheet)
      15. 5.14. Outputs of the Measure Phase
      16. Summary
      17. References
      18. 5.1. Using Minitab for Gage R&R Studies
        1. Generating a Gage Run Chart
        2. Generating a Gage R&R Study (Crossed)
      19. 5.2. Using JMP for Gage R&R Studies
    3. 6. Analyze Phase
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1. Steps of the Analyze Phase
      3. 6.2. Inputs of the Analyze Phase
      4. 6.3. Generate High-Level Design Concepts for Critical Parameters
        1. Effort Level Needed to Create Design Concepts
        2. Breaking Down CTQs into CTPs
        3. Using Thinking Habits and Tools for Generating Design Concepts
          1. Thinking Habits
          2. Thinking Tools
          3. Dormitory Example
        4. Using TRIZ for Generating Design Concepts
          1. Introduction
        5. Benchmarking for Generating Creative Design Concepts
      5. 6.4. Investigate Alternative Design Concepts for Each Critical Parameter
        1. Reducing the Set of Potential Design Concepts
          1. Dormitory Example of a Pugh Matrix
      6. 6.5. Create a Limited Set of Potential High-Level Design Concepts
      7. 6.6. Assess the Risks of the “Best” Design Concept
        1. Sources of Risk
        2. Purpose of Risk Management
        3. Method 1: Identifying Risk Elements Using FMEA
        4. Method 2: Identifying Risk Elements Using Hazard Analysis
        5. Method 3: Identifying Risk Elements Using a Risk Abatement Plan
      8. 6.7. Optimize the Total Life Cycle Cost (TLCC) of the Design
        1. Definition of Total Life Cycle Cost (TLCC)
        2. Relationship Between Design and Total Life Cycle Cost
        3. Using TLCC to Reduce the Set of Potential Designs
      9. 6.8. Develop a Process Model for the Best Design
        1. Definition of a Model
        2. Types of Models
        3. Benefits of a Model
        4. Steps for Developing a Process Model of a Design
        5. Static Process Models of a Design
          1. Flowcharts
          2. Integrated Flowcharts (also called Deployment Flowcharts)
          3. Value-Added/Non-Value-Added Flowcharts (VA/NVA)
          4. Value Analysis Matrix
          5. Layout Flowchart
        6. Dynamic Process Models of a Design
          1. Definition of Simulation
          2. Advantages and Disadvantages of Simulation
          3. Types of Simulation Models
          4. Steps to Performing a Discrete Event Simulation
      10. 6.9. Transfer High-Level Design to Process Owner With Design Scorecards
      11. 6.10. Analyze Phase Tollgate Review (Check Sheet)
      12. 6.11. Outputs from the Analyze Phase
      13. Summary
      14. References
    4. 7. Design Phase
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1. Steps of the Design Phase
      3. 7.2. Inputs of the Design Phase
      4. 7.3. Constructing a Detailed Design
        1. Developing Elements of the Detailed Design
        2. Identifying the Specific Details for CTPs with QFD
        3. QFD Methodology Flow
          1. Matrix 1
          2. Matrix 2
        4. QFD Process
      5. 7.4. Develop Detailed CTPs for CTQs and High-Level CTPs
        1. Language of CTQs and CTPs
        2. Flow-Up CTPs
          1. Law of the Addition of Component Dimension Averages
          2. Law of the Sums and Differences of Component Dimension Averages
          3. Law of the Addition of Component Dimension Standard Deviations
          4. Law of the Average for Created Areas and Volumes for Rectangular Constructions
          5. Law of the Standard Deviation for Created Areas and Volumes for Rectangular Constructions
        3. Flow-Down CTQs
          1. Basic Concept of Flow-Down
          2. Consequences of Failure to Flow-Down
      6. 7.5. Create a Comprehensive Set of Detailed CTPs
      7. 7.6. Operationally Define Each Detailed CTP
      8. 7.7. Validate the Measurement System for Each Detailed CTP
      9. 7.8. Establish Baseline Capabilities for Each CTQ and CTP
        1. Background
        2. Collect and Analyze Baseline Data for Appropriate Detailed CTPs
        3. Estimate Process Capability for Appropriate Detailed CTPs
