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David Perry on Game Design: A Brainstorming Toolbox

Book Description

Are you looking for practical, ready-to-use ideas to help you design more innovative and unique video games? David Perry on Game Design: A Brainstorming Toolbox is a brainstorming and strategy guide for game designers, filled with inspiration-generating tips that challenge you to create better games. Using their years of industry experience, David Perry and Rusel DeMaria provide a wealth of ideas and possibilities to help you improve the entertainment value, quality, and success of your games. Designed to be used as a reference guide and brainstorming tool, the book is not software or technology specific, and it covers every aspect of video game design, including game types, storyline creation, character development, weapons and armor, game worlds, goals and rewards, obstacles, and more. You can work your way through the book from the beginning or focus on the topics that interest you. Filled with checklists and step-by-step brainstorming tools to help you flesh out your ideas, David Perry on Game Design will inspire and challenge you to find inventive solutions and improve the entertainment value of your games, making them fresh, innovative, and fun to play."David Perry on Game Design" is a brainstorming and strategy guide for game designers filled with idea-generating tips that challenge them to create better games. Written by two well-known industry experts, David Perry and Rusel deMaria, who have 25+ years of experience each, the covers every aspect of game design including game basics, worlds, stories, and characters, and objects. Structured as a reference book, readers can work through each chapter or select only the chapters on topics that interest them. And the topics covered are not software or technology specific, making this a book readers can refer to again and again for many years.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Preface
