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Deploying QoS for Cisco IP and Next-Generation Networks: The Definitive Guide

Book Description

Deploying QoS for IP Next Generation Networks: The Definitive Guide provides network architects and planners with insight into the various aspects that drive QoS deployment for the various network types. It serves as a single source of reference for businesses that plan to deploy a QoS framework for voice, video, mobility and data applications creating a converged infrastructure. It further provides detailed design and implementation details for various service deployments across the various Cisco platforms such as the CRS-1, 12000, 7600 & 7200 series routers that are widely deployed in most Carrier Networks. The book covers architectural and implementation specific information plus recommendations for almost all the popular line cards across the various hardware platforms widely used in the market. It also addresses QoS architecture and deployment on the Cisco CRS-1 platform and is considered as a unique selling point of this book. In short the books serve as an "On the Job Manual" which can also be used as a study guide for Cisco specialist certification programs (CCNA, CCIP, CCIE) This book will includes detailed illustration and configurations. In addition, it provides detailed case studies along with platform specific tests and measurement results. A link to a detailed tutorial on QoS metrics and associated test results will be available at the book's companion website in order to ensure that the reader is able to understand QoS functionality from a deployment standpoint.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Preface
    1. Rationale
    2. Organization and Approach
    3. Audience
    4. Acknowledgments
  3. About the Authors
  4. 1. The Evolution of Communication Systems
    1. 1.1. Quality-of-Service Definition
    2. 1.2. Transmission Infrastructure Evolution
    3. 1.3. The First Global Communications Network: PSTN
    4. 1.4. The Internet and TCP/IP History
    5. 1.5. The Computer Age
    6. 1.6. Computer Internetworking
    7. 1.7. X.25 Packet Switching
    8. 1.8. The Evolution of Packet Switching: Frame Relay
    9. 1.9. Asynchronous Transfer Mode
    10. 1.10. Ethernet Beyond the LAN
    11. 1.11. IP as the Converged Protocol
    12. 1.12. The Emergence of Service-Level Agreements
    13. 1.13. The Service Provider Virtual Private Network
    14. 1.14. Evolution of the Telecommunications Industry
    15. 1.15. The Next-Generation Network Vision
    16. 1.16. The Cisco Next-Generation Network Framework
    17. 1.17. The Network Requirements
    18. 1.18. The Path to the Next-Generation Network
    19. 1.19. Upgrade the Existing ISP Network
    20. 1.20. Upgrade the Existing Enterprise VPN Infrastructure
    21. 1.21. A Completely New Core Network
    22. 1.22. What’s in This Book
    23. 1.23. Summary
  5. 2. Introduction to Cisco’s Quality-of-Service Architecture for IP Networks
    1. 2.1. Building Blocks of the IP NGN QoS Framework
    2. 2.2. IP Precedence
    3. 2.3. IP DSCP
    4. 2.4. IntServ Strengths and Shortcomings
    5. 2.5. The Differentiated Services (DiffServ) Architecture
      1. 2.5.1. Per-Hop Behaviors
      2. 2.5.2. The Default PHB (Defined in RFC-2474)
      3. 2.5.3. Class-Selector PHBs (Defined in RFC-2474)
      4. 2.5.4. Expedited Forwarding (EF) PHB (Defined in RFC-2598)