          1. Attribute Process Capability Studies
          2. Variables Process Capability Studies
          3. Example of a Variables Process Capability Study
          4. Dormitory Example
      10. 7.9. Conduct a Capacity Analysis
      11. 7.10. Perform a FMEA of the Detailed CTPs
      12. 7.11. Constructing Detailed Design Scorecards
      13. 7.12. Performing Accounting Analysis
      14. 7.13. Prepare a Control and Verification Plan
        1. Dormitory Example
      15. 7.14. Conduct Design Phase Tollgate Review (Check Sheet)
      16. 7.15. Outputs of the Design Phase
      17. Summary
      18. References
    5. 8. Verify/Validate Phase
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1. Steps of the Verify/Validate Phase
      3. 8.2. Inputs to the Verify/Validate Phase
      4. 8.3. Build a Prototype of the Detailed Design
        1. Definition of Prototyping
        2. Traditional Prototyping Methods for Products (Tool and Die)
        3. Rapid Prototyping Methods for Products
          1. Definition
          2. Benefits of CAD
          3. Benefits of Rapid Prototyping
        4. Rapid Prototyping Methods Useful for Services
          1. Scenarios
          2. Videography
          3. Role Play
          4. Tagging the Whales
          5. Behavioral Mapping
          6. Consumer Journal
          7. Storytelling
          8. Intellectual SWOT Teams
        5. General Rules for Rapid Prototyping of Services
      5. 8.4. Pilot Test the Prototype of the Detailed Design
        1. Purpose of a Pilot Test
        2. Objectives of a Pilot Test
        3. Develop a Plan for Pilot Testing the Prototype
        4. Hold Pilot Release Readiness Review
        5. Conduct Pilot Test of the Prototype of the Detailed Design
      6. 8.5. Conduct Design Reviews Using Design Scorecards
      7. 8.6. Decide Whether or Not to Scale-Up Design
      8. 8.7. Build and Operate Full-Scale Process
      9. 8.8. Decide if the Full-Scale Process Is Meeting Business Objectives
        1. Financial Objectives
        2. Process Objectives
        3. Customer Objectives
        4. Employee Objectives
      10. 8.9. Document the Full-Scale Process
        1. ISO 9000 and ISO 14000
        2. Generic Table of Contents of an ISO Standard
      11. 8.10. Transition Full-Scale Process to Owners with a Control Plan
      12. 8.11. Conduct Verify/Validate Phase Tollgate Review (Check Sheet)
      13. 8.12. Close the DMADV Project
      14. 8.13. Transfer the Lessons Learned from the Project
        1. Introduction
        2. Perceived Attributes of Innovations
          1. Relative Advantage
          2. Compatibility
          3. Complexity
          4. Trialability
          5. Observability
        3. Adopter Categories
        4. Innovation-Decision Process
        5. Rate of Adoption
        6. Demand and Supply Factors
        7. Organizational Factors
        8. An Alternative Measure for Rate of Adoption
        9. A Demand-Based Diffusion Strategy
          1. Introduction
          2. Preparing the Infrastructure for a Diffusion Plan
          3. Developing a Demand-Based Diffusion Plan
          4. Executing a Demand-Based Diffusion Strategy
        10. A Demand- and Supply-Based Diffusion Strategy
          1. Supply Factors
          2. Organizational Factors
        11. Consider the Diffusion of a Design Throughout the Entire DMADV Model
      15. 8.14. Outputs of the Verify/Validate Phase
      16. Summary
      17. References
  7. III. Design for Six Sigma Tools and Methods
    1. 9. Basics of Statistical Studies
      1. 9.1. Statistics and Design for Six Sigma
      2. 9.2. Enumerative and Analytic Studies
        1. Distinguishing Enumerative and Analytic Studies
      3. 9.3. Types of Variables
      4. 9.4. Operational Definitions
      5. Summary
      6. References
      7. 9.1. Introduction to Minitab Version 14
        1. Minitab Overview
        2. Using Minitab Worksheets
        3. Opening and Saving Worksheets and Other Components
        4. Printing Worksheets, Graphs, and Sessions
      8. 9.2. Introduction to JMP Version 6