    1. A Word from Rusel DeMaria
  3. Acknowledgments
  4. About the Authors
  5. Introduction
    1. What Is a Game and Why Do We Play?
    2. Why Play Games?
      1. Evolutionary Factors
      2. Challenge and Mastery
      3. Fantasy
      4. Secondary Rewards
      5. Optimal Arousal Level
      6. Subjective Time Shifting
      7. Personality Projection
      8. Empowerment
      9. Social Contact
      10. Pride
    3. What Is a Game?
      1. Required Elements
    4. More Game Elements
  6. I. How to Use This Book
    1. 1. Using This Book as a Reference
      1. Delving Deeper
    2. 2. Brainstorming and Research
      1. Using Brainstorming in Groups
      2. Kaleidoscope Brainstorming Process
      3. Brainstorming Solo
      4. Brainstorming Exercise
      5. Brainstorming Examples
        1. Basic Qualities of Weapons
          1. Design a Weapon
          2. A Magical Sword
      6. Games and Research
      7. What to Look For
      8. Research Sources
  7. II. Which Game Will You Make?
    1. 3. Hooks
      1. Benefits of a Hook
      2. Hook Evaluator v3: DP’s Forty Questions
    2. 4. What Publishers Want
      1. Why Do We Need Publishers?
      2. Getting Your Game Published
      3. Preparation for the Pitch
        1. Design Elements
        2. Technical Elements
        3. What Adds Real Value to Your Design?
        4. Other Factors to Consider
      4. Artistic License
      5. Pitching Games to Publishers
      6. The 45-Second Elevator Pitch
      7. A Good Pitch
      8. Good Pitches versus Bad Pitches
      9. Elements of a Game Design Submission
      10. Getting Work in the Game Industry
    3. 5. Game POV and Game Genres
      1. POV: How to View the Game
      2. Basic View Options
      3. Types of Graphical Views
        1. 2D Graphics
        2. 3D Graphics
      4. Making 2D Games
      5. Future Game Views
      6. Visual Styles
      7. Game Genres
    4. 6. Business Models
      1. In-Game Advertising
      2. Around-Game Advertising
      3. Finder’s Fee from First Dollar
      4. Advert-Games/Advergaming/Re-Dressed Games
      5. Try before You Buy
      6. Episodic Entertainment/Expansion Packs
      7. Buy the Win
      8. Insurance
      9. Financing
      10. Velvet Rope or Member’s Club
      11. Subscription
      12. Support Tiers
      13. Become a “Brand Member”
      14. In-Game Stores and Microtransactions
      15. Selling Consumables
      16. Skill-Based Progressive Jackpots
      17. Player-to-Player Wagering and Item Sales/Trades
      18. Pay Players to Meet a Challenge
      19. Charityware
      20. Sponsored Games/Donationware
      21. Pay per Play/Pay as You Go/Pay for Time
      22. Player-to-Player Trading/Auctions
      23. Foreign Distribution Deals
      24. Sell Player Access/Co-Registration Offers
      25. Freeware
      26. Loss Leaders
      27. Peripheral Enticement
      28. User-Generated Content
      29. Pay for Storage Space
      30. Host a Private Game Server
      31. Rentals
      32. Licensing
      33. Sell Branded Physical Items
      34. Pre-Sell a Game to Its Players
      35. Before-Game Advertising
      36. Virtual Item Sponsorship
      37. Add Download Insurance
      38. Feed Me or I Die!
      39. Methods of Avoiding Buyer’s Regret
    5. 7. Branding
      1. Working with Someone Else’s Brand
      2. Picking a Brand
      3. Creating a Brand
      4. Qualities of Successfully Branded Properties
        1. Some Golden Guidelines from the Toy Industry
        2. Not so Licensable
      5. Building Value on a Character Licensed Property
    6. 8. Protecting Your Intellectual Property
      1. Trade Secrets
      2. Copyrights
      3. Trademarks
  8. III. Storytelling
    1. 9. Storytelling Techniques
      1. Elements of a Good Story
      2. The Basic Story Arc: Games and the Three-Act Structure
        1. Beginning the Story
        2. Mid-Story
        3. End Game
        4. Epilogue/Catharsis
      3. Joseph Campbell Meets Star Wars and The Matrix
        1. The Hero’s Journey
      4. Story and the Player’s Character
        1. Story Visualization and Structure in Games
          1. Linear Story
          2. Linear Branching
          3. Webs (2D and 3D)
          4. Snowflake (2D or 3D)
          5. Cubes
          6. Empty Box with Toys/Sandbox
          7. Emergent Behavior
      5. Ways to Start a Story
      6. Ways to End a Story
        1. Bad Endings
      7. Story Techniques
      8. Plot Twists
      9. Dilemmas
        1. What Is a Dilemma?
        2. The Prisoner’s Dilemma
        3. Types of Dilemmas
          1. Logical Dilemmas
          2. Moral and Ethical Dilemmas
          3. Emotional Dilemmas
      10. Timelines
        1. Learning and Information Line
        2. Action Line
        3. Surprise
        4. Space/Area
        5. Emotion
        6. Frustration Tracking
      11. Relevance Today (Endless New Ideas!)
      12. Social Pressures (Grow Every Year)
      13. Sources of Current Information
      14. Multi-Session Storytelling
      15. Keeping Secrets
        1. Simple Mystery and Meta-Mystery
      16. Wrong-Headedness
      17. Creating Comedy
        1. Different Strokes
        2. Step 1: Characters
        3. Step 2: Story Structures
        4. Elements of Comedic Story Structures
        5. Step 3: Using the Tools of Comedy
      18. Making Things Scary
      19. Enhancing the Player’s Emotional Response
        1. More Ways to Assess Your Games
      20. Creating Emotional Responses toward Characters
      21. Story-Builder Activity
        1. Modifying an Existing Story (Common in the Game Industry)
        2. Creating a New Story
          1. A Note on Emergent Stories and Games
          2. Creating Stories in Games
    2. 10. Movie Genres
      1. Main Genres
      2. Sub-Genres
      3. Types of Comedies
      4. Movie Genres Used in Games
    3. 11. Scenarios
      1. Fleeing Something
      2. Unexpected Danger
      3. Hot Pursuit/The Chase
      4. Tit for Tat
      5. Preemptive Strikes
      6. Struggle for Resources
      7. Political Motivations
      8. Environmental Goals
      9. Cultural Differentiation
      10. Cultural Manipulation
      11. Mortal Threats
      12. Family and Personal Issues
      13. The Plot Thickens
      14. Collaborating with the Enemy
      15. Infiltration
      16. Neutralize the Base
      17. Making an Area Safe
      18. Timed and/or Cyclic Events
      19. Ways to Trigger Events and Flags
      20. Delayed Gratification
      21. Qualification Tests (Tests of Worthiness)
      22. Criminal Investigation
