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Data Acquisition and Signal Processing for Smart Sensors

Book Description

From simple thermistors to intelligent silicon microdevices with powerful capabilities to communicate information across networks, sensors play an important role in such diverse fields as biomedical and chemical engineering to wireless communications. Introducing a new dependent count method for frequency signal processing, this book presents a practical approach to the design of signal processing sensors.

Modern advanced microsensors technologies require new and equally advanced methods of frequency signal processing in order to function at inreasingly high speeds. The authors provide a comprehensive overview of data acquisition and signal processing methods for the new generation of smart and quasi-smart sensors. The practical approach of the text includes coverage of the design of signal processing methods for digital, frequency, period, duty-cycle and time interval sensors.

  • Contains numerous practical examples illustrating the design of unique signal processing sensors and transducers

  • Details traditional, novel, and state of the art methods for frequency signal processing

  • Coverage of the physical characteristics of smart sensors, development methods and applications potential

  • Outlines the concept, principles and nature of the method of dependent count (MDC); a unique method for frequency signal processing, developed by the authors

This text is a leading edge resource for measurement engineers, researchers and developers working in microsensors, MEMS and microsystems, as well as advanced undergraduates and graduates in electrical and mechanical engineering.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Page
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. CONTENTS
  5. PREFACE
    1. Who Should Read this Book?
    2. How this Book is Organized
  6. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS
  7. INTRODUCTION
  8. CHAPTER 1: SMART SENSORS FOR ELECTRICAL AND NON-ELECTRICAL, PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL VARIABLES: TENDENCIES AND PERSPECTIVES
    1. 1.1 Temperature IC and Smart Sensors
    2. 1.2 Pressure IC and Smart Sensors and Accelerometers
    3. 1.3 Rotation Speed Sensors
    4. 1.4 Intelligent Opto Sensors
    5. 1.5 Humidity Frequency Output Sensors
    6. 1.6 Chemical and Gas Smart Sensors
    7. Summary
  9. CHAPTER 2: CONVERTERS FOR DIFFERENT VARIABLES TO FREQUENCY-TIME PARAMETERS OF THE ELECTRIC SIGNAL
    1. 2.1 Voltage-to-Frequency Converters (VFCs)
    2. 2.2 Capacitance-to-Period (or Duty-Cycle) Converters
    3. Summary
  10. CHAPTER 3: DATA ACQUISITION METHODS FOR MULTICHANNEL SENSOR SYSTEMS
    1. 3.1 Data Acquisition Method with Time-Division Channelling
    2. 3.2 Data Acquisition Method with Space-Division Channelling
    3. 3.3 Smart Sensor Architectures and Data Acquisition
    4. 3.4 Main Errors of Multichannel Data Acquisition Systems
    5. 3.5 Data Transmission and Error Protection
    6. Summary
  11. CHAPTER 4: METHODS OF FREQUENCY-TO-CODE CONVERSION
    1. 4.1 Standard Direct Counting Method (Frequency Measurement)
    2. 4.2 Indirect Counting Method (Period Measurement)
    3. 4.3 Combined Counting Method
    4. 4.4 Method for Frequency-to-Code Conversion Based on Discrete Fourier Transformation
    5. 4.5 Methods for Phase-Shift-to-Code Conversion
    6. Summary
  12. CHAPTER 5: ADVANCED AND SELF-ADAPTING METHODS OF FREQUENCY-TO-CODE CONVERSION
    1. 5.1 Ratiometric Counting Method
    2. 5.2 Reciprocal Counting Method
    3. 5.3 M/T Counting Method
    4. 5.4 Constant Elapsed Time (CET) Method
    5. 5.5 Single- and Double-Buffered Methods
    6. 5.6 DMA Transfer Method
    7. 5.7 Method of Dependent Count
    8. 5.8 Method with Non-Redundant Reference Frequency
    9. 5.9 Comparison of Methods
    10. 5.10 Advanced Method for Phase-Shift-to-Code Conversion
    11. Summary
  13. CHAPTER 6: SIGNAL PROCESSING IN QUASI-DIGITAL SMART SENSORS
    1. 6.1 Main Operations in Signal Processing
    2. 6.2 Weight Functions, Reducing Quantization Error
    3. Summary
  14. CHAPTER 7: DIGITAL OUTPUT SMART SENSORS WITH SOFTWARE-CONTROLLED PERFORMANCES AND FUNCTIONAL CAPABILITIES
    1. 7.1 Program-Oriented Conversion Methods Based on Ratiometric Counting Technique
    2. 7.2 Design Methodology for Program-Oriented Conversion Methods
    3. 7.3 Adaptive PCM with Increased Speed
    4. 7.4 Error Analysis of PCM
    5. 7.5 Correction of PCM's Systematic Errors
    6. 7.6 Modified Method of Algorithm Merging for PCMs
    7. Summary
  15. CHAPTER 8: MULTICHANNEL INTELLIGENT AND VIRTUAL SENSOR SYSTEMS
    1. 8.1 One-Channel Sensor Interfacing
    2. 8.2 Multichannel Sensor Interfacing
    3. 8.3 Multichannel Adaptive Sensor System with Space-Division Channelling
    4. 8.4 Multichannel Sensor Systems with Time-Division Channelling
    5. 8.5 Multiparameters Sensors
    6. 8.6 Virtual Instrumentation for Smart Sensors
    7. 8.7 Estimation of Uncertainty for Virtual Instruments
    8. Summary
  16. CHAPTER 9: SMART SENSOR DESIGN AT SOFTWARE LEVEL
    1. 9.1 Microcontroller Core for Smart Sensors
    2. 9.2 Low-Power Design Technique for Embedded Microcontrollers
    3. Summary
  17. CHAPTER 10: SMART SENSOR BUSES AND INTERFACE CIRCUITS
    1. 10.1 Sensor Buses and Network Protocols
    2. 10.2 Sensor Interface Circuits
    3. Summary
  18. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
  19. REFERENCES
  20. APPENDIX A: WHAT IS ON THE SENSORS WEB PORTAL?
  21. GLOSSARY OF SMART SENSOR TERMS
  22. INDEX