      5. 2.5.5. Assured Forwarding (AFxy) PHB (Defined in RFC-2597)
    6. 2.6. DiffServ in Cisco Software
    7. 2.7. Classification and Marking
      1. 2.7.1. Network Type
      2. 2.7.2. Traffic Type
      3. 2.7.3. Classification and Marking Using the MPLS Experimental Field
      4. 2.7.4. Classification and Marking Using the 802.1p Field in 802.1Q
      5. 2.7.5. Classification Using Network-Based Application Recognition
      6. 2.7.6. Traffic Classification and Marking at the Service Provider Edge
    8. 2.8. Traffic Policing
      1. 2.8.1. Policing Rate and Burst Calculation
    9. 2.9. Shaping
    10. 2.10. Fitting the Components Together
    11. 2.11. Congestion Avoidance Using Weighted Random Early Detection
      1. 2.11.1. WRED Metrics
      2. 2.11.2. Exponential Weighting Constant
      3. 2.11.3. Choosing Min and Max Values Based on Latency and Round-Trip Time
      4. 2.11.4. Optimal Values for Min/Max Threshold Configurations
      5. 2.11.5. A Word About Hardware
      6. 2.11.6. Queue Limit vs. WRED
      7. 2.11.7. Time-Based WRED
      8. 2.11.8. Understanding WRED Values
    12. 2.12. Congestion Management
      1. 2.12.1. Queuing
      2. 2.12.2. Scheduling
      3. 2.12.3. Class-Based Weighted Fair Queuing
      4. 2.12.4. Low-Latency Queuing
      5. 2.12.5. Congestion-Aware Policing
      6. 2.12.6. Always-On Policer
      7. 2.12.7. Always-on Policer vs. Congestion-Aware Policing
      8. 2.12.8. Dual-Priority Queues
      9. 2.12.9. Low-Latency Queuing Bandwidth Provisioning
      10. 2.12.10. Modified Deficit Round Robin
      11. 2.12.11. Strict-Priority Mode
      12. 2.12.12. Alternate Priority Mode
      13. 2.12.13. A Word About the MDRR Implementation and MQC
      14. 2.12.14. Congestion Avoidance/Management and Scheduling
    13. 2.13. Modular QoS CLI
      1. 2.13.1. QoS Behavioral Model
      2. 2.13.2. End-to-End QoS Operation
    14. 2.14. Labeled Traffic
    15. 2.15. Unlabeled Traffic
    16. 2.16. Trust Boundaries
    17. 2.17. QoS Transparency
    18. 2.18. DiffServ Tunnel Modes
    19. 2.19. Business Objectives
    20. 2.20. The Tunnel Modes
      1. 2.20.1. Explicit NULL Advertisement by PE
      2. 2.20.2. A Closer Look at Short-Pipe Mode
      3. 2.20.3. Ingress PE Behavior
      4. 2.20.4. P Router Behavior
      5. 2.20.5. Egress PE Behavior
      6. 2.20.6. Configuration Template
      7. 2.20.7. A Closer Look at Pipe Mode
      8. 2.20.8. Ingress PE Behavior
      9. 2.20.9. P Router Behavior
      10. 2.20.10. Egress PE Behavior
      11. 2.20.11. Configuration Template
      12. 2.20.12. A Closer Look at Uniform Mode
      13. 2.20.13. Ingress PE Behavior
      14. 2.20.14. P Router Behavior
      15. 2.20.15. Egress PE Behavior
      16. 2.20.16. Configuration Template
      17. 2.20.17. A Word on Platform Support
    21. 2.21. Summary
  6. 3. Class-of-Service Requirements for Quad-Play Networks
    1. 3.1. Overview
    2. 3.2. Service-Level Agreements
    3. 3.3. In-Contract Traffic
    4. 3.4. Out-of-Contract Traffic
    5. 3.5. DiffServ QoS and Traffic-Mapping Options
    6. 3.6. Cisco QoS Baseline
    7. 3.7. RFC-4594 Configuration Guidelines for DiffServ Classes
    8. 3.8. Cisco QoS Baseline vs. RFC-4594
    9. 3.9. Enterprise-to-Service-Provider Mapping Options
      1. 3.9.1. Three-Class Service Provider Model
      2. 3.9.2. Four-Class Service Provider Model
      3. 3.9.3. Six-Class Service Provider Model
    10. 3.10. QoS Requirements and Design for Video Applications
