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Cyber Behavior

Book Description

Following the migration of workflows, data, and communication to the Cloud and other Internet-based frameworks, interaction over the Web has become ever more commonplace. As with any social situation, there are rules and consequences to actions within a virtual environment. Cyber Behavior: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications explores the role of cyberspace in modern communication and interaction, including considerations of ethics, crime, security, and education. With chapters on a variety of topics and concerns inherent to a contemporary networked society, this multi-volume work will be of particular interest to students and academicians, as well as software developers, computer scientists, and specialists in the field of Information Technologies.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Editorial Advisory Board and List of Reviewers
    1. Editor-in-Chief
    2. Associate Editors
    3. Editorial Advisory Board
  5. Preface
  6. Section 1: Fundamental Concepts and Theories
    1. Chapter 1: Communication and Collaboration in a Web 2.0 World
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO EXPLAIN SOCIAL MEDIA
      5. INCREASED USE OF SOCIAL MEDIA
      6. SOCIAL MEDIA INITIATIVES IN GOVERNMENT
      7. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 2: Knowledge Sharing in the Age of Web 2.0
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RENEWING KNOWLEDGE SHARING THROUGH WEB 2.0 TOOLS
      4. RETHINKING KNOWLEDGE SHARING 2.0 IN TERMS OF SOCIAL CAPITAL
      5. SCHLUMBERGER: ENHANCING KNOWLEDGE SHARING 2.0 WITH SOCIAL
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 3: Redefining Participation in Online Community
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PARTICIPATION AS THE MAIN CHALLENGE OF ONLINE COMMUNITIES
      4. REDEFINING THE CONCEPT OF PARTICIPATION
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 4: Cyber Identity
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES
      4. CYBERSPACE: OUR CYBERHOOD?
      5. FUTURE PERSPECTIVES
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 5: Communities, Communication, and Online Identities
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. IDENTITY AND COMMUNITY
      4. DO IDENTITIES CHANGE ONLINE?
      5. SOCIAL NETWORKS AND ONLINE IDENTITIES
      6. CONCLUDING REMARKS
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
    6. Chapter 6: Social Network Citizenship
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. HOW TO BUILD COMMITMENT IN ONLINE SOCIAL NETWORKS
      5. CONCLUSION AND MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 7: Web 2.0 as a Foundation for Social Media Marketing
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SOCIAL MEDIA MARKETING
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 8: The Creation and Management of Online Brand Communities
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ONLINE BRAND COMMUNITIES
      4. ADVANTAGES FOR FIRMS FROM ONLINE BRAND COMMUNITIES
      5. A FOCUS ON MEMBERSHIP
      6. BUILDING AND MANAGING ONLINE BRAND COMMUNITIES
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 9: Intelligence in Web Technology
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. WEB TECHNOLOGY EVOLUTION
      4. TERMINOLOGY AND THEIR MEANING
      5. SOFTWARE ENGINEERING ISSUES
      6. APPLICATION AREAS CAN BE BENEFITED
      7. SURVEY OF LITERATURES FROM SEMANTIC WEB CONFERENCE
      8. CONCLUSION AND THE ROAD AHEAD
      9. DEDICATION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 10: Social Networking, Cyber Bullying, and the Role of Community Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. LINKING THE CONCEPTS OF SOCIAL CAPITAL, SOCIAL NETWORKING AND CYBER BULLYING
      5. FUTURE TRENDS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    11. Chapter 11: Cyberbullying
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. WHY HAS CYBERBULLYING BECOME A PROBLEM?
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    12. Chapter 12: Cyber Criminals on the Internet Super Highways
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. WHAT IS CYBER CRIME?
