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Design and the Digital Divide

Book Description

Demographic trends and increasing support costs means that good design for older and disabled people is an economic necessity, as well as a moral imperative. Alan Newell has been described as "a visionary who stretches the imagination of all of us" and "truly ahead of his time." This monograph describes research ranging from developing communication systems for non-speaking and hearing-impaired people to technology to support older people, and addresses the particular challenges older people have with much modern technology. Alan recounts the insights gained from this research journey, and recommends a philosophy, and design practices, to reduce the "Digital Divide" between users of information technology and those who are excluded by the poor design of many current systems. How to create and lead interdisciplinary teams, and the practical and ethical challenges of working in clinically related fields are discussed. The concepts of "Ordinary and Extra-ordinary HCI", "User Sensitive Inclusive Design" , and "Design for Dynamic Diversity", and the use of "Creative Design" techniques are suggested as extensions of "User Centered" and "Universal Design." Also described are the use of professional theatre and other methods for raising designers' awareness of the challenges faced by older and disabled people, ways of engaging with these groups, and of ascertaining what they "want" rather than just what they "need." This monograph will give all Human Computer Interaction (HCI) practitioners and designers of both mainstream and specialized IT equipment much food for thought.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Copyright
  3. Title Page
  4. Dedication
  5. Contents
  6. Acknowledgments
  7. Foreword
  8. 1 40 years–Highlights and a Brief Review
    1. 1.1 An interdisciplinary education
    2. 1.2 Industry—speech recognition research
    3. 1.3 Southampton University—a developing focus on “aids for disabled people”
    4. 1.4 A chance meeting with a member of the British Parliament
    5. 1.5 Television subtitling
    6. 1.6 Dundee University
    7. 1.7 The School of Computing
    8. 1.8 IT support for older people—The Queen Mother Research Centre
    9. 1.9 Theatre for awareness raising and requirements gathering
    10. 1.10 Putting one’s faith in stories
    11. 1.11 Summary
  9. 2 Communication Systems for Non-Speaking and Hearing-Impaired People
    1. 2.1 A voice-operated typewriter for physically disabled people
    2. 2.2 The talking brooch—a communication aid for non-speaking people
    3. 2.3 Speech transcription for deaf people
    4. 2.4 Developing a first prototype with no external funding
    5. 2.5 Non-technological challenges to implementation
    6. 2.6 Technology transfer
    7. 2.7 The need for luck, faith, time, and effort
    8. 2.8 Commercial availability
  10. 3 TV Subtitling for Hearing-Impaired People
    1. 3.1 Moving into the field
    2. 3.2 The content and cost of television subtitles
    3. 3.3 Live subtitling
    4. 3.4 A subtitle preparation system
  11. 4 Word Prediction for Non-Speaking People and Systems for those with Dyslexia
    1. 4.1 Support for non-speaking people
    2. 4.2 Developing AAC devices
    3. 4.3 Word Prediction and associated techniques
    4. 4.4 Prediction supporting dyslexics
    5. 4.5 Evaluation of the effectiveness of prediction
    6. 4.6 Other techniques to support dyslexics
    7. 4.7 Disambiguation
    8. 4.8 Beyond word prediction
  12. 5 Providing Reusable Conversation for Non-Speaking People
    1. 5.1 An application of conversational analysis
    2. 5.2 Perceived communication competence
    3. 5.3 Technology to assist deceit
    4. 5.4 “Chattering, nattering and cheek”
    5. 5.5 Differences in conversational styles
    6. 5.6 The use of speech act theory
    7. 5.7 CHAT—Conversation Helped by Automatic Talk
    8. 5.8 Pragmatics versus semantics
    9. 5.9 The future
  13. 6 Story Telling and Emotion in Synthetic Speech
    1. 6.1 What do we do after we have said “Hello”
    2. 6.2 TOPIC—Text OutPut in Conversation
    3. 6.3 Prose—and other storytelling systems
    4. 6.4 Floorgrabber: an aid for non-speaking lecturers
    5. 6.5 Other conversational aids
    6. 6.6 Jokes
    7. 6.7 Symbolic and picture-based communication systems