      1. 3.10.1. Real-Time Interactive Video: Cisco TelePresence
        1. Cisco TelePresence CTS-1000 and CTS-3000
      2. 3.10.2. TelePresence Bandwidth Requirements
        1. TelePresence CTS-1000
        2. TelePresence CTS-3000
      3. 3.10.3. TelePresence Burst Requirements
      4. 3.10.4. TelePresence Latency, Jitter, and Loss Requirements
      5. 3.10.5. Classifying TelePresence
      6. 3.10.6. Queuing Telepresence
      7. 3.10.7. WRED and TelePresence
      8. 3.10.8. Configurations and Recommendations
    11. 3.11. Broadcast Video: Internet Protocol Television
      1. 3.11.1. IPTV Bandwidth Requirements
        1. IGMP Limit
      2. 3.11.2. IPTV Latency Jitter and Loss Requirements
      3. 3.11.3. Classifying and Queuing Broadcast Video/IPTV
      4. 3.11.4. Configurations and Recommendations
    12. 3.12. Video on Demand
      1. 3.12.1. Video-on-Demand Bandwidth Requirements
      2. 3.12.2. Video-on-Demand Latency, Jitter, and Loss Requirements
      3. 3.12.3. Queuing Video-on-Demand Traffic
        1. VoD Control Traffic
      4. 3.12.4. Configurations and Recommendations
    13. 3.13. Video Admission Control
      1. On-Path CAC
    14. 3.14. RSVP-Based On-Path Admission Control
    15. 3.15. Multimedia Conferencing and Streaming: Video Streaming and Telephony
      1. 3.15.1. Latency, Jitter, and Loss Requirements
      2. 3.15.2. Classifying and Queuing Multimedia Conferencing and Streaming Video
      3. 3.15.3. Configurations and Recommendations
    16. 3.16. QoS Requirements and Design for Voice Over IP
      1. 3.16.1. SLA Requirements for Voice Over IP
      2. 3.16.2. Example of Delay and Jitter Allocation for Voice Traffic
      3. 3.16.3. Packet Loss for VoIP Traffic
      4. 3.16.4. Classifying and Queuing VoIP
        1. Controlling Latency in the LLQ
        2. Minimizing Jitter in the LLQ
        3. Packet Loss in the LLQ
      5. 3.16.5. Connection Admission Control for VoIP
      6. 3.16.6. RSVP CAC for Voice Over IP
    17. 3.17. Summary of Requirements for Voice and Video Classes
    18. 3.18. QoS Requirements and Design for Data Applications
      1. 3.18.1. WRED and Data Traffic Classes
      2. 3.18.2. Best-Effort Traffic
      3. 3.18.3. Class for Routing and Management Traffic
      4. 3.18.4. Network Control Class
    19. 3.19. QoS Treatment of Locally Sourced Traffic
      1. 3.19.1. Marking of Locally Sourced Traffic
      2. 3.19.2. Queuing Treatment of Locally Sourced Traffic
    20. 3.20. Management Class
    21. 3.21. Summary
  7. 4. Carrier CE Services in Cisco IP NGN Networks
    1. 4.1. Overview
    2. 4.2. Customer Requirements
    3. 4.3. Challenges Faced by Customers
    4. 4.4. Managed and Unmanaged CE Services
      1. 4.4.1. Managed CE Services
      2. 4.4.2. Unmanaged CE Services
    5. 4.5. Guidelines for Carriers Deploying Managed CE Services
      1. 4.5.1. Legitimate Business-Related Traffic
      2. 4.5.2. Inappropriate Traffic
      3. 4.5.3. Bulk Traffic
      4. 4.5.4. Consistent QoS Policy
    6. 4.6. Sample Carrier Service Offerings
      1. 4.6.1. Sample Offering 1
      2. 4.6.2. Sample Offering 2
    7. 4.7. Summary
  8. 5. Quality of Service for IP Mobile Networks
    1. 5.1. Overview
    2. 5.2. The First-Generation Mobile Network
    3. 5.3. The Second-Generation Mobile Network
    4. 5.4. The 2.5G Mobile Network
    5. 5.5. The Third-Generation Mobile Vision
    6. 5.6. The Evolution Toward 3G