      4. INTERNET SERVICES IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
      5. NIGERIAN ECONOMIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL PROFILE
      6. MIGRATION OF CRIMINAL ACTIVITIES FROM POSTAL SERVICES TO ICT
      7. THE NIGERIAN CRIMINAL LAWS
      8. THE ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL CRIME COMMISSION ACT, 2004 (SOURCE: NATIONAL ASSEMBLY OF NIGERIA, 2004)
      9. ADVANCE FEE FRAUD AND RELATED OFFENCES ACT 2006 (SOURCE: NATIONAL ASSEMBLY OF NIGERIA, 2006)
      10. THE ROLE OF THE INTERNET
      11. TYPES OF INTERNET FRAUDS
      12. USAGE OF ELECTRONIC MAILS FOR CRIMINAL ACTIVITIES: A CASE OF NIGERIA
      13. FINDINGS
      14. SOCIAL IMPACT OF INTERNET ON CRIME
      15. IS THE INTERNET TECHNOLOGY A GOOD OR BAD INNOVATION?
      16. MANAGEMENT AND POLICING OF CYBER CRIMES
      17. THE ROLE OF THE NIGERIAN GOVERNMENT
      18. CONTRADICTIONS BASED ON CENSORSHIP
      19. THE ROLE OF BUSINESSES
      20. THE ROLE OF END-USERS
      21. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS
      22. FURTHER RECOMMENDATIONS
      23. REFERENCES
    13. Chapter 13: What is Cyberterrorism and How Real is the Threat?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. THE ORIGINS OF THE CONCEPT
      4. 3. AN OVERVIEW OF THE ACADEMIC LITERATURE
      5. 4. FROM “REAL WORLD” TERRORISM TO CYBERTERRORISM: DEFINITIONAL DEBATES
      6. 5. DIFFERENTIATING CYBERCRIME FROM CYBERTERRORISM
      7. 6. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTES
      10. APPENDIX
    14. Chapter 14: A Vulnerability-Based Model of Cyber Weapons and its Implications for Cyber Conflict
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. THE CYBER DOMAIN AND ITS WEAPONS
      4. 3. A VULNERABILITY-BASED VIEW OF CYBER WEAPONS
      5. 4. IMPLICATIONS FOR PARTY RELATIONSHIPS
      6. 5. CONCLUSION AND FURTHER WORK
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
  7. Section 2: Development and Design Methodologies
    1. Chapter 15: Cyber Risks in Energy Grid ICT Infrastructures
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. EVALUATION OF CYBER RISKS
      5. SCOPE OF THE EXPERIMENTAL ACTIVITY
      6. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
      7. RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. REFERENCES
    2. Chapter 16: Safeguarding Australia from Cyber-Terrorism
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CYBER-TERRORISM SCADA RISK ASSESSMENT
      4. SCADA RISK MANAGEMENT PROCESS OVERVIEW
      5. INDUSTRY ADOPTION AND ACCEPTANCE FOCUS GROUP VALIDATION AND EXAMINATION
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 17: Distributed Monitoring
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. DISTRIBUTED MONITORING FOR SCADA SYSTEMS
      5. SMART GRID
      6. DATA ACQUISITION FROM THE SENSORS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 18: An Alternative Framework for Research on Situational Awareness in Computer Network Defense
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
      4. AN ALTERNATIVE FRAMEWORK FOR CYBER-SA
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 19: Toward an Understanding of Online Community Participation through Narrative Network Analysis
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE EMERGENCE OF ONLINE COMMUNITIES
      4. THE CONCEPT OF NARRATIVE NETWORKS
      5. THE NARRATIVE NETWORK METHODOLOGY IN USE
      6. DISCUSSION FORUMS AND ONLINE COMMUNITIES
      7. A PROPOSED MODEL OF AN ONLINE COMMUNITY
      8. THE NARRATIVE NETWORK IN USE
      9. DISCUSSION
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
    6. Chapter 20: Virtual Communities of Practice as a Support for Knowledge Sharing in Social Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SOCIAL NETWORKS
      4. VIRTUAL COMMUNITIES OF PRACTICE: CoV
      5. CASE STUDIES IN VIRTUAL COMMUNITIES OF PRACTICE
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 21: Semantically Linking Virtual Communities