      23. Reversals of Fortune
      24. Party Members
        1. Traditional Classes of Party Members
        2. Nontraditional Classes of Party Members
        3. Party Member Encounters
      25. Unwanted Sidekicks
      26. Is It Safe?
      27. The Call for Help
      28. Unexpected Location Changes
      29. The Obscure Object of Desire
      30. Innocent Bystanders
      31. Missing Persons
      32. Ways to Gain Allies
      33. Memory Games
      34. Something’s Screwy
      35. Time Travel
      36. The Observer
      37. The Gauntlet
      38. Imprisonment Scenarios
      39. Godlike Roles
      40. Misdirection
  9. IV. Characters
    1. 12. Character Design
      1. Dave Perry’s Build-a-Character System
      2. Some Characters Are Roles
      3. Build a Character
        1. Roles
        2. Basic Characteristics
        3. Professions
        4. The Situation
        5. Goals
        6. Arc
        7. Flaws and Limitations
        8. Personal Strengths
        9. Basic Emotional States (Moods)
        10. Traits
        11. Quirks
        12. Fears
        13. General Activities
        14. Hobbies
        15. Pets
        16. Preferences
        17. Sexuality
        18. Travel
        19. Abilities
        20. Stress Management
        21. The Spiritual Side
        22. Relations to Other Characters
        23. Physical Description and Changes
        24. Humor
      4. Step-by-Step Examples
        1. A Simple Example
          1. Step 1: Roles
          2. Step 2: Basics
          3. Step 3: The Family
          4. Step 4: Professions
          5. Step 5: The Situation
          6. Step 6: Goals
          7. Step 7: Arc
          8. Step 8: Flaws and Limitations
          9. Step 9: Strengths
          10. Step 10: Basic Emotional States (Moods)
          11. Step 11: Traits
          12. Step 12: Quirks
          13. Step 13: Fears
          14. Step 14: General Activities
          15. Step 15: Hobbies
          16. Step 16: Pets
          17. Step 17: Preferences
          18. Step 18: Sexuality
          19. Step 19: Travel
          20. Step 20: Abilities
          21. Step 21: Stress Management
          22. Step 22: The Spiritual Side
          23. Step 23: Relations to Other Characters
          24. Step 24: Physical Description and Changes
          25. Step 25: Is the Character Funny?
          26. Finishing Up
        2. A More Complex Example
          1. Step 1: Roles
          2. Step 2: Basics
          3. Step 3: The Family
          4. Step 4: Professions
          5. Step 5: The Situation
          6. Step 6: Goals
          7. Step 7: Arc
          8. Step 8 and 9: Strengths and Flaws/Limitations
          9. Step 10: Basic Emotional States (Moods)
          10. Step 11: Traits
          11. Step 12: Quirks
          12. Step 13: Fears
          13. Step 14: General Activities
          14. Step 15: Hobbies
          15. Step 16: Pets
          16. Step 17: Preferences
          17. Step 18: Sexuality
          18. Step 19: Travel
          19. Step 20: Abilities and Powers
          20. Step 21: Stress Management
          21. Step 22: The Spiritual Side
          22. Step 23: Relations to Other Characters
          23. Step 24: Physical Description
          24. Step 25: Is the Character Funny?
      5. Character Descriptions and Gameplay
      6. Gender/Type of Character
      7. Character Racial/Species Options
      8. Strong Character Names
      9. Relationships of Characters
      10. Jobs
      11. Character Goals
      12. How a Character Grows...Character Arcs
        1. Revenge
        2. Self-Discovery
        3. Identity
        4. Stranger in a Strange Land
        5. Romance
        6. War Time
        7. Social Drama or Comedy
      13. Character Flaws and Strengths
      14. Real People’s Attributes
      15. Contrasting Traits
      16. Identities
      17. Character Traits
      18. Quirks
      19. Moods
      20. Hobbies
      21. Religious and Spiritual Practices
      22. Phun with Phobias
      23. Catchphrases
      24. Attributes of Funny Characters
      25. Kinds of Heroes, Villains, and Minions
        1. Heroes
        2. The Heroic Path
        3. Hero Archetypes
          1. Strong Leader Heroes
          2. Anti-Hero Heroes
          3. Smooth Heroes
          4. Super Spies
          5. Outsider Heroes
          6. Thinker Heroes
          7. Impetuous Heroes
          8. Inept Heroes
          9. Fighting Machines
          10. Reluctant Heroes
          11. Sidekicks
        4. Villains
        5. Villain Archetypes
          1. The Great Tyrant
          2. The Conqueror
          3. The Patriarch/Matriarch
          4. The Smooth Villain
          5. The Mad/Evil Genius
          6. The Sociopath
          7. The Professional Killer/Assassin
          8. The Demon
          9. The Defector
          10. The Unscrupulous Bastard/Nasty Bitch
          11. The False Ally
          12. The Avenger
          13. The Fanatic
          14. The Rival/Personal Enemy
          15. The Complete Lunatic
          16. The Unseen
          17. The Meek
          18. Giant Monsters
        6. Minions
        7. Minion Archetypes
      26. Functional Character Roles
        1. Mentor
        2. Herald
        3. Threshold Guardian
        4. Shapeshifter
        5. Shadow
        6. Trickster
      27. Personality Types
        1. The Myers-Briggs Type indicator (MBTI) System
        2. The Enneagram
      28. Mental/Emotional Signals: The Other 93%
        1. About Rapport
        2. NLP Perspectives: How People Process Information
        3. More Observable and Representable Data
          1. Eye Movements
          2. Head Movements
          3. Other Body Language
          4. Vocal Characteristics
          5. Mannerisms That Reveal That Someone Is Thinking
      29. Other Ways to Show Character Emotions/States
        1. Anger
        2. Fear
        3. Sadness
        4. Happiness
        5. Anxiety/Nervousness
        6. Hiding Something
        7. Apathy
      30. Physical Changes
      31. Facial Expressions
        1. Six Basic Emotions
        2. Ways to Greet Someone
        3. Ways to Indicate Agreement or Disagreement
        4. More on Facial Expressions
      32. Ways to Customize Avatars
        1. Body
        2. Face/Head
        3. Neck
        4. Age indicators
        5. Makeup
        6. Jewelry
        7. Tattoos
        8. Glasses
        9. Hats and Head Gear
        10. Clothing
        11. Accessories and Tools
        12. Animations
      33. Human Universals
