Exploiting the linear model framework
The model matrix X is fundamental to all calculations for a linear model. The model matrix carries the information needed to calculate the fitted values that correspond to any particular choice of coefficients. There is a one-to-one correspondence between columns of X and regression coefficients.
In Chapter 6, the columns of the model matrix contained the observed values of the explanatory variables, perhaps after transformation. Fitted values were obtained by multiplying the first column by the first coefficient (usually the intercept), the second column by the second coefficient, and so on across all columns. ...