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORK
      4. SEMANTIC VIRTUAL COMMUNITIES
      5. RDFa FOR LINKING VIRTUAL COMMUNITIES
      6. SCIENTIFIC COLLABORATION FRAMEWORK
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      10. ENDNOTES
    8. Chapter 22: E-Infrastructures for International Cooperation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION: SOME OF THE WORLD “DIVIDES”
      3. THE EUROPEAN AND THE GLOBAL RESEARCH AREAS
      4. E-INFRASTRUCTURES IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION
      5. E-INFRASTRUCTURES IN CHINA
      6. E-INFRASTRUCTURES IN INDIA
      7. E-INFRASTRUCTURES IN LATIN AMERICA
      8. E-INFRASTRUCTURES IN THE MEDITERRANEAN AND THE MIDDLE-EAST
      9. E-INFRASTRUCTURES IN SOUTH-EAST EUROPE
      10. E-INFRASTRUCTURES IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
      11. FUTURE PERSPECTIVES AND LONG-TERM SUSTAINABILITY
      12. CONCLUSION
      13. REFERENCES
      14. ENDNOTES
    9. Chapter 23: Designing and Implementing Online Collaboration Tools in West Africa
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES
      5. PROJECT DESIGN AND RESULTS
      6. CRITICAL FACTORS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 24: A Framework for Government 2.0 Development and Implementation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. A FRAMEWORK FOR GOVERNMENT 2.0 DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION
      4. UNITED STATES’ GOVERNMENT 2.0
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS AND OPPORTUNITIES
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      9. ENDNOTES
    11. Chapter 25: Cyber-Search and Cyber-Seizure
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. 1. NATURE OF THREATS IN CYBERSPACE
      4. 2. A NATIONAL SECURITY APPROACH TO PREVENTING CYBER ATTACKS
      5. 3. A CONSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR PRESIDENTIAL ACTIONS
      6. 4. FOURTH AMENDMENT AND INTERNET MONITORING
      7. 5. EXCEPTIONS UNDER THE FOURTH AMENDMENT AND REASONABLENESS
      8. 6. THE “SPECIAL NEEDS” DOCTRINE: PROTECTING AGAINST CYBER ATTACKS
      9. 7. OVERSIGHT OF THE PROGRAM
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
    12. Chapter 26: Creating an Emotionally Resilient Virtual and On-Campus Student Community at K-State through the University Life Café
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
      4. BACKGROUND: A CURSORY HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF THE UNIVERSITY LIFE CAFÉ
      5. DISCUSSION: PROJECTED SITE IMPROVEMENTS TO PROMOTE EMOTIONAL RESILIENCE
      6. SOME IMPLICATIONS FOR OTHER VIRTUAL COMMUNITY SPACES IN HIGHER EDUCATION
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      11. APPENDIX: SIDEBAR Q&A
    13. Chapter 27: Competencies 2.0
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHODOLOGY
      4. THE MODEL: COMPETENCIES 2.0
      5. REFERENCES
      6. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      7. ENDNOTES
  8. Section 3: Tools and Technologies
    1. Chapter 28: Web 2.0 Open Remote and Virtual Laboratories in Engineering Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. EVOLUTION FROM LOCAL TO REMOTE LABORATORIES
      4. 3. AN OPEN LABORATORY NETWORK: THE AUTOMATL@BS PROJECT
      5. 4. FROM TRADITIONAL TO WEB 2.0 REMOTE AND VIRTUAL LABORATORIES
      6. 5. SMART DEVICE PARADIGM
      7. 7. WEB DEVELOPMENT TOOLS, EJS
      8. 8. FUTURE RESEARCH
      9. 9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      12. ENDNOTES
    2. Chapter 29: Mobile Web 2.0 Integration
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORKS
      4. RELATED RESEARCH
      5. 2010 MOBILE WEB 2.0 PROJECT
      6. 2010 MLEARNING PROJECT OUTLINES
      7. DISCUSSION
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
    3. Chapter 30: Virtual Learning Communities
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SOCIAL SOFTWARE IN EDUCATION
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      10. ENDNOTES