    2. 13. Character Roles and Jobs
      1. NPC Roles
        1. Character Roles
      2. NPC Jobs
        1. General Environments
        2. Jobs of Nobility
        3. Ecclesiastical Jobs
        4. Military
        5. Shops
        6. Ships
        7. Spaceships
        8. Small Village
        9. Laboratories
        10. Sports
        11. Wilderness
        12. Malls
        13. Castles
        14. Bars and Pool Halls
        15. Restaurants
        16. Banks
        17. Offices
        18. Movie Set
      3. Evil Jobs
      4. Participatory Player Jobs
      5. Character Species/Type
        1. Earthly Origin
          1. Alien (Extraterrestrial)
        2. Spirit
        3. Fantasy
      6. Character Race/Ethnicity
      7. Player Roles in Multiplayer Games
      8. Military Ranks and Divisions
        1. Army, Air Force, Marines
        2. Navy and Coast Guard
        3. Army Sizes
        4. Additional Unit Types
          1. ACR: Armored Cavalry Regiment
          2. ACR(L): Armored Cavalry Regiment (Light)
          3. Separate Brigade
          4. Corps Aviation Brigade
          5. Corps Artillery
          6. Military Intelligence Brigade (MPs)
          7. Air Defense Artillery Brigade
          8. Engineer Brigade
          9. Signal Brigade
          10. Chemical Brigade
          11. Military Police Brigade
          12. Special Forces Group
          13. Ranger Regiment
          14. Special Operations Aviation Regiment
          15. Psychological Operations Tactical Support Battalion (PSYOP)
          16. Civil Affairs Brigade
          17. Corps Support Command (COSCOM)
          18. Medical Brigade
          19. Personnel Group
          20. Finance Group (Some Positions)
          21. Transportation Group (Some Positions)
          22. Quartermaster Group
          23. During Military Occupation
          24. In Areas of Concentration (AOCs)
          25. Explosive Ordinance Group
          26. Psychological Operations Group (Psyop)
    3. 14. Enemies
      1. Types of Enemies
        1. Villains
        2. Minions
      2. More on Bosses
      3. Enemy Fighting Styles
      4. Boss Battles
        1. Boss Battle Examples
      5. Ways to Make More Interesting Enemies
      6. Ways to Encounter Enemies
      7. Ways to Avoid Enemies
      8. How to Make You Hate Them
    4. 15. Character Abilities
      1. Introduction
      2. Range of Human Abilities
      3. Superhero Abilities List
        1. Ways Superheroes Obtain Abilities
        2. List of Superhero Abilities
      4. Useful Superhero Jobs/Knowledge
      5. Statistical Abilities
        1. Strength (STR)
        2. Dexterity (DEX)
        3. Constitution (CON), Stamina (STM) or Endurance (END), Vitality (VIT)
        4. Intelligence (INT), Will (WIL)
        5. Speed (SPD), Quickness (QUI)
        6. Wisdom (WIS), Piety (PIE)
        7. Charisma (CHA), Personality (PER)
        8. Luck
        9. Mana, Spell Points
        10. Experience (EXP or XP)
        11. Other Statistical Abilities
          1. Sight
          2. Hearing
          3. Detection
          4. Focus
          5. Leadership
          6. Stealth
      6. Fighting Abilities
        1. Fighting and Games
        2. Worldwide Martial Arts Systems
        3. Weapons of the Body
        4. Basic Techniques
        5. Hands/Wrists/Fingers
          1. Punches
          2. Specific Technique Variations
        6. Shoulders
        7. Elbows
        8. Feet
          1. Kicks
          2. Stepping
          3. Running
        9. Knees
        10. Shins
        11. Hips
        12. Body
        13. Head
        14. Blocks
        15. Joint Locks and Breaks
        16. Holds
        17. Throws
        18. Bluffing and Intimidation
        19. Cheating and Dirty Tricks
        20. Attack Approaches
        21. Human-to-Human Vulnerabilities and Attacks
          1. Head
          2. Eyes
          3. Neck
          4. Nose
          5. Septum
          6. Ears
          7. Temple
          8. Front Teeth
          9. Side of the Jaw
          10. Joints (Generally)
          11. Collarbone/Clavicle
          12. Sternum/Chest
          13. Back
          14. Kidneys
          15. Floating Ribs
          16. Abdomen/Solar Plexus
          17. Pelvic Area
          18. Groin
          19. Coccyx/Tailbone
          20. Radius Bone
          21. Inner Thigh
          22. Knees
          23. Shins
          24. Foot
          25. Other Vulnerable Areas
        22. Fatality Systems
      7. Magic Abilities
        1. Ways to Deliver Magic
        2. Tools of Magic
        3. Color Coding
        4. Direct Magical Attacks
        5. Area of Effect (AOE) Spells
        6. Trap Spells (Damage Type)
        7. Controlling: Taking the Enemy Temporarily Out of Action
        8. Transformations and Summons
        9. Buffs and Debuffs
        10. Healing/Self-Repair
        11. Other Magic
        12. Travel
      8. Known Superhero List
    5. 16. Speech
      1. Dialog Input
      2. Phonetic Alphabets
      3. Military Time
      4. Nicknames
      5. Slang
        1. ’20s Slang
        2. ’30s/’40s (Detective) Slang
        3. ’60s/’70s Slang
        4. ’80s Slang
        5. ’90s Slang
        6. Surfer Slang
        7. Skateboarder Slang
        8. British Slang
        9. Cockney Rhyming Slang
        10. Australian Slang
        11. Yiddish Terms
        12. Rasta Slang
        13. Modern (2005 or So) Street Slang
        14. Cops and Criminals Slang
      6. Buzzwords
        1. Medical Terminology
          1. Historical Terms
          2. Medical Modern
        2. Military Terms
          1. Pilots
          2. Nautical
          3. General Military
        3. Some Political Terms
        4. Crime Terminology
        5. Cavers/Climbers
      7. Speech Patterns
        1. Volume
        2. Tone of Voice
        3. Speed of Delivery
        4. Rhythm
        5. Musicality
        6. Word Choice and Construction
          1. Representational Systems
            1. Visual Words
            2. Auditory Words
            3. Kinesthetic Words
            4. Nonspecific Words (Auditory Digital)
          2. Speech Distortions
            1. Nominalization
            2. Mind Reading
            3. Cause-Effect
            4. Making Connections
            5. Presuppositions
            6. Universal Quantifiers
            7. Modal Operators
            8. Lost Performatives
            9. Simple Deletions
            10. Comparative Deletions
            11. Unspecified Nouns and Verbs
      8. Interactive Conversation
      9. Common Hand and Body Expressions
