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Cyber Conflict: Competing National Perspectives

Book Description

Today, cyber security, cyber defense, information warfare and cyber warfare issues are among the most relevant topics both at the national and international level. All the major states of the world are facing cyber threats and trying to understand how cyberspace could be used to increase power.

Through an empirical, conceptual and theoretical approach, Cyber Conflict has been written by researchers and experts in the fields of cyber security, cyber defense and information warfare. It aims to analyze the processes of information warfare and cyber warfare through historical, operational and strategic perspectives of cyber attack. It is original in its delivery because of its multidisciplinary approach within an international framework, with studies dedicated to different states – Canada, Cuba, France, Greece, Italy, Japan, Singapore, Slovenia and South Africa – describing the state's application of information warfare principles both in terms of global development and "local" usage and examples.

Contents

1. Canada's Cyber Security Policy: a Tortuous Path Toward a Cyber Security Strategy, Hugo Loiseau and Lina Lemay.

2. Cuba: Towards an Active Cyber-defense, Daniel Ventre.

3. French Perspectives on Cyber-conflict, Daniel Ventre.

4. Digital Sparta: Information Operations and Cyber-warfare in Greece, Joseph Fitsanakis.

5. Moving Toward an Italian Cyber Defense and Security Strategy, Stefania Ducci.

6. Cyberspace in Japan's New Defense Strategy, Daniel Ventre.

7. Singapore's Encounter with Information Warfare: Filtering Electronic Globalization and Military Enhancements, Alan Chong.