    4. Chapter 31: Virtual Collaborative Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. VIRTUAL COLLABORATIVE LEARNING FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 32: Analyzing Critical Functions of Recording Tools for Synchronous Cyber Classroom Instruction
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE THREE MAIN INSTRUCTION MODES
      5. FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS FOR RECORDING INSTRUCTIONAL PROCESS
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
    6. Chapter 33: Individual E-Portfolios
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DEFINING THE PORTFOLIO AND E-PORTFOLIO
      4. HISTORICAL CONTEXT OF THE CONCEPT OF THE PORTFOLIO AND E-PORTFOLIO
      5. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF E-PORTFOLIO
      6. ADVANTAGES OF THE E-PORTFOLIO
      7. CHALLENGES OF THE E-PORTFOLIO
      8. THE CURRENT STATUS OF E-PORTFOLIOS
      9. THE CHANGING WORLD: INTEGRATING WEB 2.0 TOOLS
      10. CAN WEB 2.0 AND OPEN SOURCE TOOLS BE A SOLUTION?
      11. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      12. CONCLUSION
      13. REFERENCES
      14. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 34: An E-Portfolio to Support E-Learning 2.0
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE E-LEARNING 2.0
      4. THE ePORTFOLIO
      5. ePORTFOLIO AND STUDENTS' E-LEARNING 2.0
      6. ADJUSTING THE ePORTFOLIO'S STRUCTURE
      7. ARE ePORTFOLIOS STILL RELEVANT FOR STUDENTS?
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 35: The Meeting Point of Second Life® and Web 2.0
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. WEB 2.0 TECHNOLOGIES AND LANGUAGE LEARNING
      4. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION
      5. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS
      6. RESULTS
      7. IMPLICATION AND DISCUSSION
      8. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      12. ENDNOTES
    9. Chapter 36: Virtual World Avatar Branding
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. A NEW LIFE
      3. AVATAR BRANDING: INTRODUCTION
      4. BACKGROUND
      5. FIRST CHOICES: CREATING THE NEW YOU
      6. INITIAL ACTIVITIES
      7. OVERVIEW OF VIRTUAL COMMUNITIES
      8. COMMUNITY PROFILES
      9. AVATAR BRANDING STRATEGY
      10. AVATAR BRANDING CASE STUDIES
      11. CASE STUDY INTERVIEW: JUNIVERS STOCKHOLM
      12. CASE STUDY INTERVIEW: PAMALA CLIFT
      13. CASE STUDY INTERVIEW: J. L. MORIN
      14. CASE STUDY INTERVIEW: NETERA LANDAR
      15. SEXISM AND AVATAR BRANDING
      16. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      17. CONCLUSION
      18. REFERENCES
      19. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 37: Application of Collaborative Technologies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. VIRTUAL ENTERPRISE (VE)
      4. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AS SUPPORT OF ORGANIZATIONS IN COLLABORATIVE NETWORKS
      5. PROPOSAL FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF COLLABORATIVE TECHNOLOGY: ENTERPRISE 2.0 - IN THE CONTEXT OF VIRTUAL ENTERPRISE
      6. CASE STUDY
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. Chapter 38: Technological Support for Online Communities Focusing on Music Creation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BRAZILIAN CULTURE AND BRAZILIAN CREATIVITY STYLE
      4. THE CODES ENVIRONMENT
      5. CODES AS COMMUNITYWARE: SUPPORTING SOCIAL NETWORK SERVICES AND ONLINE COMMUNITIES HAVING MUSIC AS INTRINSIC MOTIVATION
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    12. Chapter 39: Web 2.0 Technologies and Authentic Public Participation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. AUTHENTIC PARTICIPATION AND WEB 2.0 TECHNOLOGIES
      4. ADMINISTRATOR ACTIONS AND TOOLS TO CREATE THE ENVIRONMENT
      5. APPLICATION OF WEB 2.0 TECHNOLOGY IN CREATING SUPPORTIVE CONDITIONS FOR AUTHENTIC PARTICIPATION