    8. 6.8 Communication aids for Intensive Care
    9. 6.9 Emotion in synthetic speech
    10. 6.10 The current situation
    11. 6.11 The future
  14. 7 Lessons Learned from Designing AAC Devices
    1. 7.1 An effective and appropriate team
    2. 7.2 The role of users in the design team
    3. 7.3 Research in a clinical environment
    4. 7.4 Composition of a research team
    5. 7.5 An appropriate research methodology
    6. 7.6 Evaluation techniques
    7. 7.7 The cost of assistive technology
    8. 7.8 Professionalism in research
    9. 7.9 Ethical considerations
    10. 7.10 Assistive technology research—a summary
  15. 8 IT Systems for Older People
    1. 8.1 Introduction
    2. 8.2 Cybrarian: an e-mail system designed for older people
    3. 8.3 SeniorMail: also designed for older people
    4. 8.4 Sustaining the use of CIT
    5. 8.5 Assistive Technology for older users
    6. 8.6 IT supporting dementia
      1. 8.6.1 CIRCA: a multi-media scrap book
      2. 8.6.2 Creating music
      3. 8.6.3 Aids for daily living
    7. 8.7 Social networking for older adults
    8. 8.8 The Digital Divide
    9. 8.9 Conclusions
  16. 9 Designing IT Systems for Older People
    1. 9.1 Older people and demographics
    2. 9.2 Older people’s use of information technology
    3. 9.3 Mainstream information technology and older users
    4. 9.4 The characteristics of older people relevant to their use of IT
    5. 9.5 Reducing Functionality
    6. 9.6 Technical Generation Effect
    7. 9.7 Designing for dynamic diversity
    8. 9.8 Challenges for today’s young and middle-aged people
  17. 10 Ordinary and Extra-Ordinary Human Computer Interaction
    1. 10.1 Rehabilitation engineering and HCI
    2. 10.2 Mainstream exploitation of assistive technology research
    3. 10.3 Ordinary and extra-ordinary people and environments
      1. 10.3.1 “Able-bodied” and “disabled”—a false dichotomy
      2. 10.3.2 Individual differences
      3. 10.3.3 A concentration on real needs
      4. 10.3.4 Learning from extreme situations
      5. 10.3.5 Handicapping environments
      6. 10.3.6 Human computer interface “bandwidth”
    4. 10.4 Pitfalls of not considering the needs of people with disabilities
    5. 10.5 ECHO and ARCHIE—instantiations of the ordinary and extra-ordinary concepts
    6. 10.6 Take-home messages
  18. 11 User Sensitive Inclusive Design
    1. 11.1 Universal Design/Design for all
    2. 11.2 The “Accessibility” approach
    3. 11.3 User-centred and participatory design
    4. 11.4 Building on Design for All and User Centered Design
    5. 11.5 User Sensitive Inclusive Design
    6. 11.6 Engaging with users
    7. 11.7 Mutual inspiration between researchers and users
    8. 11.8 The “User Centre”—a social space for older users
    9. 11.9 Formal experiments with older and/or disabled users
    10. 11.10 Subject experts and clinicians
    11. 11.11 A focus on aesthetics
    12. 11.12 A focus on extraordinary users
  19. 12 The Use of Professional Theatre
    1. 12.1 Awareness raising
    2. 12.2 Using professionals
    3. 12.3 The UTOPIA trilogy
    4. 12.4 Evaluation of the trilogy
    5. 12.5 “Relative Confusion”
    6. 12.6 “Relatively PC”
    7. 12.7 Using live theatre, film and a combination of both
    8. 12.8 Theatre in requirements gathering
      1. 12.8.1 Smart house technology
      2. 12.8.2 Digital television applications for older people
      3. 12.8.3 New technology in the work place
      4. 12.8.4 Smart houses and multiple stakeholder
      5. 12.8.5 Adaptive interfaces
    9. 12.9 The use of professional actors to simulate users with dementia
    10. 12.10 The value of theatre
  20. 13 Attacking the Digital Divide
    1. 13.1 The challenge
    2. 13.2 The characteristics of older and disabled people
    3. 13.3 Build on capacities
    4. 13.4 Beware of jet packs
    5. 13.5 Technology-led research
    6. 13.6 Exploit unconnected research
    7. 13.7 Relationships with users
    8. 13.8 Hostility
    9. 13.9 Interdisciplinary teams
    10. 13.10 The need for professionalism in this research and development
    11. 13.11 Cognitive decline
    12. 13.12 Evaluation techniques
    13. 13.13 Other digitally disadvantaged groups
    14. 13.14 The challenges faced by older people will not go away
    15. 13.15 Concluding thoughts
  21. Bibliography
  22. Author’s Biography