        1. JMP Overview
        2. Using JMP Data Tables
    2. 10. Design of Experiments
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1. Design of Experiments: Background and Rationale
      3. 10.2. Two-Factor Factorial Designs
      4. 10.3. 2k Factorial Designs
      5. 10.4. Fractional Factorial Designs
        1. Choosing the Treatment Combinations
      6. Summary
      7. References
      8. 10.1. Using Minitab for the Design of Experiments
        1. Two-Way ANOVA
        2. Main Effects Plot
        3. Interaction Plot
        4. Factorial Design
        5. Fractional Factorial Design
      9. 10.2. Using JMP for the Design of Experiments
        1. Two-Way ANOVA
        2. Factorial Design
        3. Fractional Factorial Design
    3. 11. Multiple Regression
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1. Review of Simple Linear Regression
        1. Introduction
          1. Determining the Simple Linear Regression Equation
          2. Measures of Variation
          3. The Coefficient of Determination
          4. The Coefficient of Correlation
          5. Standard Error of the Estimate
          6. Assumptions
          7. Residual Analysis
          8. Inferences About the Slope
      3. 11.2. Developing the Multiple Regression Model
        1. Interpreting the Regression Coefficients
        2. Predicting the Dependent Variable Y
      4. 11.3. Coefficient of Multiple Determination and the Overall F Test
        1. Coefficients of Multiple Determination
        2. Test for the Significance of the Overall Multiple Regression Model
      5. 11.4. Residual Analysis for the Multiple Regression Model
      6. 11.5. Inferences Concerning the Population Regression Coefficients
        1. Tests of Hypothesis
        2. Confidence Interval Estimation
      7. 11.6. Using Dummy Variables and Interaction Terms in Regression Models
      8. 11.7. Collinearity
      9. 11.8. Model Building
        1. The Stepwise Regression Approach to Model Building
        2. The Best-Subsets Approach to Model Building
        3. Model Validation
      10. 11.9. Logistic Regression
      11. Summary
      12. References
      13. 11.1. Using Minitab for Multiple Regression
        1. Generating a Multiple Regression Equation
        2. Using Minitab for a Three-Dimensional Plot
        3. Using Minitab for Dummy Variables and Interactions
        4. Using Minitab for Stepwise Regression and Best-Subsets Regression
        5. Using Minitab for Logistic Regression
      14. 11.2. Using JMP for Multiple Regression
        1. Generating a Multiple Regression Equation
        2. Using JMP for Dummy Variables
        3. Using JMP for Interactions
        4. Using JMP for Stepwise Regression and All Possible Regressions
        5. Using JMP for Logistic Regression
    4. 12. Additional Tools and Methods
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1. Brainstorming
        1. Procedure
        2. Rules
        3. Example
      3. 12.2. Affinity Diagram
        1. Construction
        2. Example
      4. 12.3. Cause-and-Effect Diagram and Matrix
        1. Construction
        2. Constructing a Cause-and-Effect Diagram Using an Affinity Diagram
      5. 12.4. Check Sheets
        1. Attribute Check Sheet
        2. Measurement Check Sheet
        3. Defect Location Check Sheet
      6. 12.5. Stratification
        1. Stratification and Pareto Diagrams
        2. Stratification and Cause-and-Effect (C&E) Diagrams
        3. Stratification with Pareto Diagrams and Cause-and-Effect Diagrams
        4. Stratification with Control Charts, Pareto Diagrams, and Cause-and-Effect Diagrams
        5. Other Combinations of Tools for Stratification
      7. 12.6. Gantt Chart
        1. Construction
      8. Summary
      9. References
      10. 12.1. Using Minitab for the Cause-and-Effect Diagram
      11. 12.2. Using JMP for the Cause-and-Effect Diagram
    5. 13. Discrete Event Simulation Models
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1. What Is Simulation?
      3. 13.2. Applications of Simulation
      4. 13.3. Why Use Simulation Modeling?