      6. BARRIERS TO ACHIEVING EFFECTIVE PARTICIPATORY ENVIRONMENTS USING WEB 2.0 TOOLS
      7. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS: UNIVERSAL LESSONS LEARNED
      8. FUTURE CONSIDERATIONS FOR RESEARCH
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    13. Chapter 40: China's Cyber Tool
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. US ACCUSATIONS AGAINST CHINA’S CYBER MILITIA
      4. 3. WHO AND WHY: MAKING SENSE OF A CHINESE HACKER’S CYBER PENETRATION
      5. 4. CONCLUSION
      6. NOTE
      7. REFERENCES
    14. Chapter 41: Tracking Public Participation in Urban Governance
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. GIS AND SOCIETY: A BRIEF HISTORY
      4. WEB 2.0 AND VOLUNTEERED INFORMATION
      5. SPACES OF ENGAGEMENT
      6. THE ARAB SPRING AND OCCUPY
      7. SMART PHONES AND CELL PHONES: THE GLOOMY VIEW
      8. LOOKING AHEAD: SUPPORTING DEMOCRACY, MINIMIZING SURVEILLANCE
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    15. Chapter 42: Botnets and Cyber Security
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. CURRENT EFFORTS
      5. EXISTING CONSTRAINTS TO BOTNET MITIGATION
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
  9. Section 4: Utilization and Application
    1. Chapter 43: Cyber Command and Control
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. REQUIREMENTS FOR CYBER COMMAND AND CONTROL
      5. A FRAMEWORK FOR IMPLEMENTING CYBER C2
      6. ISSUE AND DESIGN CONCERNS
      7. COLLABORATION
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      13. ENDNOTES
    2. Chapter 44: Using Web 2.0 as a Community Policing Strategy
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE POLICE AND THEIR USE OF COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY
      5. THE POLICE AND THEIR USE OF THE INTERNET
      6. CREATING COMMUNITIES THROUGH WEB 2.0 SOCIAL MEDIA APPLICATIONS
      7. METHODS
      8. RESULTS
      9. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      10. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. REFERENCES
      13. ENDNOTES
    3. Chapter 45: Security and Privacy Issues in E-Government
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SECURITY ISSUES
      4. PRIVACY ISSUES
      5. SECURITY AND PRIVACY ISSUES IN E-GOVERNMENT
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 46: The Use of Internet by Diasporic Communities for Political Mobilization
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DIASPORIC IDENTITIES AND THE INTERNET
      4. ERITREAN AND IRANIAN DIASPORA
      5. USE OF INTERNET BY ERITREAN AND IRANIAN DIASPORA
      6. COMPARISON BETWEEN ERITREAN AND IRANIAN DIASPORA’S INTERNET USE IN POLITICAL MOBILIZATION
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 47: Towards E-Government Information Platforms for Enterprise 2.0
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. RELATED WORK
      5. UNLOCKING INFORMATION FOR E-GOVERNMENT AND ENTERPRISE 2.0 USING WEB 2.0 AND HUMAN LANGUAGE TECHNOLOGIES
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 48: E-Marketing on Online Social Networks and Ethical Issues
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ONLINE SOCIAL NETWORKS
      4. E-MARKETING
      5. OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES OF E-MARKETING IN ONLINE SOCIAL NETWORKS
      6. ETHICAL ISSUES
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    7. Chapter 49: Application of Social Media Tools by Retailers
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, SAMPLE, AND DATA PROCESSING
      6. A TYPOLOGY OF COMPANIES ACCORDING TO SOCIAL MEDIA USE
      7. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ADDITIONAL READING
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      14. ENDNOTES
    8. Chapter 50: Using Web 2.0 Features on Social Networks for Word-of-Mouth Effects
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    9. Chapter 51: An Innovative Approach to Enhance Collaboration in the Biomedical Field
