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Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques, 3rd Edition by Micheline Kamber, Jian Pei, Jiawei Han

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12.3 Statistical Approaches

As with statistical methods for clustering, statistical methods for outlier detection make assumptions about data normality. They assume that the normal objects in a data set are generated by a stochastic process (a generative model). Consequently, normal objects occur in regions of high probability for the stochastic model, and objects in the regions of low probability are outliers.

The general idea behind statistical methods for outlier detection is to learn a generative model fitting the given data set, and then identify those objects in low-probability regions of the model as outliers. However, there are many different ways to learn generative models. In general, statistical methods for outlier detection can be ...

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