      5. 13.4. Advantages of Simulation
      6. 13.5. Precautions When Using Simulation
      7. 13.6. Pitfalls of Simulation Models
      8. 13.7. Simulation Terminology
        1. Definition of a System
          1. System Performance Measures
          2. Discrete Event Simulation Versus Continuous Simulation
          3. Stochastic Versus Deterministic Simulation
          4. Static Versus Dynamic Models
          5. Steady-State Simulations Versus Terminating Simulations
          6. Warm-Up Period
          7. Model Verification and Validation
          8. Random Numbers, Seeds, and Streams
          9. Model Run and Independent Model Replication
          10. Common Distributions Used in Simulation
      9. 13.8. How Discrete Event Simulation Works
        1. Basics
          1. Model Building
          2. Performing Experiments
          3. Output Analysis
      10. 13.9. Simulation Project Management
        1. Project Definition
          1. Problem Definition
          2. Data Definition
          3. Model Definition
          4. Experimentation
          5. Output Analysis
          6. Implementation
      11. 13.10. Optimizing a Process Using Design of Experiments From Simulations
        1. Introduction
        2. Setting Up a 2k Full Factorial Experiment
        3. Analyzing 2k Full Factorial Experiments
      12. 13.11. Service Industry Application Using the SigmaFlow Software Package
        1. Introduction
        2. A Service Industry Application
        3. Assumptions
        4. Performance Measures
        5. Building the Model
        6. Defining the Data for Individual Objects
        7. Setting the Simulation Clock
        8. Running the Model
        9. Collecting Results
        10. Results Summary
        11. Observations
      13. Summary
      14. References
    6. 14. Articulating the Voice of the Stakeholder
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1. Market Segmentation
        1. Definition
        2. Segmentation Criteria
        3. Segmentation Variables
          1. Consumer Market Segments
          2. Business Market Segments
          3. Indirect Market Segments
          4. Market Segmentation Strategies
          5. Market Profile Analysis
          6. Market Segmentation Methods
      3. 14.2. Kano Surveys
        1. Introduction
        2. Level A Survey—Improved or Less Expensive Designs
        3. Level B Survey—Major New Features of Existing Designs
        4. STAGE ONE: Collect “Voice of the User” (VoU) and “Voice of the Customer” (VoC) Data
        5. STAGE TWO: Analyze “Voice of the User” and “Voice of the Customer” Data
        6. STAGE THREE: Develop New Features
        7. STAGE FOUR: Evolve Strategies for New Features
        8. Level C Survey—Entirely New Designs
          1. Introduction
        9. STAGE ONE: Collect “Voice of the People” (VoP) Data
        10. STAGE TWO: Analyze Circumstantial Issues
        11. STAGE THREE: Develop Features of New Product
        12. STAGE FOUR: Decide Strategic Themes
      4. Summary
      5. References
    7. 15. Enhancing Creativity to Develop Alternative Designs
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1. Using De Bono’s Thinking Habits and Tools to Generate Alternative Design Concepts
        1. Summary
      3. 15.2. Using TRIZ to Generate Alternative Design Concepts
        1. Introduction
        2. 40. Inventive Principles of TRIZ with Service Examples
          1. Principle 1—Segmentation
          2. Principle 2—Taking Out
          3. Principle 3—Local Quality
          4. Principle 4—Asymmetry
          5. Principle 5—Merging
          6. Principle 6—Universality
          7. Principle 7—“Nested Doll”
          8. Principle 8—Anti-Weight
          9. Principle 9—Preliminary Anti-Action
          10. Principle 10—Preliminary Action
          11. Principle 11—Beforehand Cushioning
          12. Principle 12—Equi-Potentiality
          13. Principle 13—The Other Way Round
          14. Principle 14—Spheroidality—Curvature
          15. Principle 15—Dynamics
          16. Principle 16—Partial or Excessive Actions
          17. Principle 17—Another Dimension
          18. Principle 18—Mechanical Vibration
          19. Principle 19—Periodic Action
          20. Principle 20—Continuity of Useful Action
          21. Principle 21—Skipping
          22. Principle 22—”Blessing in Disguise” or “Turn Lemons into Lemonade”
          23. Principle 23—Feedback
          24. Principle 24—Intermediary
          25. Principle 25—Self-Service
          26. Principle 26—Copying
          27. Principle 27—Use Cheap Replacement Events
          28. Principle 28—Substitution for Mechanical Means
          29. Principle 29—Pneumatics and Hydraulics
          30. Principle 30—Flexible Shells and Thin Films
          31. Principle 31—Porous Materials
          32. Principle 32—Color Changes
          33. Principle 33—Homogeneity
          34. Principle 34—Discarding and Recovering
          35. Principle 35—Parameter Changes
          36. Principle 36—Phase Transitions
          37. Principle 37—Thermal Expansion
          38. Principle 38—Strong Oxidants
          39. Principle 39—Inert Atmosphere
          40. Principle 40—Composite Materials
        3. 39. Contradictions of TRIZ
        4. Conclusion