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. SUPPORTING COLLABORATION IN THE BIOMEDICAL FIELD
      4. 3. PROBLEMS AND REQUIREMENTS TO BE ADDRESSED
      5. 4. THE DICODE APPROACH
      6. 5. DISCUSSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
    10. Chapter 52: Social Networking in Academic Libraries
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONCLUSION
      4. REFERENCES
    11. Chapter 53: Norms, Practices, and Rules of Virtual Community of Online Gamers
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. APPLYING THE INSTITUTIONAL LENS TO UNDERSTAND NORMS, PRACTICES, AND RULES OF THE GAMES
      4. 3. METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY
      5. 4. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS ON THE PROCESS OF INSTITUTIONALIZATION IN ONLINE GAMING
      6. 5. IMPLICATIONS AND FUTURE DIRECTION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    12. Chapter 54: A Distributed Community of Practice to Facilitate Communication, Collaboration, and Learning among Faculty
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
      4. THE RESEARCH SETTING
      5. THE RESEARCH APPROACH
      6. DESIGNING AN EDUCATIONAL INTERVENTION
      7. PRESENTATION OF FINDINGS
      8. CHALLENGES AND OBSTACLES
      9. REFLECTIONS ON THE DESIGN
      10. LESSON LEARNED
      11. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      12. FINAL REFLECTIONS
      13. REFERENCES
      14. ADDITIONAL READING
      15. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    13. Chapter 55: Web 2.0 for Language Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHOD
      4. RESULTS
      5. PEDAGOGICAL IMPLICATIONS
      6. SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    14. Chapter 56: Digital Storytelling with Web 2.0 Tools for Collaborative Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DIGITAL STORYTELLING AS A COLLABORATIVE LEARNING TOOL
      4. CURRENT MODELS OF DIGITAL STORYTELLING
      5. WEB 2.0 TOOLS FOR CREATING OPEN SOURCE LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS
      6. WEB 2.0 TOOLS FOR COLLABORATIVE LEARNING USING DIGITAL STORYTELLING
      7. DISCUSSION
      8. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  10. Section 5: Organizational and Social Implications
    1. Chapter 57: Student Mentors in Physical and Virtual Learning Spaces
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. STUDENTS SUPPORTING STUDENT LEARNING (SSSL) AT VU
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 58: The Continued Use of a Virtual Community
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
      4. 3. RESEARCH MODEL AND HYPOTHESES
      5. 4. RESEARCH DESIGN
      6. 5. DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
      7. 6. DISCUSSION
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 59: E-Behaviour Trends and Patterns among Malaysian Pre-Adolescents and Adolescents
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. INTERNET USAGE TREND
      4. PRE-ADOLESCENCE AND ADOLESCENCE AND INTERNET USAGE
      5. PRE-ADOLESCENCE AND ADOLESCENCE E-BEHAVIOUR
      6. PROPOSED STUDIES
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
    4. Chapter 60: Wikipedia's Success and the Rise of the Amateur-Expert
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. ROOTS IN THE OPEN SOURCE MOVEMENT
      5. CROWDSOURCING
      6. BRIEF HISTORY OF WIKIPEDIA
      7. PHILOSOPHY OF WIKIPEDIA
      8. ISSUES, CONTROVERSIES, AND PROBLEMS
      9. BRITANNICA VS. WIKIPEDIA
      10. WIKIPEDIA BUREAUCRACY
      11. SANGER’S DEFECTION AND BOMIS
      12. JARON LANIER AND DIGITAL MAOISM
      13. CULT OF THE AMATEUR
      14. WIKIPEDIA AND ACADEMIA
      15. CONCLUSION
      16. REFERENCES
      17. ADDITIONAL READING
      18. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 61: Virtual Communities as Contributors for Digital Objects Metadata Generation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. VIRTUAL COMMUNITIES
      4. 3. WHAT IS METADATA?
