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Design, Deployment and Performance of 4G-LTE Networks: A Practical Approach by Mahmoud Sherif, Mohamed El-saidny, Ayman ElNashar

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Chapter 1LTE Network Architecture and Protocols

Ayman Elnashar and Mohamed A. El-saidny

Cellular mobile networks have been evolving for many years. The initial networks are referred to as First Generation, or 1G systems. The 1G mobile system was designed to utilize analog. It included the AMPS (advanced mobile phone system). The Second Generation, 2G mobile systems, were introduced utilizing digital multiple access technology; TDMA (time division multiple access) and CDMA (code division multiple access). The main 2G networks were GSM (global system for mobile communications) and CDMA, also known as cdmaOne or IS-95 (Interim Standard 95). The GSM system still has worldwide support and is available for deployment on several frequency bands, such as 900, 1800, 850, and 1900 MHz. CDMA systems in 2G networks use a spread spectrum technique and utilize a mixture of codes and timing to identify cells and channels. In addition to being digital, as well as improving capacity and security, the 2G systems also offer enhanced services, such as SMS (short message service) and circuit switched (CS) data. Different variations of the 2G technology evolved later to extend the support of efficient packet data services, and to increase the data rates. GPRS (general packet radio system) and EDGE (enhanced data rates for global evolution) systems have been the evolution path of GSM. The theoretical data rate of 473.6 kbps enabled the operators to offer multimedia services efficiently. Since it does ...

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