      4. 15.3. Using Benchmarking to Generate Alternative Design Concepts
      5. Summary
      6. References
      7. 15.1. Full Contradictions Matrix
    8. 16. Professional Interpersonal Behavior Skills, Team Behavior Skills, and Six Sigma Management
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1. Professional Interpersonal Behavior Skills
        1. Assertive Behavior
          1. STEP ONE: Identify Situations in Which You Exhibit Passive or Aggressive Behavior
          2. STEP TWO: Prepare Contingency Plans That Utilize Assertive Behavior to Deal with Your Most Common Types of Unassertive Episodes
          3. STEP THREE: Practice Giving Assertive Responses to Your Most Common Types of Unassertive or Aggressive Episodes
          4. STEP FOUR: Use Assertive Behavior in Actual Unassertive or Aggressive Episodes
        2. “I” Messages
          1. STEP ONE: Understand the Proper Use of an “I” Message
          2. STEP TWO: Seek Out Situations in Which You Can Use “I” Messages
          3. STEP THREE: Practice Using “I” Messages
        3. Creating “No Lose” or “Win-Win” Solutions to Conflicts
          1. STEP ONE: View the Participants in the Conflict as Equals Trying to Solve a Problem to Their Mutual Advantage
          2. STEP TWO: Identify the Viewpoints of All Participants of the Conflict
          3. STEP THREE: Develop Alternative Solutions for the Conflict That Result in “Win-Win” Situations, or at Least a “No Lose” Situations
          4. STEP FOUR: All Participants in the Conflict Review the “Win-Win” Solutions, or Negotiate the Differences in Their Solutions to Create “No Lose” Solutions, to the Conflict
          5. STEP FIVE: Avoid the Common Pitfalls of “No Lose” Solutions
          6. STEP SIX: Try Out the “Win-Win” Solution, or the “No Lose” Solution, for a Limited Time Period
      3. 16.2. Professional Team Behavior Skills
        1. Psychology of Teams
        2. Stages in the Life of Teams
        3. Individual Versus Team Decision Making
        4. Building a Successful Six Sigma Project Team
        5. Characteristics of a Team Leader
        6. Guidelines for Reacting to Team Problems
        7. Creative Techniques to Resolve Team Problems
      4. 16.3. Product Development Team Basics
        1. Concurrent Engineering
        2. Principles
        3. Benefits
        4. Model of Concurrent Engineering
        5. Specific Issues of Product Development Teams (PD Teams)
        6. Management Reviews of Six Sigma Team Projects
        7. Variation Analysis
      5. Summary
      6. References
  8. IV. Design For Six Sigma Case Study
    1. 17. Six Sigma DMADV Case Study
      1. Introduction
      2. 17.1. Background
      3. 17.2. Define Phase
      4. 17.3. Measure Phase
        1. STAGE ONE: Collect “Voice of the User” and “Voice of the Customer” Data
        2. STAGE TWO: Analyze “Voice of the Stakeholder” Data
        3. STAGE THREE: Develop New Features
        4. Stage Four: Evolve Strategies for New Features
        5. Select Final Set of CTQs
        6. Develop a Design Scorecard
        7. Review Intellectual Property Issues
      5. 17.4. Analyze Phase
        1. Introduction
        2. Part 1: Design Generation (Generating Design Concepts for Critical Parameters)
        3. Part 2: Design Analysis (Alternative Design Concepts for Critical Parameters)
          1. Student level
          2. Faculty level
          3. Employers level
        4. Part 3: Risk Analysis (Assessing Risk of the “Best” Design Concept)
        5. Optimizing the Total Life Cycle Cost (TLCC) of the Design
        6. Part 4: Design Model (Develop a High-Level Model for the Design)
      6. 17.5. Design Phase
        1. Identify the Detailed CTPs Using QFD
        2. Create Operational Definition for Each CTQ and CTP
        3. Estimate the Risks of the Detailed Design
        4. Develop a Detailed Design Scorecard for the Detailed Design
        5. Conduct an Accounting Analysis of the Detailed Design
        6. Mistake-Proof the Detailed Design
        7. Conduct a Tollgate Review of the Design Phase
        8. Prepare a Control and Verification Plan
      7. 17.6. Verify/Validate Phase
        1. Build a Prototype of the Detailed Design
        2. Pilot Test the Prototype of the Detailed Design
        3. Conduct Design Reviews Using Design Scorecards
        4. Decide Whether or Not to Scale-Up Design
        5. Build and Operate Full-Scale Process
        6. Decide if Full-Scale Process Is Meeting Business Objectives
        7. Document the Full-Scale Process
        8. Transition Full-Scale Process to Owners with a Control Plan
        9. Close the DMADV Project
        10. Transfer the Lessons Learned from the Project
      8. Summary
  9. V. Design for Six Sigma Certification
    1. 18. DFSS Champion and Green Belt Certification at the University of Miami
      1. Introduction
      2. 18.1. Certification at the University of Miami
      3. 18.2. DFSS Certification Examinations
      4. 18.3. Costs for DFSS Certification Examinations
      5. 18.4. Application Process
      6. 18.5. Sample DFSS Certification Examination Review Questions With Answers
      7. 18.6. DFSS Green Belt Project
      8. Summary
    2. A. Summation Notation
      1. References
    3. B. Statistical Tables
    4. C. Documentation of Data Files