      10. SWAT Communications
        1. 10 Series
        2. Hand Signals
      11. Police and Military Codes
        1. Military Police Codes
        2. Common Police Codes
          1. Abbreviations
          2. Basic Numeric Codes
          3. Specific Numeric Codes
          4. “10” Codes
          5. DEA Radio Codes
          6. EMS Codes
          7. Common Radio Protocols
      12. Foreign Languages and Foreign Dialogue
      13. Colorful Language: Scatological Terminology and Other Dirty Words
  10. V. Worlds
    1. 17. Game Worlds
      1. What Is a World?
      2. Types of Worlds
        1. Point of View
      3. Perception of Freedom
        1. Basics of Creating Freedom
        2. Principles of Player Freedom
        3. What Restricts the Player?
      4. Ways to Make a World Feel Alive and Real
        1. Interactivity with the Environment
          1. The General Environment
          2. Vehicles
          3. Other Machines
          4. Buildings
          5. Shops
          6. Natural World
          7. NPCs
          8. Random Objects and Effects
        2. Using Physics
          1. Basic Physical Properties
          2. Temperature
          3. Mass versus Volume
          4. Motion
          5. Electromagnetic
          6. Waves
          7. Potential and Kinetic Energy
      5. Randomness
      6. Cause and Effect
      7. Continuity
      8. NPCs
      9. Animation and Effects
      10. Lighting
        1. Dynamic Response Systems
        2. Sounds
        3. Terrain Variation
        4. Time
        5. Nature (Weather and Events)
        6. Nature (Flora)
        7. Nature (Fauna)
        8. Nature (Environmental Effects)
        9. Law and Order
        10. Sex Appeal
        11. Subtleties and Details
        12. Construction and Player-Created Content
      11. What Is Reality? (Common Reality Distortions)
      12. Dangerous Places
      13. Places to Get Lost In
      14. Environmental Effects on Locations
      15. Good Places to Attack or Defend
      16. Moving or Transient Locations
      17. Weather Types and Phenomena
      18. Location Surfaces
        1. Mix and Match Locations
      19. Location Sizes
      20. Money and Commerce
      21. Politics
        1. Types of Political Structures
        2. Ways Political Worlds Can Be
        3. Things the Player Can Do to Gain Favor or Influence (in a Political Setting)
      22. Creating Your World
    2. 18. Travel
      1. The Functions of Travel in Games
      2. Methods of Travel
      3. Travel Dos and Don’ts
      4. Types of Vehicles
      5. Driving and NPCs
      6. Rules/Methods of Police Pursuit
        1. Typical Police Pursuit Rules (Based on City of Detroit)
        2. Methods of Police Pursuit
        3. More Ideas for Police Interactions
      7. Secret Routes
      8. Ways to Display Maps
      9. What to Display on a Map
    3. 19. Objects and Locations
      1. Some Qualities an Object Can Have
        1. Size
        2. Shape
        3. Material Qualities
        4. Material Types
        5. Color
        6. Mass/Weight
        7. Movement
        8. Temperature
        9. Value
        10. Aesthetics
        11. Age
        12. Condition
      2. Other Qualities of Objects in Games
      3. Relevance to the Game
      4. Objects by Locations
        1. Street and Vehicle Objects
          1. Basic Freeway Elements
          2. City Streets Objects
          3. Roadside Objects
          4. Vehicle Objects
          5. Road Surfaces
        2. Household Objects
          1. Typical Bathroom Objects
          2. Typical Kitchen Objects
          3. Other Typical Objects
        3. Common Signs
        4. Office Objects
        5. Gym/Health-Club Objects
        6. Hospital and Medical Objects
        7. Dental Office Objects
        8. Police Station Objects
        9. Fire Station Objects
        10. School/College/University Objects
        11. Sewer Objects
        12. Library Objects
        13. Shop/Market/Miscellaneous Store Objects
        14. Research/Tech Facility Objects
        15. Weapons Facility Objects
        16. Military Base Objects
        17. Airport Objects
        18. Factory Objects
        19. Warehouse Objects
        20. Medieval Village Objects
        21. Castle Objects
          1. Medieval Foods
          2. Provisions List
        22. Theater Objects
        23. TV Studio Objects
        24. Amusement Park Objects
        25. Objects on a Train
        26. Objects on a Cruise Liner
        27. Objects Inside a Mine
        28. Objects Inside a Museum
        29. Open-Air Market Objects
        30. Spacecraft Objects
        31. Futuristic Objects
      5. Tools of Magic
      6. Good Places to Hide Objects
      7. Objects with Cultural Meaning
      8. List of Machines
      9. The Many Uses of Ordinary Items
        1. Ordinary Things That Can Be Weapons
        2. Accessory Objects
      10. Individual Objects Carried by Specific NPCs
        1. Policeman
        2. Fireman
        3. Businessman/Lawyer/Accountant
        4. Soldier
      11. Things You Can Also Love
    4. 20. Music and Sound
      1. Music
        1. Early Game Music
        2. Modern Game Music
        3. The Core of the Score
        4. Functional versus Decorative Music
          1. Background Music
          2. Situational Music
            1. Related to Action
            2. Emotional Effects
            3. Point of View
        5. Ways to Score
          1. Character Themes
          2. Contextual
        6. Intros, Endings, and Interstitials/Cut Scenes
        7. Incidental Music
        8. Orchestrations and Arrangements
        9. Ways to Affect the Player’s Experience
      2. Sounds
        1. Ambient Sounds
        2. Sounds as Clues
        3. Sound and Location
        4. Effects and Feedback
  11. VI. Experience Design
    1. Section A The Elements of Experience
    2. 21. Experiential Design
      1. Experiential Design Activities
        1. Game Activities
          1. Basic Game Activities
          2. More Game Activities
            1. Movements and Positions
            2. Attacks
            3. State of Being
            4. Socialize
            5. Resource Management
            6. Objects
            7. Doors
            8. Vehicles
            9. Economics
            10. Menu System
            11. Create a Character
            12. Manage Inventory
            13. User Interface
            14. Strategize
          3. Quests/Missions: Using This Book to Create Content
            1. Creating a Quest/Mission
            2. More Quest Examples