      5. 4. VIRTUAL COMMUNITIES AS METADATA CREATORS
      6. 5. STUDY NUMBER ONE: USER GENERATED METADATA IN IPTV SYSTEM
      7. 6. STUDY NUMBER TWO: SIMULATION OF COMMUNITY MEMBER METADATA GENERATION
      8. 7. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORKS
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ENDNOTES
    6. Chapter 62: Mindclone Technoselves
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND ON THE NATURE OF IDENTITY
      4. BIOCYBERETHICAL GUIDELINES FOR MINDCLONE TECHNOSELVES
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 63: Web 2.0, the Individual, and the Organization
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE LANDSCAPE OF INFORMAL PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE CLOUD
      4. ISSUES WHEN INFORMAL PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT HAPPENS IN THE CLOUD
      5. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR INFORMAL PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE CLOUD
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 64: Identification vs. Self-Verification in Virtual Communities (VC)
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. IDENTIFICATION: SOCIAL INFLUENCE FROM THE COLLECTIVE
      4. ORGANIZATIONAL IDENTIFICATION: COMPARISON MODELS
      5. DETERMINANTS FOR IDENTIFICATION
      6. IDENTIFICATION IN COMPUTER-MEDIATED COMMUNICATION (CMC)
      7. SUMMARY
      8. THE ROLE OF INDIVIDUALS IN GROUPS
      9. IDENTIFICATION VS. SELF-VERIFICATION
      10. ORGANIZATIONAL IDENTIFICATION VS. COMMUNITY IDENTIFICATION
      11. IDENTIFICATION FORMATION: OFFLINE VS. ONLINE
      12. FUTURE RESEARCH AGENDA AND IMPLICATIONS FOR VC DESIGN
      13. CONCLUSION
      14. REFERENCES
      15. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 65: Human Rights, the Global War on Transnational Terror, and the Mixed Roles of ICT
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. A BACKGROUND CONTEXT
      4. AN EXPLANATORY MODEL OF ICT USE IN TRANSNATIONAL TERROR AND GOVERNMENT COUNTERMEASURES: APPLIED INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGIES (ICT)
      5. GOVERNMENT COUNTERMEASURES
      6. FUTURE CONSIDERATIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
    10. Chapter 66: Cyber-Bullying, Personality and Coping among Pre-Adolescents
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHOD
      4. RESULTS
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. IMPLICATIONS
      7. REFERENCES
    11. Chapter 67: Virtual Hate Communities in the 21st Century
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONCLUSION
      4. REFERENCES
      5. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    12. Chapter 68: When the Virtual and the Real Clash
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. THE VIRTUALITY/REALITY CONFLICT (VRC) MODEL
      5. METHODOLOGY
      6. CASE STUDY
      7. DISCUSSION
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
    13. Chapter 69: From Town Hall to the Virtual Community
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND: WIDELY USED PRACTICES FOR ENGAGING THE PUBLIC
      4. BREAKING FROM TRADITION: DEFINING WEB 1.0 AND WEB 2.0
      5. ADVANCING WEB 2.0 IN GOVERNMENT
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: EXPLORING GOVERNMENT INITIATIVES USING WEB 2.0
      7. INSIGHTS FROM PUBLIC ADMINISTRATORS ON THE CUTTING EDGE
      8. RECOMMENDED SOCIAL MEDIA STRATEGIES FOR PUBLIC ADMINISTRATORS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
    14. Chapter 70: Users' Involvement in the Innovation Process through Web 2.0
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. OPEN INNOVATION
      4. USERS’ INVOLVEMENT IN INNOVATION PROCESS AND NPD
      5. FRAMEWORK PROPOSAL FOR USER INVOLVEMENT
      6. RESEARCH METHOD
      7. THE AUTO COMPANY PROJECT
      8. ANALYSIS OF THE AUTO COMPANY PROJECT
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
  11. Section 6: Managerial Impact
