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Design Economics for the Built Environment: Impact of Sustainability on Project Evaluation

Book Description

The drive towards environmentally friendly buildings and infrastructure has led to a growing interest in providing design solutions underpinned by the core principles of sustainability to balance economic, social and environmental factors.

Design Economics for the Built Environment: Impact of sustainability on project evaluation presents new directions, reflecting the need to recognise the impact of climate change and the importance of sustainability in project evaluation. The aim is to provide a new approach to understanding design economics in the context of the changing policy environment, legislative and regulatory framework, and increasing economic, environmental and social pressure as result of the sustainability agenda.

The book follows a structured approach from theories and principles in the earlier chapters, to the practical applications and emerging techniques focusing on value and social, economic and environmental considerations in making design decisions. It starts with the policy context, building on various theories and principles such as, capital cost, value of design and resource-based theories, the new rules of measurement (NRM) to explore cost planning, the relationship between height and costs, key socio-economic and environmental variables for design appraisal, eco-cost/value ratio (EVR), whole life theory and the treatment of carbon emission as external costs, productivity and efficiency, fiscal drivers and legal framework for carbon reduction, procurement and allocation of risks in contracts.

Case studies, practical examples and frameworks throughout reinforce theories and principles and relate them to current practice. The book is essential reading for postgraduate students in architecture, building and quantity surveying and is also a valuable resource for academics, consultants and policy-makers in the built environment.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title page
  3. Editors and Contributors
    1. Editors
    2. Contributors
  4. Foreword
  5. Preface
  6. Part I: Theories, Principles and Approaches
    1. Chapter 1: Economic Context, Policy Environment and the Changing Role of Design Economists
      1. 1.1 Introduction
      2. 1.2 The economic context
      3. 1.3 Globalisation of construction market
      4. 1.4 The policy environment and the construction industry
      5. 1.5 Current and emerging role of design economists
      6. References
    2. Chapter 2: Theories and Principles of Design Economics
      1. 2.1 Introduction
      2. 2.2 Factors affecting design costs and benefits
      3. 2.3 Capital cost theory
      4. 2.4 Whole life cost theory
      5. 2.5 Value management theory
      6. 2.6 Value of design theory
      7. 2.7 Carter’s model
      8. 2.8 Resource-based theory
      9. References
    3. Chapter 3: New Approaches and Rulesof Measurement for Cost Estimating and Planning
      1. 3.1 Introduction
      2. 3.2 The standardisation of cost estimating
      3. 3.3 The RICS NRM 1
      4. 3.4 RIBA plan of work, RICS estimating, cost planning and NRM 1
      5. 3.5 Cost estimating and cost planning
      6. 3.6 Elemental Standard Form of Cost Analysis (SFCA)
      7. 3.7 Benchmarking (cost limits)
      8. 3.8 Building information modelling
      9. 3.9 Concluding remarks
      10. References
    4. Chapter 4: The Relationship between Building Height and Construction Costs
      1. 4.1 Introduction
      2. 4.2 Research in the 1970s and 1980s
      3. 4.3 More recent research in Hong Kong and Shanghai
      4. 4.4 Conclusions
      5. References
    5. Chapter 5: Appraisal of Design to Determine Viability of Development Schemes
      1. 5.1 Introduction
      2. 5.2 Assessing costs and benefits of design alternatives
      3. 5.3 Appraisal of design using discounting methods
      4. 5.4 Appraisal of design using residual technique
      5. 5.5 Case study of the blackfriars development project
      6. 5.6 Concluding remarks
      7. References
    6. Chapter 6: Eco-cost Associatedwith Tall Buildings
      1. 6.1 Introduction
      2. 6.2 Overview of the Dutch housing market and land use planning