      2. Things to Do in Games
        1. Things You Can Do in FPSs
          1. Single or Multiplayer
          2. Multiplayer
        2. Things You Can Do in RTSs
        3. Things You Can Do in RPGs
          1. NPC Quest Examples
        4. Things to Do in Arcade/Action Games
      3. What Can We Learn from Sports Games?
        1. Basic Sports Principles
        2. Sports Lists
          1. Team Sports
          2. Individual Sports
          3. Racing
          4. Social Sports
          5. Illegal or Dangerous Sports
        3. Incorporating Sports Ideas into Non-Sports Games
      4. Defining Fun
        1. Play Styles
        2. What Is Fun
          1. Interaction
          2. Challenge
          3. Community
          4. Emotion
          5. Expression
          6. Exploration
        3. More of What Is Fun
        4. What Is Not Fun
    3. 22. Game Conventions and Clichés
      1. General Clichés
      2. Enemy Clichés
      3. Weapons
      4. Objects and the Environment
      5. NPC Clichés
      6. Martial Arts Clichés
      7. RPG Clichés
      8. FPS Clichés
      9. Action Adventure (Platformer) Clichés
      10. RTS Clichés
      11. Fighting Game Clichés
      12. Racing Game Clichés
      13. Simulation Game Clichés
      14. Puzzle Game Clichés
      15. MMO Clichés
    4. Section B Goals and Rewards
    5. 23. Goals
      1. Introduction to Goals
      2. Player-Created Goals
      3. Multiple Goals
      4. Long-Term Goals
      5. Intermediate Goals
      6. Moment-to-Moment Goals (Feedback Systems)
        1. Feedback Systems and Situational Awareness
        2. Other Moment-to-Moment Goals
    6. 24. Rewards, Bonuses, and Penalties
      1. Known and Unknown Rewards
      2. Indirect Rewards
      3. Shared Rewards
      4. Incremental Rewards
      5. Milestone Rewards
      6. End-of-Game Rewards
      7. Bonus Goals and Rewards
      8. Penalties
    7. Section C Obstacles
    8. 25. Barriers, Obstacles, and Detectors
      1. Introduction to Barriers and Obstacles
      2. Barriers
        1. Hindrance Barriers and Partial Barriers
        2. Barrier Examples
        3. Passing Barriers
        4. Keeping Contained Within a Map
      3. Obstacles
      4. Methods of Detection
    9. 26. Traps and Counter Traps
      1. General Solutions
      2. Physical Containment
        1. Common Solutions to Locked Doors and Other Containment Scenarios
      3. Containment by Threat
        1. Common Solutions to Containment by Threat
        2. Containment by Threat Scenarios
      4. Restraint (Physical)
        1. Other Physical Restraint Scenarios
      5. Betrayal/Treachery
        1. Common Solutions to Betrayal Traps
        2. Betrayal and Treacherous Traps
      6. Mental Traps
      7. Removal
      8. Injury/Direct Damage
        1. Common Sensors
        2. Common Direct Damage Counters
        3. Injury/Direct Damage Scenarios
      9. Herding and Control
      10. Trap-Maker Questions
    10. 27. Puzzles
      1. What Is a Puzzle?
      2. Dilemmas
      3. Puzzles in Games
        1. Putting Pieces Together
        2. Missing Persons, Creatures, or Things
        3. Hard Choices
        4. Kill Tasks
        5. Getting It Right
        6. Unusual Objects You Can Carry or Move
        7. Ordering Things
        8. Buttons and Switches
        9. Keys
        10. Configurations
        11. Sequence of Tasks
        12. Follow the Leader
        13. Timing Challenges
        14. The Obscure Object of Desire
        15. You Can’t Do That...Yet
        16. Barriers
        17. Thinking Outside the Box
        18. Managing Chaos (Too Much Too Fast)
        19. Moral Dilemmas
        20. Riddles
        21. Signs and Wonders
        22. Devices
        23. Sudden Responsibilities
        24. Sudden Loss of Power
        25. Whodunit
        26. Mental Puzzles
      4. Puzzle-Based Games
      5. Codes and Cryptography
      6. A Puzzle Story
      7. Puzzle Maker
        1. Goals
        2. Methods You Might Use
        3. Tools, Skills, and Objects
        4. Output
    11. Section D Time
    12. 28. Controlling Pacing
      1. Introduction to Pacing
      2. Interest Level and Goals
      3. Does Focus Equal Pacing?
      4. Activity Levels
      5. Emotional Impact
      6. Intensity
      7. Pacing by Genre
        1. Action Games (Platform, Arcade, FPS)
        2. Battle Sims (Games That Involve Warlike Battle Simulations)
          1. In the Action
          2. The General’s Perspective
        3. RPGs and Adventures
        4. Strategy Games
        5. MMOGs
      8. Pacing of the Game Experience
        1. Skills Development
        2. Difficulty
        3. Item Values
        4. Information Acquisition and Story Development
        5. Tasks/Missions/Quests
        6. Taking Turns
        7. Game Rewards
    13. 29. Time Limits and Time Manipulation
      1. Time Limits in Games
      2. Time Manipulation
    14. Section E Communication
    15. 30. Ways to Communicate with the Player
      1. Introduction
      2. Clues and Information
        1. General Ways to Convey Clues and Information
        2. Specific Examples of Clues and Information
      3. Rules
      4. Story Elements
      5. Foreshadowing
      6. Atmosphere
        1. Sounds
        2. Music
        3. Light Effects
        4. Terrain Imagery
        5. City/Town/Village Imagery
        6. Views
        7. Weather Effects
        8. Other Life Forms
        9. Dungeons
        10. Other Effects
        11. Physics
      7. Emotion
      8. Misdirection: Ways to Mislead the Player
      9. Influencing Player Movement
    16. Section F Common Problems
    17. 31. Common Game Design Problems
      1. Ways to Start a Game
      2. How to Contain a Player
      3. How to Destroy a Planet
      4. Ways to Kill a Character
      5. Ways to Play With the Players’ Emotions
      6. Customizing/Personalizing the Game
      7. Ways to Make a Game Replayable
      8. Qualification Tests
      9. Things You Can Do with NPCs
      10. Ways to Protect a Character or Place
        1. Escorting a Character
        2. Protecting a Place
      11. Stealthy Ways to Play
      12. The Various Mechanics of Mini-Games
    18. 32. Ways to Die
      1. Direct Causes of Death
        1. Animal Attack
        2. Boiling
        3. Biological Weapons
        4. Bleeding to Death
        5. Burning (Immolation)
        6. Bursting
        7. Capture and Slow Death
        8. Chemical Weapons
        9. Conversion/Transformation
        10. Critical Hit
        11. Crushing Death
        12. Dehydration
