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Data Center Handbook

Book Description

Provides the fundamentals, technologies, and best practices in designing, constructing and managing mission critical, energy efficient data centers

Organizations in need of high-speed connectivity and nonstop systems operations depend upon data centers for a range of deployment solutions. A data center is a facility used to house computer systems and associated components, such as telecommunications and storage systems. It generally includes multiple power sources, redundant data communications connections, environmental controls (e.g., air conditioning, fire suppression) and security devices.

With contributions from an international list of experts, The Data Center Handbook instructs readers to:

  • Prepare strategic plan that includes location plan, site selection, roadmap and capacity planning

  • Design and build "green" data centers, with mission critical and energy-efficient infrastructure

  • Apply best practices to reduce energy consumption and carbon emissions

  • Apply IT technologies such as cloud and virtualization

  • Manage data centers in order to sustain operations with minimum costs

  • Prepare and practice disaster reovery and business continuity plan

  • The book imparts essential knowledge needed to implement data center design and construction, apply IT technologies, and continually improve data center operations.

    Table of Contents

    1. Cover
    2. Title page
    3. Copyright page
    4. Dedication
    5. Contributors
    6. Preface
    7. Acknowledgments
    8. Technical Advisory Board
    9. Chapter Organization
      1. Part 1: Data Center Overview and Strategic Planning
      2. Part 2: Data Center Design and Construction
      3. Part 3: Data Center Technology
      4. Part 4: Data Center Operations and Management
      5. Part 5: Disaster Recovery and Business Continuity
    10. Part I: Data Center Overview and Strategic Planning
      1. 1 Data Centers—Strategic Planning, Design, Construction, and Operations
        1. 1.1 Introduction
        2. 1.2 Data Center Vision and Roadmap
        3. 1.3 Strategic Location Plan
        4. 1.4 Sustainable Design
        5. 1.5 Best Practices and Emerging Technologies
        6. 1.6 Operations Management and Disaster Management
        7. 1.7 Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery
        8. 1.8 Conclusion
        9. References
        10. Further reading
      2. 2 Energy and Sustainability in Data Centers
        1. 2.1 Introduction
        2. 2.2 Flexible Facilities—Modularity in Data Centers
        3. 2.3 Water Use
        4. 2.4 Proper Operating Temperature and Humidity
        5. 2.5 Avoiding Common Planning Errors
        6. 2.6 Cooling System Concepts
        7. 2.7 Building Envelope and Energy Use
        8. 2.8 Air Management and Containment Strategies
        9. 2.9 Electrical System Efficiency
        10. 2.10 Energy Use of IT Equipment
        11. 2.11 Leveraging IT and Facilities
        12. 2.12 Determining Data Center Energy Use Effectiveness
        13. 2.13 Private Industry and Government Energy Efficiency Programs
        14. 2.14 USGBC—LEED Adaptations for Data Centers
        15. 2.15 Harmonizing Global Metrics for Data Center Energy Efficiency
        16. 2.16 Industry Consortium—Recommendations for Measuring and Reporting Overall Data Center Efficiency
        17. 2.16.5 Guidelines for Environmental Sustainability Standard for the ICT Sector
        18. 2.17 Strategies for Operations Optimization
        19. References
        20. Further Reading
      3. 3 Hosting or Colocation Data Centers
        1. 3.1 Introduction
        2. 3.2 Hosting
        3. 3.3 Colocation (Wholesale)
        4. 3.4 Types of Data Centers
        5. 3.5 Scaling Data Centers
        6. 3.6 Selecting and Evaluating DC Hosting and Wholesale Providers
        7. 3.7 Build versus Buy
        8. 3.8 Future Trends
        9. 3.9 Conclusion
        10. Further Reading
        11. Sources for Data Center Industry News and Trends
      4. 4 Modular Data Centers
        1. 4.1 Modular Data Center Definition
        2. 4.2 MDC Benefits and Applications
        3. 4.3 Modularity Scalability Planning
        4. 4.4 MDC Anatomy
        5. 4.5 Site Preparation, Installation, Commissioning
        6. 4.6 How to Select an MDC Vendor
        7. 4.7 External Factors
        8. 4.8 Future Trend and Conclusion
        9. Further Reading
      5. 5 Data Center Site Search and Selection
        1. 5.1 Introduction