      3. 6.3 Eco-costs/value ratio and the EVR model
      4. 6.4 Applying the EVR model to housing
      5. 6.5 EVR and tall buildings
      6. 6.6 Embedding EVR in other sustainable ranking methods
      7. 6.7 Conclusion
      8. References
    7. Chapter 7: Productivity in Construction Projects
      1. 7.1 Introduction
      2. 7.2 Concept and measurement of productivity
      3. 7.3 Previous literature on factors affecting site productivity
      4. 7.4 Productivity survey
      5. 7.5 Proposed framework for site productivity
      6. 7.6 Conclusion and further research
      7. References
    8. Chapter 8: Design Variables andWhole-Life Cost Modelling
      1. 8.1 Introduction
      2. 8.2 Whole-life cost modelling
      3. 8.3 Steps in LCC modelling
      4. 8.4 Design principles to optimise LCC
      5. 8.5 A worked example of an office façade
      6. 8.6 Inclusion of carbon emissions into WLC modelling
      7. 8.7 Limitations of WLC
      8. 8.8 Concluding remarks
      9. References
    9. Chapter 9: Procurement and Contract Strategy
      1. 9.1 Introduction
      2. 9.2 Procurement strategy and contract selection
      3. 9.3 Wembley stadium case study
      4. 9.4 Allocation of risks and forms of contract
      5. 9.5 Risks and construction costs
      6. 9.6 Procurement systems and contract issues
      7. 9.7 Alternative forms of procurement
      8. 9.8 Concluding remarks
      9. References
    10. Chapter 10: Sustainable Design, Investment and Value
      1. 10.1 Introduction
      2. 10.2 Formulation of project goals
      3. 10.3 Identifying value-related characteristics
      4. 10.4 The performance approach
      5. 10.5 Use of sustainability assessment systems
      6. 10.6 Relationship between sustainable credentials and value
      7. 10.7 Concluding remarks
      8. References
    11. Chapter 11: Carbon Reduction and Fiscal Incentives for Sustainable Design
      1. 11.1 Introduction
      2. 11.2 Key drivers of owners and occupiers
      3. 11.3 Reducing demand for energy in buildings
      4. 11.4 Fiscal drivers
      5. 11.5 Reliefs and allowances
      6. 11.6 Subsidies and incentives
      7. 11.7 Conclusion
      8. References
    12. Chapter 12: Environmental Assessment Tools
      1. 12.1 Introduction
      2. 12.2 Context and the need to design to reduce carbon emission
      3. 12.3 Key features of environmental assessment tools
      4. 12.4 The BREEAM tool
      5. 12.5 The LEED tool
      6. 12.6 Concluding remarks
      7. References
    13. Chapter 13: Space Planning and Organisational Performance
      1. 13.1 Introduction
      2. 13.2 Organisational performance and innovative work settings
      3. 13.3 Hypotheses and test results
      4. 13.4 Discussion
      5. 13.5 Conclusions
      6. References
    14. Chapter 14: Achieving Zero Carbon in Sustainable Communities
      1. 14.1 Introduction
      2. 14.2 Key concepts and principles
      3. 14.3 Key features of decentralised energy networks
      4. 14.4 Activity-based design approach
      5. 14.5 Key steps in the design process
      6. 14.6 Evaluating energy, space and land requirements
      7. 14.7 Concluding remarks
      8. References
    15. Chapter 15: Flood Risk Mitigation
      1. 15.1 Introduction
      2. 15.2 Increasing challenges of flooding due to global warming and urban development
      3. 15.3 Flood mitigation
      4. 15.4 Flood mitigation consideration for new buildings at design stage
      5. 15.5 Implications of mitigation measures in terms of building cost
      6. 15.6 Implications of mitigation measures in terms of property value and insurance cost
      7. 15.7 Conclusions
      8. References
  7. Part II: Industry Perspective, Case Studies and Implications for Curriculum Development
    1. Chapter 16: Reusing Knowledge and Leveraging Technology to Reduce Design and Construction Costs
      1. 16.1 Introduction
      2. 16.2 Knowledge reuse in construction processes and projects
      3. 16.3 Knowledge reuse in construction projects
      4. 16.4 Leveraging knowledge systems to reduce time and costs
      5. 16.5 4Projects knowledge solution
      6. 16.6 Case studies and discussions
      7. 16.7 Concluding remarks
      8. References
    2. Chapter 17: Sustainable Design Economics and Property Valuation: An Industry Perspective