        13. Deletion
        14. Disappearance
        15. Disease or Illness
        16. Disembowelment
        17. Drowning (in any Liquid)
        18. Elemental Causes/Natural Disasters
        19. Exhaustion
        20. Execution/Assassination
        21. Explosion
        22. Freezing to Death
        23. Friendly Fire
        24. G-Forces
        25. Gravity
        26. Grinding Death
        27. Impact
        28. Impalement
        29. Imploding
        30. Internal Invader
        31. Laughing to Death
        32. Life Force Removed
        33. Liquefaction
        34. Magic and Supernatural Causes
        35. Mechanical Failure or Malfunction
        36. Medical Failure
        37. Melting or Vaporization
        38. Metaphysical Revelation
        39. Mind Control
        40. Molecular Breakdown
        41. Mutation
        42. Mystery
        43. Mythical Death Blows
        44. Natural Causes
        45. Nausea
        46. Overwhelmed
        47. Pinching/Restriction
        48. Poison
        49. Projectile Death
        50. Radioactivity
        51. Rapid Aging
        52. Scared to Death
        53. Shock (Electrical)
        54. Shock (Mental)
        55. Sleep Deprivation
        56. Sliced and Diced
        57. Spinning
        58. Spirit/Body Separation
        59. Spirit Death
        60. Splitting
        61. Starvation
        62. Stretching
        63. Suicide
        64. Suffocation/Asphyxiation/Strangulation
        65. Taste (Direct Death)
        66. The Bends
        67. Tickling
        68. Time Travel or Dimensional Accident
        69. Turned Inside Out
        70. Turning into Bait
        71. Vehicular Death
        72. Vibration
        73. Writer’s Pun
        74. Fooled You!
      2. Indirect Causes of Death
        1. Altered Physical Laws
        2. Bad Luck
        3. Blinding
          1. Causes of Blindness
          2. Indirect Causes of Death Due to Blindness
        4. Boredom
        5. Broken Heart
        6. Deafness
        7. Hallucination
        8. Insanity
        9. Loyalty Death
        10. Neglect
        11. Sleep
        12. Smell
        13. Stupidity (Darwin Awards)
        14. Taste
        15. Touch
      3. Torture Methods
        1. Physical Torture
        2. Denial and Deprivation
        3. Mental Torture
      4. Other Useful Links
  12. VII. Weapons and Armor
    1. 33. Historical and Cultural Weapons
      1. Weapons
        1. Qualities of Weapons
          1. Hand Weapon Types
          2. Projectile Weapons
        2. Clubs and Hammers
        3. Swords
          1. Basic Types of Swords
          2. Examples
          3. Specific Swords
        4. Daggers and Knives
        5. Fist Weapons
        6. Throwing Weapons
        7. Axes and Pole Arms (Including Pikes, Picks, and Forks)
          1. Axes
          2. Pole Arms
          3. Picks, Pikes, and Forks
        8. Spears and Lances
        9. Bows and Crossbows
          1. Construction of Bows
          2. Some Specific Bows
        10. Arrows
          1. Arrowheads
          2. Parts of an Arrow
          3. Unusual Arrows
        11. Crossbows
          1. Parts of a Crossbow
          2. Specific Crossbows
        12. Combined Weapons
        13. Other Weapons
        14. Chinese Weapons
      2. Armor
        1. Qualities of Armor
        2. Typical Stages in the Development of Armor Prior to Firearms
        3. Typical Armor Elements
        4. Helms
        5. Arm and Shoulder Protection
        6. Body Protection
        7. Leg Protection
        8. Other Armor
        9. Shields
        10. Stirrups
      3. Medieval Castles
        1. Castle Architecture and People
        2. Jousting
      4. Siege Equipment
        1. Early Artillery
        2. Some Early Artillery Examples
        3. Rams and Towers
        4. Siege Barriers
        5. Explosive Artillery
        6. Evolution of Cannons
        7. Aiming Early Cannons
        8. Early Ammunition
        9. Early Naval Guns
    2. 34. Standard Modern Weaponry and Armor
      1. Guns
        1. A Primer on Handheld Guns (Small Arms)
        2. Cartridge Charts
        3. How a Bullet Travels
        4. The Sniper’s Lexicon
        5. The Early Evolution of Guns
          1. Before the Matchlock
          2. The Matchlock
          3. Wheel Lock
          4. Snaphance (or Snaphaunce)
          5. Flintlock
          6. The Percussion Lock
          7. Early Gun Accessories
          8. Early Multi-Shot Guns
          9. Breech Loaders
        6. The Modernization of Guns
          1. The Modern Shell
          2. Modern Repeaters
            1. Repeating Pistols
            2. Repeating Longarms
            3. Submachine Guns
            4. Grenade Guns and Rifle Grenades
            5. Air Guns
          3. Expressions from Guns
          4. Some of the Better-Known Gun Brands
        7. Longarm and Rifle Examples
        8. Self-Loading Rifles
        9. Pistols
        10. Submachine Guns (SMGs) and Assault Rifles
        11. World War II Guns from American Companies
      2. Modern Explosives
        1. Useful Definitions
        2. Specifics of Explosives
          1. Propellants
          2. Initiating Explosives
          3. Auxiliary Explosives
          4. Bursting Explosives
          5. Incendiaries
        3. Regulated Substances
          1. Regulated Substances and Devices (State of Colorado)
          2. List of Military and Pyrotechnic Chemicals
          3. U.S. List of Explosive Materials
          4. Glossary of Explosives
      3. Modern Artillery
        1. The Modernization of Artillery
        2. Breech-Loading Artillery
        3. Modern Ammunition
          1. Nonlethal Shells
          2. Rocket-Powered Ammunition
        4. Mobility
        5. Size Matters
        6. Field Guns
        7. Modern Mortars
        8. Static and Rail Guns
        9. Defense Guns (Coastal and Fortress)
      4. Automatic Artillery and Machine Guns
        1. How Machine Guns Work
          1. Firing
          2. Feeding Ammunition
          3. Cooling Systems
          4. Gun Designations
        2. Specific Machine Guns
        3. Mounted Guns
          1. Tank-Mounted Guns
          2. Aircraft-Mounted Guns
        4. Handheld Recoilless Guns (Rocket Launchers)
        5. Anti-Tank Guns
        6. Anti-Aircraft (AA) Guns
        7. Naval Guns
      5. Armored Fighting Vehicles (AFV)–a.k.a. Tanks
        1. Tank Guns and Mountings
        2. Tanks
        3. Self-Propelled Guns
        4. Armored Cars, Personnel Carriers, and Reconnaissance Vehicles
        5. Tank Glossary
      6. Mines
