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Design for Embedded Image Processing on FPGAs by Donald G. Bailey

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Chapter 5

Mapping Techniques

The previous chapter described the process of designing an embedded image processing application for implementation on an FPGA. Part of the implementation process involves mapping the algorithm onto the resources of the FPGA. Three types of constraints to this mapping process were identified as timing (limited processing time), memory bandwidth (limited access to data) and resource (limited system resources) constraints (Gribbon et al., 2005; 2006). In this chapter, a selection of techniques for overcoming or alleviating these constraints is described in more detail.

5.1 Timing Constraints

The data rate requirements of real-time applications impose a strict timing constraint. At video rates, all required processing for each pixel must be performed at the pixel clock rate (or faster). This generally requires low level pipelining to meet this constraint.

When considering stream processing, it is convenient to distinguish between processes that are source driven and those that are sink driven, because each has slightly different requirements on the processing structure (Johnston et al., 2008). With a source-driven process, the timing is constrained primarily by the rate at which data is produced by the source. The processing hardware has no direct control over the data arrival. The system needs to respond to the data and control events as they arrive. For video data, the events of concern are new pixels, newline and newframe events. Based on the event, ...

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