        2. 5.2 Site Searches Versus Facility Searches
        3. 5.3 Globalization and the Speed of Light
        4. 5.4 The Site Selection Process
        5. 5.5 Industry Trends Affecting Site Selection
        6. Further Reading
      6. 6 Data Center Financial Analysis, Roi and Tco
        1. 6.1 Introduction to Financial Analysis, Return on Investment, and Total Cost of Ownership
        2. 6.2 Financial Measures of Cost and Return
        3. 6.3 Complications and Common Problems
        4. 6.4 A Realistic Example
        5. 6.5 Choosing to Build, Reinvest, Lease, or Rent
        6. Further Reading
      7. 7 Overview of Data Centers in China
        1. 7.1 Introduction
        2. 7.2 Policies, Laws, Regulations, and Standards
        3. 7.3 Standards
        4. 7.4 Development Status of China’s Data Centers
        5. 7.5 Energy Efficiency Status
        6. 7.6 Development Tendency
        7. References
      8. 8 Overview of Data Centers in Korea
        1. 8.1 Introduction
        2. 8.2 Korean Government Organizations for Data Center
        3. 8.3 Codes and Standards
        4. 8.4 Data Center Design and Construction
        5. 8.5 Data Center Market
        6. 8.6 Conclusion
        7. References
    11. Part II: Data Center Design and Construction
      1. 9 Architecture Design
        1. 9.1 Introduction
        2. 9.2 Overview of Rack and Cabinet Design
        3. 9.3 Space and Power Design Criteria
        4. 9.4 Pathways
        5. 9.5 Coordination with Other Systems
        6. 9.6 Computer Room Design
        7. 9.7 Modular Design
        8. 9.8 CFD Modeling
        9. 9.9 Data Center Space Planning
        10. 9.10 Conclusion
        11. Further Reading
      2. 10 Mechanical Design in Data Centers
        1. 10.1 Introduction
        2. 10.2 Key Design Criteria
        3. 10.3 Mechanical Design Process
        4. 10.4 Data Center Considerations in Selecting Key Components
        5. 10.5 Primary Design Options
        6. 10.6 Current Best Practices
        7. 10.7 Future Trends
        8. Reference
        9. Further Reading
      3. 11 Electrical Design in Data Centers
        1. 11.1 Uptime
        2. 11.2 Electrical Equipment to Deploy
        3. 11.3 Electrical Design
        4. 11.4 Availability
        5. 11.5 Determining Success
        6. Appendix 11.A
        7. Further Reading
      4. 12 Fire Protection and Life Safety Designin Data Centers
        1. 12.1 Fire Protection Fundamentals
        2. 12.2 AHJs, Codes, and Standards
        3. 12.3 Local Authorities, National Codes, and Standards
        4. 12.4 Life Safety
        5. 12.5 Passive Fire Protection
        6. 12.6 Active Fire Protection/Suppression
        7. 12.7 Detection, Alarm, and Signaling
        8. 12.8 Fire Protection Design
        9. References
      5. 13 Structural Design in Data Centers
        1. 13.1 Introduction
        2. 13.2 Building Design Considerations
        3. 13.3 Earthquakes
        4. 13.4 Hurricanes, Tornadoes, and Other Windstorms
        5. 13.5 Snow and Rain
        6. 13.6 Flood and Tsunami
        7. 13.7 Comprehensive Resiliency Strategies
        8. References
      6. 14 Data Center Telecommunications Cabling
        1. 14.1 Why Use Data Center Telecommunications Cabling Standards?
        2. 14.2 Telecommunications Cabling Standards Organizations
        3. 14.3 Data Center Telecommunications Cabling Infrastructure Standards
        4. 14.4 Telecommunications Spaces and Requirements
        5. 14.5 Structured Cabling Topology
        6. 14.6 Cable Types and Maximum Cable Lengths
        7. 14.7 Cabinet and Rack Placement (Hot Aisles and Cold Aisles)
        8. 14.8 Cabling and Energy Efficiency
        9. 14.9 Cable Pathways
        10. 14.10 Cabinets and Racks
        11. 14.11 Patch Panels and Cable Management
        12. 14.12 Reliability Levels and Cabling
        13. 14.13 Conclusion and Trends
        14. Further Reading
      7. 15 Dependability Engineering for Data Center Infrastructures
        1. 15.1 Introduction
        2. 15.2 Dependability Theory
        3. 15.3 System Dysfunctional Analysis
        4. 15.4 Application to Data Center Dependability
        5. Reference
        6. Further Reading
      8. 16 Particulate and Gaseous Contaminationin Data Centers
        1. 16.1 Introduction
        2. 16.2 Standards and Guidelines
        3. 16.3 Airborne Contamination
        4. 16.4 A Conventional Solution
        5. 16.5 Conclusions and Future Trends
        6. Acknowledgment
        7. References
        8. Further Reading
      9. 17 Computational Fluid Dynamics Applications in Data Centers