        1. Landmines
        2. Naval Mines
          1. Types of Naval Mines
          2. Specialized Mines
          3. Types of Damage
          4. Laying Mines
          5. Mine Examples
          6. A Nuclear Mine
        3. Mine Countermeasures
      7. Aircraft
        1. Dirigibles
          1. Zeppelins
        2. Multi-Winged Planes
          1. 1909
          2. 1911
          3. 1912
          4. 1913
          5. 1914
          6. 1915
          7. 1916
          8. 1917
          9. 1918
          10. 1919
          11. 1920
          12. 1921
          13. 1922
          14. 1923
          15. 1924
          16. 1925
          17. 1926
          18. 1927
          19. 1928
          20. 1929
          21. 1930
          22. 1931
          23. 1932
          24. 1933
          25. 1934
          26. 1935
          27. 1936
          28. 1937
          29. 1938
          30. 1939
          31. 1940
          32. 1942
          33. 1944
          34. 1947
          35. Unknown Date
        3. Monowinged Planes
          1. 1910
          2. 1912
          3. 1913
          4. 1914
          5. 1915
          6. 1916
          7. 1917
          8. 1918
          9. 1919
          10. 1920
          11. 1921
          12. 1922
          13. 1923
          14. 1924
          15. 1925
          16. 1926
          17. 1927
          18. 1928
          19. 1929
          20. 1930
          21. 1931
          22. 1932
          23. 1933
          24. 1934
          25. 1935
          26. 1936
          27. 1937
          28. 1938
          29. 1939
          30. 1940
          31. 1941
          32. 1942
          33. 1943
          34. 1944
          35. 1945
          36. 1946
          37. 1947
          38. 1948
          39. 1949
          40. 1950
          41. 1951
          42. 1952
          43. 1953
          44. 1954
          45. 1955
          46. 1956
          47. 1957
          48. 1958
          49. 1959
          50. 1960
          51. 1961
          52. 1962
          53. 1963
          54. 1964
          55. 1965
          56. 1966
          57. 1967
          58. 1968
          59. 1969
          60. 1970
          61. 1971
          62. 1972
          63. 1973
          64. 1974
          65. 1975
          66. 1976
          67. 1977
          68. 1978
          69. 1979
          70. 1980
          71. 1981
          72. 1982
          73. 1983
          74. 1984
          75. 1985
          76. 1986
          77. 1987
          78. 1988
          79. 1989
          80. 1991
          81. 1992
          82. 1993
          83. 1994
          84. 1995
          85. 1996
          86. 1997–Present
        4. Helicopters and Gunships
      8. Bombs
        1. General Information and History
        2. The Importance of Timing
        3. Fuze Terminology
        4. Fins
        5. Modern Bombs
          1. Smart Bombs
          2. Cluster Bombs
          3. Other Bombs
      9. Ships
      10. Depth Charges
      11. Torpedoes
        1. General Information and History
        2. Lightweight Torpedoes (LWT)
        3. Heavyweight Torpedoes (HWT)
        4. Torpedo Propulsion
        5. Torpedo Countermeasures
          1. Soft-Kill Options
          2. Hard-Kill Options
          3. Layered Defenses
          4. Littoral Combat Ships
        6. A Very Brief History of Rockets
        7. Types of Missiles (Strategic/Tactical)
        8. Propulsion Methods
        9. Jet Engines
        10. Solid-Fueled Rockets
        11. Liquid-Fueled Rockets
        12. Liquid Versus Solid Fuels: Pros and Cons
        13. Nozzle Cooling
        14. Rockets in World War II
        15. Missile Subsystems
        16. Inertial Guidance Systems
        17. Command and Homing Guidance Systems
        18. Modern Missile Sensor Systems
        19. Launching Systems
        20. Modern Rockets and Missiles
          1. Naval Surface-to-Air Missiles
          2. Surface-to-Surface Missiles
          3. Surface-to-Subsurface Missiles
          4. Strategic and Tactical Nuclear Missiles
            1. Some Specific Strategic and Tactical Nuclear Missiles
        21. Anti-Ballistic Missile Systems
          1. An ABM Checklist
          2. Arrow Interceptor Anti-Missile Missile
          3. ABM Systems of the Future
      12. Biological and Chemical Weapons
        1. Early Biological and Chemical Weapons
          1. Ancient Toxic Substances
        2. Chemical Weapons
          1. Fire and Weapons That Burn
            1. Modern Materials that Burn
            2. Modern Weapons That Burn
          2. More Chemical Weapons
            1. How Blister Agents Work
            2. How Nerve Gases Work
            3. How Choking Agents Work
            4. How Vomiting Agents Work
            5. How Blood Agents Work
            6. How Incapacitating Agents Work
            7. Anti-Personnel Agents Weaponized Since 1946
        3. Modern Biological Weapons
          1. Categories of Biological Agents
            1. Category A Diseases/Agents
            2. Category B Diseases/Agents
            3. Category C Diseases/Agents
          2. Known Biological Threats
            1. Category A
            2. Category B
            3. Category C
            4. Bacteria
            5. Fungi
            6. Viruses
            7. Protozoa
            8. Further Toxins
          3. Delivery Methods
          4. Chemical Weapon Formulae
      13. Nuclear Weapons
        1. Nuclear Versus Conventional
        2. Fission
          1. Energy Released in a Fission Reaction
          2. About Chain Reactions and Critical Mass
          3. Fission Byproducts
        3. Fusion
        4. Detonation Height
          1. Air Burst
          2. High-Altitude Burst
          3. Underwater or Underground Bursts
          4. Surface Bursts
          5. Density of Matter
        5. The Blast Wave
        6. Effects of Nuclear Blasts
        7. How Nuclear Weapons Are Used
        8. Who Has Nuclear Weapons?
      14. Modern Armor
        1. Types of Modern Armor
        2. Body Armor
          1. Hard Armor
          2. Soft Armor
          3. Classifications of Body Armor
          4. Body Armor of the Future
      15. Nonlethal Weapons
        1. Introduction to Modern Nonlethal Weapons
          1. Energy-Based Nonlethal Weapons
          2. Physical Restraints
          3. Chemical Nonlethal Weapons
          4. Low Kinetic Energy (KE) Weapons
          5. Acoustical Nonlethal Weapons
          6. Other Concepts
      16. Information Warfare
      17. Brainstorming Weapons and Armor
  13. Epilogue Last Words