    7. 5.7. Third-Generation Evolution for GSM
    8. 5.8. Converged NGN Infrastructure for Mobile Transport
    9. 5.9. Third-Generation Release 99 Overview
    10. 5.10. Third-Generation Release 99 Convergence Over IP/MPLS
    11. 5.11. Third-Generation Release 4 Overview
    12. 5.12. Third-Generation Release 4 Convergence Over IP/MPLS
    13. 5.13. Third-Generation Release 5/6 Overview
    14. 5.14. Third-Generation Release 5/6 Convergence Over IP/MPLS
    15. 5.15. Mobile Network RAN Access
    16. 5.16. IPv6 in 3G Networks
    17. 5.17. 3GPP Specifications for IPv6
    18. 5.18. Overview of QoS and the 3GPP Standards
    19. 5.19. QoS Concept and Architecture (3GPP TS 23.107)
    20. 5.20. 3G Traffic Classes
    21. 5.21. Bearer Service Attributes
    22. 5.22. Mobile Network Protocol Stacks
    23. 5.23. Packet-Switched Domain Network Protocol Stacks
    24. 5.24. GSM 2.5G GPRS Protocol Stacks
    25. 5.25. 3G Release 99 and Release 4 GPRS Protocol Stacks
    26. 5.26. 3G Release 5 GPRS Protocol Stacks
    27. 5.27. Circuit-Switched Domain Network Protocol Stacks
      1. 5.27.1. Iu Interface in the Circuit-Switched Domain
    28. 5.28. Mobile Network Transport Framework
    29. 5.29. Quality-of-Service Framework
    30. 5.30. QoS Traffic Management for Mobile
      1. 5.30.1. Conversational Class
      2. 5.30.2. Streaming Class
      3. 5.30.3. Interactive Class
      4. 5.30.4. Background Class
      5. 5.30.5. Alternative QoS Models
    31. 5.31. Quality-of-Service Mapping for 2.5G and 3G Release 99
    32. 5.32. Quality-of-Service Mapping for 3G Release 4
    33. 5.33. Quality-of-Service Mapping for 3G Release 5
    34. 5.34. Summary
  9. 6. QoS Service Assurance
    1. 6.1. Overview
    2. 6.2. Revisiting Service-Level Agreements
    3. 6.3. Calculating Delay
      1. 6.3.1. Uncongested Delay on Backbone Routers: Dealing with the Laws of Physics
      2. 6.3.2. Congested Delay on Backbone Routers: Dealing with the Laws of Physics
    4. 6.4. Calculating Jitter
    5. 6.5. Calculating Packet Loss
    6. 6.6. The Need for Performance Management
    7. 6.7. Performance Management Tools and Software
    8. 6.8. Network Investigations
      1. 6.8.1. Measuring Delay
      2. 6.8.2. Measuring Packet Loss
      3. 6.8.3. Measuring Application Responses
    9. 6.9. Summary
  10. 7. Cisco CRS-1, 12000, 7600, and ASR1000 Router Architecture
    1. 7.1. Overview
    2. 7.2. Cisco Carrier Routing System Series Routers
      1. 7.2.1. CRS Series Routers Architecture
      2. 7.2.2. CRS Route Processor and Distributed Route Processor
      3. 7.2.3. CRS Modular Services Card, Physical Line Interface Module, and SPA Interface Processor
      4. 7.2.4. CRS Switch Fabric
      5. 7.2.5. CRS Quality of Service
    3. 7.3. Cisco 12000 Series Router
      1. 7.3.1. 12000 Series Routers Architecture
      2. 7.3.2. 12000 Series Route Processor
      3. 7.3.3. 12000 Series Line Cards
      4. 7.3.4. 12000 Series Switch Fabric
      5. 7.3.5. 12000 Quality of Service
    4. 7.4. Cisco 7600 Series Router
      1. 7.4.1. 7600 Series Routers Architecture
      2. 7.4.2. 7600 Series Route Processor
      3. 7.4.3. 7600 Series Line Cards
      4. 7.4.4. 7600 Series Shared Bus and Switch Fabric
      5. 7.4.5. 7600 Quality of Service
    5. 7.5. Cisco ASR1000 Series Router
      1. 7.5.1. ASR1000 Series Routers Architecture
      2. 7.5.2. ASR1000 Series Route Processor and Embedded Service Processor
      3. 7.5.3. Embedded Services Processor QuantumFlow Processor