      1. 17.1 Introduction
      2. 17.2 Sustainable design economics and property valuation
      3. 17.3 Data collection
      4. 17.4 UK government impact
      5. 17.5 The valuation process
      6. 17.6 Conclusion
      7. References
    3. Chapter 18: Cost Planning of Construction Projects: An Industry Perspective
      1. 18.1 Introduction
      2. 18.2 Concept and format of a cost plan
      3. 18.3 How a cost plan is put together
      4. 18.4 How the cost plan evolves through the riba design stages
      5. 18.5 Main factors that affect the overall cost of a building
      6. 18.6 Impact of sustainability on cost plans
      7. 18.7 Recent developments in BIM and the implications for cost planning
      8. 18.8 Conclusion
      9. References
    4. Chapter 19: Life Cycle Costing and Sustainability Assessments
      1. 19.1 Introduction
      2. 19.2 Sustainability considerations in design
      3. 19.3 Using the life cycle costing standards
      4. 19.4 Case study 1 – whole building
      5. 19.5 Case study 2 – lighting
      6. 19.6 Concluding remarks
      7. References
    5. Chapter 20: Designing Super-Tall Buildings for Increased Resilience
      1. 20.1 Introduction
      2. 20.2 Challenges of tall buildings and the need for increased resilience
      3. 20.3 Factors influencing design and cost of tall buildings
      4. 20.4 Design of counter-terrorism measures
      5. 20.5 Cost of new measures and design
      6. 20.6 Concluding remarks
      7. References
    6. Chapter 21: Building Information Modelling
      1. 21.1 Introduction
      2. 21.2 Concept of Bim
      3. 21.3 Integration and dataflow
      4. 21.4 Model Progression Specification: Developing a common language
      5. 21.5 Quality
      6. 21.6 Cost planning
      7. 21.7 Construction schedule
      8. 21.8 Conclusion and future directions
      9. References
    7. Chapter 22: Case Study: Value Engineering and Management Focusing on Groundworks and Piling Packages
      1. 22.1 Introduction
      2. 22.2 Why VM?
      3. 22.3 When and where is VM applied?
      4. 22.4 Value management implemention and tools used
      5. 22.5 Practical benefits and savings
      6. 22.6 Reflection and concluding remarks
    8. Chapter 23: Case Study: Value Engineering of a New Office Development with Retail Provision
      1. 23.1 Introduction
      2. 23.2 Why value management?
      3. 23.3 When and where is value management applied?
      4. 23.4 Value management implementation and tools used
      5. 23.5 Practical benefits and savings
      6. 23.6 Concluding remarks
    9. Chapter 24: Case Studies: Sustainable Design, Innovation and Competitiveness in Construction Firms
      1. 24.1 Introduction
      2. 24.2 Background and context
      3. 24.3 Key drivers of sustainability in design and construction
      4. 24.4 Case studies
      5. 24.5 Findings and discussions
      6. 24.6 Concluding Remarks
      7. References
    10. Chapter 25: Case Study: Retrofitting Building Services Designand Sustainability in
      1. 25.1 Introduction
      2. 25.2 Initial study or analysis to identify problems
      3. 25.3 Funding for capital improvement plan
      4. 25.4 Evaluation of design options and the cost implications
      5. 25.5 Proposed design solution and costs
      6. 25.6 Concluding remarks
      7. References
    11. Chapter 26: Case Studies: Maximising Design and Construction Opportunities through Fiscal Incentives
      1. 26.1 Introduction
      2. 26.2 Strategic considerations
      3. 26.3 Capital allowances planning
      4. 26.4 Enhanced capital allowances (ECA)
      5. 26.5 Land remediation relief (LRR)
      6. 26.6 Value added tax
      7. 26.7 Taxation anti-avoidance
      8. 26.8 Conclusion
      9. References
    12. Chapter 27: Mapping Sustainability in the Quantity Surveying Curriculum
      1. 27.1 Introduction
      2. 27.2 Literature review on sustainability issues
      3. 27.3 Development of the Sustainability Framework
      4. 27.4 Mapping of Sustainability Education in QS Degree Programmes
      5. 27.5 Discussion and conclusions
      6. References
  8. Appendix A: UK Property Investment Yields (December 2013)
  9. Appendix B: IPD/RICS Sustainability Inspection Checklist 2014
  10. Index
  11. End User License Agreement