8. A Slovenian Perspective on Cyber Warfare, Gorazd Praprotnik, Iztok Podbregar, Igor Bernik and Bojan Ticar.

9. A South African Perspective on Information Warfare and Cyber Warfare, Brett van Niekerk and Manoj Maharaj.

10. Conclusion, Daniel Ventre

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Introduction
  5. Chapter 1: Canada's Cyber Security Policy: a Tortuous Path Toward a Cyber Security Strategy
    1. 1.1. Introduction
    2. 1.2. Canada in North America: sovereign but subordinate?
    3. 1.3. Counter-terrorism for the improvement of national security
    4. 1.4. The long path to a national CI protection strategy and national cyber security strategy
    5. 1.5. The adoption of the current strategies for CI protection and cyber security
    6. 1.6. Conclusion
    7. 1.7. Bibliography
      1. 1.7.1. Scientific and media articles
      2. 1.7.2. Primary Data
      3. 1.7.3. Websites
  6. Chapter 2: Cuba: Towards an Active Cyber-defense
    1. 2.1. Cyberspace: statistics and history
      1. 2.1.1. The marginalization of Cuba
      2. 2.1.2. Cuban cyberspace as the target of attacks
    2. 2.2. Theoretical and practical considerations on information warfare and cyber-warfare
      1. 2.2.1. Development of capabilities
    3. 2.3. Cyber-warfare theories and practices
      1. 2.3.1. Fidel Castro's discourse
      2. 2.3.2. The concept of active cyber-defense
    4. 2.4. Regulations and ways around them
      1. 2.4.1. The State's influence over cyberspace
      2. 2.4.2. Getting around the restrictions
    5. 2.5. Capabilities of control, surveillance and interception
    6. 2.6. Enemies
    7. 2.7. Conclusion
    8. 2.8. Bibliography
  7. Chapter 3: French Perspectives on Cyber-conflict
    1. 3.1. Cyberspace
    2. 3.2. Assessments, view on the world and awakening
      1. 3.2.1. Attacks
      2. 3.2.2. The feeling of insecurity, the threat
      3. 3.2.3. Potential vulnerabilities of States
      4. 3.2.4. Evolution of the international environment
    3. 3.3. Reaction, position of France and choice: theories, political strategies and military doctrines
      1. 3.3.1. Information: a powerful weapon for those controlling it
      2. 3.3.2. Media information: beneficial if controlled
      3. 3.3.3. Economic information as power, if controlled
      4. 3.3.4. Information warfare
      5. 3.3.5. Information warfare or information control
      6. 3.3.6. The ANSSI
      7. 3.3.7. Cyber-security and cyber-defense
      8. 3.3.8. Army: Information operations, NEB (numérisation de l'espace de bataille/digitization of battlespace), info-development
        1. 3.3.8.1. The temple of information operations
        2. 3.3.8.2. Battlespace digitization
        3. 3.3.8.3. Info-valorization
        4. 3.3.8.4. Cyber-war
        5. 3.3.8.5. Military point of views
      9. 3.3.9. Cyber-war and other modalities of the cyber-conflict
        1. 3.3.9.1. Cyber-war
        2. 3.3.9.2. CID
    4. 3.4. Conclusion
    5. 3.5. Bibliography
  8. Chapter 4: Digital Sparta: Information Operations and Cyber-warfare in Greece
    1. 4.1. Geopolitical significance
    2. 4.2. Strategic concerns and internal balancing
    3. 4.3. Formative experiences in information operations: the Ergenekon conspiracy
    4. 4.4. Formative experiences in information operations: intensifying cyber-attacks
    5. 4.5. Formative experiences in information operations: the Öcalan affair
    6. 4.6. Formative experiences in information operations: the Greek wiretapping case of 20042005
    7. 4.7. Emerging civilian information operations strategies
    8. 4.8. Emerging military information operations strategies
    9. 4.9. The European Union dimension in Greek information operations
    10. 4.10. Conclusion
    11. 4.11. Bibliography
  9. Chapter 5: Moving Toward an Italian Cyber Defense and Security Strategy
    1. 5.1. Information warfare and cyber warfare: what are they?
    2. 5.2. Understanding the current Italian geopolitical context
    3. 5.3. The Italian legal and organizational framework
    4. 5.4. The need for a national cyber-defense and -security strategy
    5. 5.5. Conclusion
    6. 5.6. Bibliography
  10. Chapter 6: Cyberspace in Japan's New Defense Strategy
    1. 6.1. Japan's defense policy
    2. 6.2. Cyberspace in Japan's defense strategy
      1. 6.2.1. The context
        1. 6.2.1.1. Cyberspace and Japan
        2. 6.2.1.2. Japan as a victim of cyber-attacks
      2. 6.2.2. Cyberspace in security and defense policies
        1. 6.2.2.1. Cyberspace
        2. 6.2.2.2. Cyber-attacks
        3. 6.2.2.3. Cyber-defense
        4. 6.2.2.4. Cyber-warfare
        5. 6.2.2.5. Mobility, reactivity, rapidity, technology, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance capabilities
    3. 6.3. Conclusion
    4. 6.4. Bibliography
  11. Chapter 7: Singapore's Encounter with Information Warfare: Filtering Electronic Globalization and Military Enhancements
    1. 7.1. Singapore: electronic globalization and its pitfalls
    2. 7.2. Cyberdefence in the private sector and society at large
    3. 7.3. The Singapore Armed Forces and the embrace of third-generation warfare
      1. 7.3.1. Force multiplication
      2. 7.3.2. Continually revitalizing existing conventional arms capabilities
      3. 7.3.3. Generating asymmetrical advantages in operational transparency
    4. 7.4. Conclusion
    5. 7.5. Bibliography
  12. Chapter 8: A Slovenian Perspective on Cyber Warfare
    1. 8.1. Introduction
    2. 8.2. Preparations for digital warfare
    3. 8.3. Specifics of technologically-advanced small countries
    4. 8.4. Geostrategic, geopolitics and the economic position of the Republic of Slovenia
    5. 8.5. Information and communication development in Slovenia
    6. 8.6. Cyber-threats in Slovenia
    7. 8.7. Slovenia in the field of information and communication security policy
    8. 8.8. Slovenia's information and communication security policy strategy
      1. 8.8.1. The EU information and communication security policy
      2. 8.8.2. NATO's information and communications security policy
      3. 8.8.3. Slovenia's information and communication security policy
      4. 8.8.4. Analysis of key strategic documents regulating the field of information and communication security policy in the Republic of Slovenia
      5. 8.8.5. National bodies that govern the field of information and communication security policy in the Republic of Slovenia
      6. 8.8.6. Directorate for information society (Ministry of Higher Education, Science and Technology)
      7. 8.8.7. Slovenian Computer Emergency Response Team
      8. 8.8.8. Directorate of e-Government and Administrative Processes (Ministry of Public Administration)
      9. 8.8.9. Office of the Government of the Republic of Slovenia for the Protection of Classified Information
      10. 8.8.10. Slovenian Intelligence and Security Agency
      11. 8.8.11. National Center for Crisis Management
    9. 8.9. Conclusion
    10. 8.10. Bibliography
  13. Chapter 9: A South African Perspective on Information Warfare and Cyber Warfare
    1. 9.1. The South African structure of information warfare
    2. 9.2. A South African perspective on cyber-warfare
    3. 9.3. The Southern African cyber-environment
    4. 9.4. Legislation
    5. 9.5. Cyber-security and information warfare organizations in South Africa
    6. 9.6. Estimated cyber-warfare capability in Africa
    7. 9.7. Conclusion
    8. 9.8. Bibliography
  14. Chapter 10: Conclusion
    1. 10.1. Cyberspace
    2. 10.2. Bibliography
  15. List of Authors
  16. Index