      4. 7.5.4. ASR1000 Series Line Cards
      5. 7.5.5. ASR1000 Quality of Service
    6. 7.6. Summary
  11. 8. Cisco IOS and IOS-XR Quality-of-Service Implementation for MPLS Layer 3 VPN Services
    1. 8.1. Overview
    2. 8.2. QoS Implementation for MPLS Layer 3 VPN Services
    3. 8.3. Edge QoS Configurations
      1. 8.3.1. Cisco 12000 Series Routers
        1. Engine 3 Line Cards
        2. Engine 4 and 4+ Line Cards
        3. Engine 5 Line Cards
      2. 8.3.2. Edge Configurations for the Cisco 7200 Series Routers
      3. 8.3.3. Edge Configurations for the Cisco 7600 Series Routers
        1. WS-67xx Line Cards
        2. Trust IP Precedence on WS-67xx Line Cards
        3. Trust IP DSCP on WS-67xx Line Cards
        4. Trust States and Explicit Policies on WS-67xx Line Cards
        5. Ignoring Trust States on WS-67xx Line Cards
        6. Multiple Trust States on WS-67xx Line Cards
        7. Enhanced Flex-Wan Line Cards
        8. Enhanced Flex-Wan Line Cards Using NBAR
      4. 8.3.4. Edge Configurations for the Cisco CRS-1 Series Routers
        1. IOS XR Configuration
        2. IOS XR Configuration Using Access Lists
      5. 8.3.5. Core Configurations for the Cisco 12000 Series Routers Using IOS
        1. Engine 3 Line Cards
        2. Engine 3 Line Cards Using GE Subinterfaces
        3. Engine 3 Line Cards Using L3/nc/mD Model
        4. Engine 4 and 4+ Line Cards
        5. Engine 4+ Line Cards Using “Always-on Policer”
        6. Engine 5 Line Cards
        7. Egress Queuing on Engine 5 Line Cards
      6. 8.3.6. Core Configurations for the Cisco 12000 Series Routers Using XR
        1. Fabric QoS
      7. 8.3.7. Core Configurations for the Cisco 7200 series routers
        1. Egress Queuing on 7200
      8. 8.3.8. Core Configurations for the Cisco 7600 Series Routers
        1. Enhanced OSM Line Cards
        2. Enhanced Flex-Wan Line Cards
        3. SIP-600 Line Cards
        4. SIP-600 Line Cards Using Subinterfaces
        5. SIP-400 Line Cards with “Priority Levels”
        6. SIP-400 Line Cards Without “Priority Levels”
        7. ES20 Line Cards
        8. ES20 Line Cards Using Subinterfaces
        9. PFC QoS on LAN Interfaces
      9. 8.3.9. Core Configurations for the Cisco CRS-1 Series Routers
        1. Fabric QoS
        2. FabricQ ASIC:
        3. Core-Facing Interface QoS
        4. Core QoS Using OC-192 POS Interface Modules
    4. 8.4. DiffServ Tunneling Modes on IOS-XR
      1. 8.4.1. Configuration Example of Short-Pipe Mode
      2. 8.4.2. Configuration Example of Pipe Mode
      3. 8.4.3. Configuration Example of Uniform Mode
    5. 8.5. Summary
  12. 9. Cisco IOS and IOS-XR Quality-of-Service Implementation for Carrier Ethernet and Virtual Leased-Line Services
    1. 9.1. Overview
    2. 9.2. Carrier Ethernet Service
    3. 9.3. An Introduction to Ethernet Virtual Circuits
      1. 9.3.1. EVC CLI
      2. 9.3.2. EVC Architecture
      3. 9.3.3. EVC/EFP Forwarding Model
      4. 9.3.4. EVC Packet Flow
        1. Matching Features
        2. Matching Types
        3. Encapsulation Adjustment
        4. Egress Tag Filtering
      5. 9.3.5. Mandatory Rewrite Options and E-MPB
        1. EFP-to-EFP (E-MPB)
        2. EFP-to-L3 (E-MPB)
        3. EFP-to-EFP (EoMPLS)
        4. EFP-to-Non-EFP (EoMPLS)
      6. 9.3.6. Flexible Service Mapping
    4. 9.4. EVC Configuration
      1. 9.4.1. L2 Switched Services
        1. Ethernet Multipoint Bridging (E-MPB)