        1. 17.1 Introduction
        2. 17.2 Fundamentals of CFD
        3. 17.3 Applications of CFD for Data Centers
        4. 17.4 Modeling the Data Center
        5. 17.5 Potential Additional Benefits of a CFD/Virtual Facility Model
        6. 17.6 The Future of Virtual Facility Models
        7. References
      10. 18 Environmental Control of Data Centers
        1. 18.1 Data Center Power Trends
        2. 18.2 Thermal Management of Data Centers
        3. 18.3 Cooling System Design and Control
        4. 18.4 Performance Metrics
        5. References
      11. 19 Data Center Project Management and Commissioning
        1. 19.1 Introduction
        2. 19.2 Project Management
        3. 19.3 Commissioning
        4. 19.4 Bidding Phase Tasks
        5. 19.5 Acceptance Phase Tasks
        6. 19.6 LEED-Required Commissioning Tasks
        7. 19.7 Minimum Commissioning Tasks
        8. 19.8 Commissioning Team Members
        9. 19.9 Data Center Trends
        10. 19.10 Conclusion
        11. Further Reading
    12. Part III: Data Center Technology
      1. 20 Virtualization, Cloud, SDN, and SDDC in Data Centers
        1. 20.1 Introduction
        2. 20.2 Virtualization in Data Centers
        3. 20.3 Cloud as an Extension of the Data Center
        4. 20.4 Networking in Data Center
        5. 20.5 SDN
        6. 20.6 SDDC
        7. 20.7 Roadmap to Cloud-Enabled Data Center
        8. References
        9. Further Reading
      2. 21 Green Microprocessor and Server Design
        1. 21.1 Introduction
        2. 21.2 Microprocessor
        3. 21.3 Server
        4. 21.4 Motherboard
        5. 21.5 Software
        6. 21.6 Benchmarks
        7. 21.7 Conclusions
        8. Further Reading
      3. 22 Energy Efficiency Requirements in Information Technology Equipment Design
        1. 22.1 Introduction
        2. 22.2 Computer Servers
        3. 22.3 Storage Systems
        4. 22.4 Uninterruptable Power Systems
        5. 22.5 Networking Equipment
        6. 22.6 Future Trends in Product Energy Efficiency Requirements
        7. References
        8. Further Reading
      4. 23 Raised Floor versus Overhead Cooling in Data Centers
        1. 23.1 Introduction
        2. 23.2 History of Raised Floor versus Overhead Air Distribution
        3. 23.3 Air Delivery Methodology as it Relates to Containment
        4. 23.4 Airflow Dynamics
        5. 23.5 Under-floor Air Distribution
        6. 23.6 Overhead Air Distribution
        7. 23.7 Conclusion
        8. References
        9. Further Reading
      5. 24 Hot Aisle versus Cold Aisle Containment
        1. 24.1 Executive Summary
        2. 24.2 Containment: The Airflow Architecture Models
        3. 24.3 Return Air Temperature Trends in HAC and CAC
        4. 24.4 Run- or Ride-Through Impact of Higher RAT
        5. 24.5 Single-Geometry Passive Chimney Ducts as Part of HAC
        6. 24.6 Psychological Impacts of Higher RAT
        7. 24.7 Cooling System Airflow and Fan Power
        8. 24.8 Redundancy and Cooling Unit Location Impact
        9. 24.9 Impact on Conditions for Peripheral Equipment in the Data Center Outside any of the HAC or CAC Zone(s)
        10. 24.10 Impact on Economizer Operation Time Periods During Cooler Outside Ambient Temperatures
        11. 24.11 Conclusion and Future Trends
        12. References
        13. Further Reading
      6. 25 Free Cooling Technologies in Data Centers
        1. 25.1 Introduction
        2. 25.2 Using Properties of Ambient Air to Cool a Data Center
        3. 25.3 Economizer Thermodynamic Process and Schematic of Equipment Layout
        4. 25.4 Comparative Potential Energy Savings and Required Trim Mechanical Refrigeration
        5. 25.5 Conventional Means for Cooling Datacom Facilities
        6. References
        7. Further Reading
      7. 26 Rack-Level Cooling and Cold Plate Cooling
        1. 26.1 Introduction
        2. 26.2 Rack-Level Cooling Types
        3. 26.3 Rack-Level Cooler Selection and Installation
        4. 26.4 Conclusion and Future Trends
        5. 26.5 Rack-Level Cooling Using Cold Plates
        6. 26.6 Conclusions and Future Trends
        7. References
        8. Further Reading
      8. 27 Uninterruptible Power Supply System
        1. 27.1 Introduction
        2. 27.2 Principle of UPS and Application
        3. 27.3 Considerations in Selecting UPS
        4. 27.4 Reliability and Redundancy
        5. 27.5 Alternate Energy Sources: AC and DC
        6. 27.6 UPS Preventive Maintenance Requirements
        7. 27.7 UPS Management and Control
        8. 27.8 Conclusion and Trends
