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Design for How People Learn, Second Edition

Book Description

Products, technologies, and workplaces change so quickly today that everyone is continually learning. Many of us are also teaching, even when it's not in our job descriptions. Whether it's giving a presentation, writing documentation, or creating a website or blog, we need and want to share our knowledge with other people. But if you've ever fallen asleep over a boring textbook, or fast-forwarded through a tedious e-learning exercise, you know that creating a great learning experience is harder than it seems.

In Design For How People Learn, Second Edition, you'll discover how to use the key principles behind learning, memory, and attention to create materials that enable your audience to both gain and retain the knowledge and skills you're sharing. Updated to cover new insights and research into how we learn and remember, this new edition includes new techniques for using social media for learning as well as two brand new chapters on designing for habit and best practices for evaluating learning, such as how and when to use tests. Using accessible visual metaphors and concrete methods and examples, Design For How People Learn, Second Edition will teach you how to leverage the fundamental concepts of instructional design both to improve your own learning and to engage your audience.

Table of Contents

  1. Title Page
  2. Copyright Page
  3. Acknowledgments
  4. Contents
  5. Introduction
  6. 1. Where Do We Start?
    1. The Learner’s Journey
    2. Where’s the Gap?
      1. Knowledge Gaps
      2. Skill Gaps
      3. Motivation Gaps
      4. Habit Gaps
      5. Environment Gaps
      6. Communication Gaps
    3. Identifying and Bridging Gaps
    4. Examples
    5. Why This Is Important
    6. Summary
      1. References
  7. 2. Who are your Learners?
    1. What Do Your Learners Want?
      1. Why are they there?
      2. Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation
      3. Your Learners Want to Not Feel Stupid
      4. What Do Your Learners Like?
    2. What Is Their Current Skill Level?
      1. Some Learners Already Know a Lot
      2. Scaffold the Incline
    3. How Are Your Learners Different from You?
      1. What is Your Learner’s Context?
      2. How Much You Know vs. How Much They Know
      3. Why Your Brain is Like a Closet
      4. How Do You Help Novices Structure Their Closets?
      5. The Experience Filter
      6. How Can You Know What Your Learners are Thinking?
    4. Learning Styles
      1. What Can I Do with Learning Styles?
    5. Methods for Learning About Your Learners
      1. Talk to Your Learners
      2. Follow Your Learners Around
      3. Try Stuff Out with Your Learners
    6. Summary
      1. References
  8. 3. What’s the Goal?
    1. Determine Goals
    2. Identify the Problem
      1. Uh Huh, and Why Do They Need Know That?
      2. Break It Down
      3. Sometimes there is No Problem
    3. Set the Destination
      1. How Sophisticated Should Your Learner Be?
      2. How Proficient Should Your Learner Be?
    4. Communicating Learning Objectives
    5. Determine the Gap
    6. How Long Is the Trip?
      1. What’s Pace Layering?
      2. Fast or Slow?
      3. Designing for Fast and Slow
    7. Summary
      1. References
  9. 4. How Do We Remember?
    1. Memory In & Out
      1. Sensory Memory
      2. Short-Term or Working Memory
      3. Long-Term Memory, or is It In Your Closet?
      4. In-Context Learning
      5. Emotional Context
      6. Encoding For Retrieval, or How Will it Need to be Used?
      7. Real vs. Perceived Knowledge
    2. Types of Memory
      1. Declarative or Semantic Memory
      2. Episodic Memory
      3. Conditioned Memory
      4. Procedural Memory
      5. Flashbulb Memory
    3. Repetition and Memory
      1. Memorization: The Blunt Force Solution
    4. Summary
      1. References
  10. 5. How do you Get their Attention?
    1. If They’re Not Paying Attention...
    2. Talk To the Elephant
      1. The Rider
      2. The Elephant
      3. The Elephant is Bigger and Stronger
      4. What Does This Mean for Your Learners?
      5. We’d Rather Have it Now
      6. Attract the Elephant
    3. Ways To Engage the Elephant
      1. Tell it Stories
      2. Surprise the Elephant
      3. Tell it That all the Other Elephants are Doing It
      4. Show the Elephant Shiny Things
    4. Summary
      1. References
  11. 6. Design for Knowledge
    1. Will They Remember?
      1. Have Learners Consider What They Already Know
      2. Make It Sticky
    2. Helping Your Learners Understand
      1. The Right Amount of Content
      2. Misconceptions
    3. How Much Guidance?
      1. How Do You Give Directions?
      2. Applying the Learning in Multiple Circumstances
    4. A Process To Follow
      1. Step 1: Determine Context
      2. Step 2: Challenge
      3. Step 3: What’s the Activity?
      4. Step 4: How are You Giving the Learner Feedback?
    5. Summary
      1. References
  12. 7. Design for Skills
    1. Developing Skills
    2. Practice
      1. Structuring Practice
      2. How Much Practice?
    3. Feedback
      1. Frequency of Feedback
      2. Variety of Feedback
      3. Follow-Up Coaching
      4. Other Ways to Follow Up
    4. Design for Accomplishments
      1. How Games are Structured
      2. How to use This for Learning
    5. Summary
      1. References
  13. 8. Design for Motivation
    1. Motivation To Do
      1. We Learn from Experience
      2. Remember, Change is Hard
    2. Designing for Behavior
      1. The Technology Acceptance Model
      2. Diffusions of Innovation
      3. Self-Efficacy
      4. Modeling and Practice
      5. Social Proof
      6. Visceral Matters
      7. You Need to Follow Up
    3. Summary
      1. References
  14. 9. Design for Habits
    1. What Is a Habit?
      1. The Story of Two Project Managers
      2. The Anatomy of a Habit
      3. The Benefits of Automaticity
    2. Identifying Habit Gaps
      1. Example: Time Management
      2. Context and Triggers
      3. Questions to Ask
    3. Designing for Habit
      1. Implementation Intentions
      2. Shrink the Habit
      3. Practice and Feedback
      4. Reduce the Barriers
    4. Applying To Learning Design
      1. One Last Word on Autonomy and Control
    5. Summary
      1. References
  15. 10. Social and Informal Learning
    1. What Does Learning Look Like In Your Organization?
      1. It’s Not a Straight Line
    2. Balancing Formal and Informal
    3. Hiro’s Journey
      1. Goal 1: Learn the Software
      2. Goal 2: Construct Good Budgets
      3. Goal 3: Identify Pitfalls
      4. Goal 4: Manage and Troubleshoot
      5. Goal 5: Develop Further
    4. Summary
      1. References
  16. 11. Design for Environment
    1. Environment Gaps
    2. Knowledge In the World
      1. Learning the Right Things
      2. Proximity Matters
    3. Putting Resources In the World
      1. Job Aids
      2. Supply Caching
    4. Putting Prompts/Triggers In the World
    5. Putting Behaviors In the World
    6. Clearing the Path
      1. The Big Question
    7. Summary
      1. References
  17. 12. Designing Evaluation
    1. The Challenge Of Doing Good Evaluation
    2. What Does Learning Evaluation Look Like?
      1. What are We Trying To Measure?
    3. Does It Work?
      1. Testing Digital Resources
      2. Using Surveys
    4. Are They Learning?
      1. Recognition Versus Recall
      2. So Recognition Can Work?
    5. Can the Learners Actually Do the Right Things?
      1. Providing Feedback
      2. Consistency
      3. Use Your Objectives
    6. Are the Learners Actually Doing the Right Things?
      1. Observation
      2. Qualitative Interviews and Case Studies
    7. Summary
      1. References
  18. Conclusion
  19. Index