        2. E-MPB for VPLS
      2. 9.4.2. L2 Stitched Services
      3. 9.4.3. Tunneled Services
      4. 9.4.4. L3 Terminated Services
        1. EVC Local VLAN Significance
    5. 9.5. EVC QoS Overview
      1. 9.5.1. EVC Classification and Marking
        1. Point-to-Point Layer 2 Service (Local Connect and Scalable EoMPLS)
        2. Multipoint Layer 2 Service (Layer 2 Bridging, VPLS and SVI-Based EoMPLS)
        3. Marking Under SVI
        4. Classification Under SVI
      2. 9.5.2. EVC QoS Marking Packet Flow Overview
        1. EVC QoS Marking Packet Flow: Ingress
        2. EVC QoS Marking Packet Flow: Egress
      3. 9.5.3. EVC Marking for Point-to-Point Layer 2 Services
        1. Example 9.1: Marking for Scalable EoMPLS, No VLAN Tag Rewrite
        2. Example 9.2: Marking for Scalable EoMPLS, POP 1 VLAN Tag Rewrite
      4. 9.5.4. EVC Marking to Multipoint Layer 2 Services
        1. Example 9.3: Marking for Layer 2 Bridging: Service Instance Function as Switchport dot1q Tunnel
        2. Example 9.4: Marking for Layer 2 Bridging: Service Instance Function as Switchport dot1q Trunk
        3. Example 9.5: Marking for VPLS Without Tag Rewrite Configuration
        4. Example 9.6: Marking for VPLS with POP 1 Tag Rewrite Configuration
        5. Example 9.7: Marking for VPLS with PUSH Tag Rewrite Configuration
        6. Example 9.8: Marking for VPLS with POP 1 Tag Rewrite Configuration with DSCP/CoS Transparency
      5. 9.5.5. DSCP and CoS Transparency: A Deeper Dive
      6. 9.5.6. ES-20 EVC Queuing and Scalability
    6. 9.6. Virtual Leased-Line Service
    7. 9.7. Summary
  13. 10. Cisco IOS and IOS-XR Quality-of-Service Implementation for IP Internet Services
    1. 10.1. Overview
    2. 10.2. QoS Implementation for IP Internet Services
    3. 10.3. QoS Configurations
      1. 10.3.1. Edge Configurations for the Cisco 12000 Series Routers
      2. 10.3.2. Edge Configurations for the Cisco 7200 Series Routers
      3. 10.3.3. Edge Configurations for the Cisco 7600 Series Routers
      4. 10.3.4. Edge Configurations for the Cisco CRS-1 Series Routers
      5. 10.3.5. Core Configurations for the Cisco 12000 Series Using IOS
        1. Engine 3 and 5 Line Cards
        2. Engine 4 and 4+ Line Cards
      6. 10.3.6. Core Configurations for the Cisco 12000 Series Routers Using XR
      7. 10.3.7. Core Configurations for the Cisco 7200 Series Routers
      8. 10.3.8. Core Configurations for the Cisco 7600 Series Routers
      9. 10.3.9. Core Configurations for the Cisco CRS-1 Series Routers
    4. 10.4. Summary
  14. 11. Cisco IOS and IOS-XR Quality-of-Service Implementation for Multicast Services
    1. 11.1. Overview
    2. 11.2. QoS Implementation for Multicast Services
      1. 11.2.1. Edge Configurations for the Cisco 12000 Series Routers
        1. Engine 3 Line Cards
        2. Engine 5 Line Cards
        3. Engine 4 Line Cards
      2. 11.2.2. Edge Configurations for the Cisco 7200 Series Routers
      3. 11.2.3. Edge Configurations for the Cisco 7600 Series Routers
      4. 11.2.4. Core Configurations for the Cisco 12000 Series Routers Using IOS
        1. Engine 3 and 5 Line Cards
        2. Engine 4 and Engine 4+ Line Cards
      5. 11.2.5. Core Configurations for the Cisco 12000 Series Routers Using XR
      6. 11.2.6. Core Configurations for the Cisco 7200 Series Routers
      7. 11.2.7. Core Configurations for the Cisco 7600 Series Routers
