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Design for Care

Book Description

The world of healthcare is constantly evolving, ever increasing in complexity, costs, and stakeholders, and presenting huge challenges to policy making, decision making and system design. In Design for Care, we'll show how service and information designers can work with practice professionals and patients/advocates to make a positive difference in healthcare.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Page
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. DEDICATION
  5. HOW TO USE THIS BOOK
    1. Who Should Read This Book?
    2. What’s in This Book?
    3. What Comes with This Book?
  6. FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
    1. Who are the stakeholders for this book?
    2. How do you resolve the different terminology used in different design disciplines?
    3. What is health seeking?
    4. What is Health 2.0 and Medicine 2.0, and is there a difference?
    5. How are design and medicine alike?
    6. Why do you say “There is no user in healthcare”?
  7. CONTENTS
  8. FOREWORD
  9. INTRODUCTION
    1. Designing for Care Experiences
    2. How the Design Industry Must Change
    3. Finding Your Place in the Story
  10. PART I Rethinking Care and Its Consumers
    1. Health-Seeking Experiences
    2. The Health Seeker in Context
    3. CHAPTER 1 Design as Caregiving
      1. Can Healthcare Innovate Itself?
        1. Technology Will Not Save Healthcare
        2. Innovation of Human-Centered Care Systems
      2. Are There Users of Care?
      3. A Caring Design Ethic
        1. Shifting Focus from Product to Person
        2. The Case for Caring Design
      4. The Design Thinking Divide
        1. Lost and Found in the System
        2. Design Thinking in Service and Policy Sectors
      5. Wicked Problems in Healthcare Design
        1. Design Strategies
        2. Design across Healthcare Services and Sectors
        3. Designing No Harm
    4. CHAPTER 2 Co-creating Care
      1. Elena’s Story: The Family Caregiver
      2. Infocare
      3. Health Information Design Is Personal
        1. Health Information Needs
        2. Making Sense of Health Information
      4. Health Search Behavior
      5. Case Study: WebMD—Health Information Experience
        1. Consumer Use Models
      6. Methods: Consumer Service Design Research
        1. Experience Critique
          1. Conducting the Experience Critique
    5. CHAPTER 3 Seeking Health
      1. Elena’s Story: It Can Happen to Anyone
      2. Information First Aid
        1. Information Is Insufficient
        2. Information Seeking as Self-Diagnosis
      3. Making Sense of Health Decision Making
        1. The Branching Metaphor of Decision Trees
        2. Expert Decisions Are Intuitive
      4. Design for Consumer Health Decisions
        1. Social Construction of Healthcare Services
        2. Building Up the User Experience Catalog
      5. Case Study: Healthwise Decision Aids—Personal Health Decision Support
        1. Healthwise Decision Point
      6. Methods: Empathic and Values Design
        1. Complexity Demands Interpretive Research
          1. Intuition and Insight
        2. Empathic Design Research
          1. The Role of Personas
          2. Storytelling Personas
        3. Values Design and Research
          1. Farther Reaches of Empathy
  11. PART II Rethinking Patients
    1. The Patient Experience as Health Seeking
    2. CHAPTER 4 Design for Patient Agency
      1. Elena’s Story: A Personal Health Journey
      2. Self-Care as Health Agency
        1. Agents of Future Healthcare
        2. Health Information as a Public Good
        3. Inspiring Agency for Self-Care
        4. Managing Personal Health as a System
        5. Mobile Personal Health
        6. Reframing the Patient as Agent
      3. Health 2.0: Everywhere and Empowering
        1. The Reach of Health 2.0 for Broader Impact
        2. Health 3.0: Inclusive and Communicative
      4. Case Study: St. Michael’s Health Design Lab—Health Design for Self-Care
        1. Innovation through Collaboration
        2. Designing Healthcare Communications for All Communities
      5. Methods: Tools for Agency
        1. Ethnographic Observation
          1. Video Ethnography
          2. Design Documentaries
        2. Dervin’s Sense-Making Methodology
    3. CHAPTER 5 Patient-Centered Service Design
      1. Elena’s Story: Health Self-Service
      2. Patient Experience in Health Service
        1. Drivers for Service Innovation
        2. Making Healthcare Innovation Tangible
      3. Good Care Is a Moral Issue
        1. A Systemic Design of Health Service
        2. Sociotechnical Services
        3. Care Service Models
      4. Evidence-Based Service Design
        1. Evidence for Design
        2. What Evidence Counts in User Experience?
        3. Evidence for Design Outcomes
      5. Service Design for Care
        1. A Service Design Methodology for Healthcare
        2. A Design Language for Care Service
      6. Case Study: Patient-Centered Care Innovation
        1. Center for Innovation in Complex Care
        2. The Innovation Pyramid
        3. Innovate Afib
      7. Methods: Design Research for Healthcare Services
        1. Participatory Scenario Design
        2. Generative Bodystorming
          1. Guidelines for Generative Bodystorming