        9. Reference
        10. Further Reading
      9. 28 Using Direct Current Network in Data Centers
        1. 28.1 Introduction
        2. 28.2 Edison’s Revenge
        3. 28.3 Data Center Power Design
        4. 28.4 Why Use the DC System in Data Centers
        5. 28.5 Examples of DC Data Centers in Operation
        6. 28.6 Future Trends and Conclusions
        7. Acknowledgments
        8. References
        9. Further Reading
      10. 29 Rack PDU for Green Data Centers
        1. 29.1 Introduction
        2. 29.2 Fundamentals and Principles
        3. 29.3 Elements of the System
        4. 29.4 Considerations for Planning and Selecting Rack PDUs
        5. 29.5 Future Trends for Rack PDUs
        6. Further Reading
      11. 30 Renewable and Clean Energy for Data Centers
        1. 30.1 Introduction
        2. 30.2 Renewable Energy Basics
        3. 30.3 Renewable Energy Types
        4. 30.4 Alternative Energy: Fuel Cell
        5. 30.5 Case studies
        6. 30.6 Summary and Future Trends
        7. References
        8. Further Reading
      12. 31 Smart Grid-Responsive Data Centers
        1. 31.1 Introduction and Context for Grid-Responsive Data Centers
        2. 31.2 Smart Grid and DR Applications in the United States
        3. 31.3 Site Infrastructure Control System Technologies
        4. 31.4 IT Infrastructure Virtualization Technologies
        5. 31.5 DR Opportunities, Challenges, and Automation Considerations
        6. 31.6 Data Centers with DR Provisions
        7. 31.7 AutoDR Using Open Standards
        8. 31.8 Grid-Distributed Data Centers and Networks
        9. 31.9 Summary of DR Strategies
        10. 31.10 Challenges to Grid-Responsive Data Centers
        11. 31.11 U.S. Policies Governing Smart Grid Emerging Technologies
        12. 31.12 The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007
        13. 31.13 State Policies for Smart Grid Advancement
        14. 31.14 Conclusions and Next Steps
        15. Acknowledgments
        16. References
        17. Further Reading
    13. Part IV: Data Center Operations and Management
      1. 32 Data Center Benchmark Metrics
        1. 32.1 Introduction
        2. 32.2 Origin and Application of PUE as a Metric
        3. 32.3 Metrics Used in Data Center Assessments
        4. 32.4 Green Grid’s xUE Metrics
        5. 32.5 Rack Cooling Index and Return Temperature Index
        6. 32.6 Additional Industry Metrics
        7. 32.7 European Commission Code of Conduct
        8. 32.8 International Telecommunication Union
        9. 32.9 Conclusion
        10. Further Reading
      2. 33 Data Center Infrastructure Management
        1. 33.1 What Is Data Center Infrastructure Management?
        2. 33.2 Triggers for DCIM Acquisition and Deployment
        3. 33.3 What Are THE Modules of a DCIM Solution?
        4. 33.4 The DCIM System Itself. What to Expect and Plan For
        5. 33.5 Critical Success Factors when Implementing a DCIM System
        6. 33.6 Future Trends in DCIM
        7. 33.7 Conclusion
        8. Reference
        9. Further Reading
      3. 34 Computerized Maintenance Management System in Data Centers
        1. 34.1 Introduction
        2. 34.2 CMMS Basics
        3. 34.3 CMMS Modules
        4. 34.4 Considerations in Selecting CMMS
        5. 34.5 Conclusion
        6. 34.6 Trends
        7. Further Reading
    14. Part V: Disaster Recovery and Business Continuity
      1. 35 Data Center Disaster Recovery and High Availability
        1. 35.1 Introduction
        2. 35.2 The Evolution of the Data Center and Data Center Risk
        3. 35.3 Physical Data Center Design and Redundancy: Tiers and <i xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" xmlns:m="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:svg="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" xmlns:ibooks="http://vocabulary.itunes.apple.com/rdf/ibooks/vocabulary-extensions-1.0">N</i>+ What?+ What?
        4. 35.4 Virtualization Brings Out-of-the-Box DR Survivability
        5. 35.5 DR and Cloud
        6. References
        7. Further Reading
      2. 36 Lessons Learned from Natural Disasters and Preparedness of Data Centers
        1. 36.1 Introduction
        2. 36.2 Design for Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery
        3. 36.3 Natural Disasters
        4. 36.4 The 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake
        5. 36.5 The 2012 Eastern U.S. Coast Superstorm Sandy
        6. 36.6 Conclusions
        7. References
        8. Further Reading
    15. Index
    16. End User License Agreement