      8. 11.2.8. Core Configurations for the Cisco CRS-1 Series Routers
    3. 11.3. Preserving Customer ToS Values
    4. 11.4. Summary
  15. 12. Proof of Concept for Verifying QoS Behavior in Cisco IP NGN Networks
    1. 12.1. Overview
    2. 12.2. Test Setup
    3. 12.3. Test Procedure Without QoS Enabled
      1. 12.3.1. Testing Using Four Data Streams of 180 Mb Each
    4. 12.4. Test Procedure with QoS Enabled
      1. 12.4.1. Test Using Four Data Streams of 170 Mb Each
      2. 12.4.2. Test Using Four Data Streams of 180 Mb Each
      3. 12.4.3. Test Using Four Data Streams of 185 Mb Each
      4. 12.4.4. Test Using Four Data Streams of 200 Mb Each
    5. 12.5. Stopping and Starting the Streams
    6. 12.6. Summary
  16. 13. Performance Monitoring and Measurement
    1. 13.1. Overview
    2. 13.2. The Importance of Performance Measurement and Monitoring
    3. 13.3. Performance Measurement Framework
    4. 13.4. Performance Measurement Options
    5. 13.5. Simple Network Management Protocol
      1. 13.5.1. SNMP Overview
      2. 13.5.2. Management Information Bases
      3. 13.5.3. Abstract Syntax Notation One
      4. 13.5.4. Simple Network Management Protocol Version 1
      5. 13.5.5. Simple Network Management Protocol Version 2
      6. 13.5.6. Simple Network Management Protocol Version 3
      7. 13.5.7. Cisco-Class-Based-QoS-MIB
      8. 13.5.8. SNMP Management Platforms
    6. 13.6. NetFlow
      1. 13.6.1. NetFlow Technical Overview
      2. 13.6.2. NetFlow Flow Records
      3. 13.6.3. NetFlow Configuration Overview
      4. 13.6.4. Catalyst Flow Definition
      5. 13.6.5. NetFlow Export Version
        1. NetFlow Version 5
        2. NetFlow Version 7
        3. NetFlow Version 8
        4. NetFlow Version 9
      6. 13.6.6. Flexible NetFlow
      7. 13.6.7. NetFlow Monitoring Tools
    7. 13.7. IP Service-Level Agreement
      1. 13.7.1. IP SLA Measurement Architecture
      2. 13.7.2. IP SLA Measurement Timing
      3. 13.7.3. IP SLA Operation Types
      4. 13.7.4. Internet Control Message Protocol Packet Measurement Options
      5. 13.7.5. UDP Packet Measurement Options
      6. 13.7.6. ICMP vs. UDP Measurement Accuracy
      7. 13.7.7. Services Connection Measurement
        1. IP SLA DNS Performance Measurement
        2. IP SLA DHCP Performance Measurement
        3. IP SLA HTTP Performance Measurement
        4. IP SLA FTP Performance Measurement
      8. 13.7.8. QoS Per-Class Measurement
      9. 13.7.9. IP SLA Deployment
      10. 13.7.10. IP SLA Services Measurement Scope
      11. 13.7.11. IP SLA Measurement Within the Service Provider Network
      12. 13.7.12. IP SLA Dedicated Probe Router
      13. 13.7.13. IP SLA for MPLS VPN
    8. 13.8. IP SLA Monitoring Tools
      1. 13.8.1. Network-Based Application Recognition
        1. NBAR Protocol Support
        2. NBAR Packet Classification
        3. NBAR Protocol Discovery
      2. 13.8.2. Command-Line Interface
    9. 13.9. Service Provider Deployment Example
      1. 13.9.1. Service Provider NightOwl Requirements
      2. 13.9.2. NightOwl Service-Level Agreements
      3. 13.9.3. NightOwl Operator Service-Level Agreements
      4. 13.9.4. Service Provider NightOwl Measurement Solution
    10. 13.10. Summary
  17. 14. Summary
    1. 14.1. Introduction
    2. 14.2. The Evolution of IP Routed Networks
    3. 14.3. Compromised Traffic Delivery
    4. 14.4. Future Directions in the Deployment of QoS
    5. 14.5. The IPv6 Flow Label
    6. 14.6. Summary