  12. PART III Rethinking Care Systems
    1. The Care Services Landscape
    2. The Health Seeking Journey in the Care System
    3. CHAPTER 6 Design at the Point of Care
      1. Elena’s Story: Taking a Serious Turn
      2. Better Practice Is Better Service
        1. A Design Opportunity in the Care Crisis
        2. Where and How to Innovate
        3. Different Design Modes of Care
      3. Designing Health Education
        1. Educating Designers to Educate Clinicians
        2. Service Design Issues in Clinical Education
        3. Innovating Big Box Clinical Education
        4. Contexts and Content of Clinical Education
        5. Design Strategies for Clinical Education
        6. Information Practices in Clinical Education
          1. Health Information Technology as a Learning Ecology
        7. Practice Research for Institutional Innovation
          1. Innovations Emerge from Practice Needs
      4. Improving Clinical Decision Making
        1. Experts and Clinical Information Practices
        2. Clinical Sensemaking
        3. Fitting Informatics to Workflow
        4. Cognitive Aiding of Team Care
        5. Design Sensemaking
      5. Case Study: IDEO Continuity of Care
      6. Methods: Stakeholder Co-creation
        1. Simplexity Thinking
          1. Overview of Simplexity
          2. Simplexity in Practice
        2. Positive Deviance
    4. CHAPTER 7 Designing Healthy Information Technology
      1. Elena’s Story: Learning to Live With
      2. Critical Design Opportunities
        1. Risks in Automating Clinical Care
          1. The Usability of Meaningful Use
          2. Meaningful Use to Users
        2. Human Factors across the Healthcare Enterprise
          1. Systemic and Situational Risks
          2. EMR Error Profile Risks
          3. The Cost-Benefit Trade-Off
      3. How to Innovate the EMR?
        1. Evolving Health IT Design Capacity
        2. EMR Design Imperatives
          1. The Right Design, or Designing It Right?
      4. EMR Design for Clinical Work
        1. Systemic Task Design
        2. Clinical Tasks as Cognitive Work
          1. Integrating Clinical Workflow
          2. Do Nurses Need the EMR?
          3. Cognitive Artifacts in Clinical Work
          4. Interacting with the EMR
      5. Case Study: VistA—Why It Still Matters
        1. CPRS: Old Interface, Good Fit?
        2. Integrated Design for Institutional Impact
        3. What Can Future EMRs Learn from VistA?
        4. GUI Does Not Equal Usability
      6. EMR Design Process
        1. CBMi Design Methodology
      7. Design Methods: Cognitive Engineering
        1. Abstraction Hierarchy
          1. Creating the Function Matrix
          2. Mapping a Pathway
        2. Activity Scenarios
    5. CHAPTER 8 Systemic Design for Healthcare Innovation
      1. Elena’s Story: A System Upgrade
      2. Disruptive Transformation
        1. Innovation in Markets or Services?
        2. What Is the Target of Innovation?
        3. The Healthcare Innovator’s Challenge
      3. Systemic Design in Healthcare Service
        1. A Systems View of Specialty Medicine
          1. Systemic Innovations in Primary Care
        2. To Innovate, Follow the System
      4. The Four Systems of Healthcare
        1. Deterministic Systems
        2. Animate (Human-Centered) Systems
        3. Social (Organizational) Systems
        4. Ecological Systems (Ecosystems)
        5. Encountering a Mess of System Problems
        6. Can Systems Care?
        7. Business Models as Values Systems
      5. Patient-Centric Design Values
        1. Care Design and Institutional Change
      6. Large-Scale Healthcare Innovation
      7. Designing Inside the System
        1. A Case for Service Systems Design
      8. Understanding Problems as Systems
        1. A Better Way to Problematize
        2. Mapping Complexity in a Problem System
      9. System-Level Innovation
        1. Changing System Behaviors
        2. System Dynamics as Design Thinking
        3. Reframing Design and Systems Methods
        4. The Third Thinking
      10. Case Study: Mayo Mom Community Health Service
        1. Preventive Health as a Service System
          1. Designing a Sensitive System
      11. Design Methods for Systems Innovation
        1. Dialogue as Participatory Design
          1. Dialogic Design
          2. Structured Dialogic Design
    6. CHAPTER 9 Designing Healthcare Futures
      1. Elena’s Story: A Change of Heart
      2. In the Adjacent Future
        1. Near-Term Design Challenges
      3. Mid-Future: Resolution of Critical Healthcare Problems
        1. Whole Care Triage Funnel
      4. Longer-Term Healthcare Foresight
        1. Case 1: Three Horizons of Future Specialty Healthcare
        2. Case 2: Intervening in Childhood Obesity
      5. Future Roles for Healthcare Design Leadership
        1. Consumer Health Sector
        2. Clinical Practice Sector
        3. Institutional Sector
        4. Community Context
      6. Innovation’s Adjacent Possible
      7. Conclusion
  13. References
    1. Introduction
    2. Chapter 1
    3. Chapter 2
    4. Chapter 3
    5. Chapter 4
    6. Chapter 5
    7. Chapter 6
    8. Chapter 7
    9. Chapter 8
    10. Chapter 9
  14. Index
  15. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  16. ABOUT THE AUTHOR
  17. Footnotes
    1. Chapter 3
    2. Chapter 4
    3. Chapter 5