    1. Chapter 71: The Pedagogical Considerations in the Design of Virtual Worlds for Organization Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. CASE STUDY
      5. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 72: Organizational Learning and Web 2.0 Technologies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING, KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT, AND WEB 2.0: BRIEF OVERVIEW
      4. PROPOSAL FOR A WEB 2.0 APPLICATION TO SUPPORT THE PLANNING AND ORGANIZATION OF SOFTWARE PROJECTS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      9. ENDNOTES
    3. Chapter 73: Meeting Them Halfway
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. A BRIEF HISTORY OF WEB 2.0
      4. CMC TOOLS
      5. FUTURE TRENDS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 74: The Web 2.0 Mandate for a Transition from Webmaster to Wiki Master
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. WIKI MASTER 101
      4. 3. CASE STUDY: ELATEWIKI.ORG
      5. 4. A DAY IN THE LIFE OF ELATEwiki’s WIKI KEEPER
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 75: US Cities and Social Networking
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. DATA
      5. FINDINGS
      6. RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      13. ENDNOTES
    6. Chapter 76: Improving CRM 2.0 through Collective Intelligence by Using CBIR Algorithms
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. IMPROVING CRM 2.0 THROUGH COLLECTIVE INTELLIGENCE BY USING CBIR ALGORITHMS
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
    7. Chapter 77: A Framework for Customer Knowledge Management based on Social Semantic Web
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORETICAL REFERENTIAL
      4. A FRAMEWORK FOR COMBINING CKM AND SOCIAL SEMANTIC WEB
      5. CONCLUDING REMARKS AND FUTURE WORK
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ENDNOTES
    8. Chapter 78: Exploiting Technological Potentialities for Collaborative New Product Development
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. FACTORS INHIBITING
      5. METHODOLOGY
      6. RESEARCH FINDINGS
      7. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
      8. IMPLICATIONS AND CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 79: Usability Impact Analysis of Collaborative Environments
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. ORGANIZATION BACKGROUND
      3. SETTING THE STAGE
      4. BACKGROUND INFORMATION
      5. USABILITY CRITERIA FOR COLLABORATIVE SYSTEMS
      6. CASE DESCRIPTION
      7. CURRENT CHALLENGES FACING THE ORGANIZATION
      8. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 80: Capturing Tacit Knowledge within Business Simulation Games
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ORGANIZATIONAL KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AND WEB 2.0
      4. BUSINESS SIMULATION GAMES: CURRENT MODEL
      5. BUSINESS SIMULATION GAMES: PROPOSED CONCEPTUAL MODEL
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. Chapter 81: The Community Manager and Social Media Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. PUBLIC ADMINISTRATIONS, WEB 2.0, AND COMMUNITY MANAGERS
      4. 3. EMPIRICAL RESEARCH ON LOCAL GOVERNMENTS IN SPAIN
      5. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    12. Chapter 82: An Approach to Governance of CyberSecurity in South Africa
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. INTERNATIONAL APPROACHES
      4. 3. CYBERSECURITY GOVERNANCE STRATEGIES FOR SOUTH AFRICA
      5. 4. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
      6. 5. REFERENCES
    13. Chapter 83: Al-Qaeda on Web 2.0
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE AL-QAEDA MEDIA NETWORK
      5. A VIRTUE ETHICAL PERSPECTIVE ON AL-QAEDA AND GLOBAL JIHADISM
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  12. Section 7: Critical Issues
    1. Chapter 84: Model-Based Evaluation of the Impact of Attacks to the Telecommunication Service of the Electrical Grid
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE MODELING FRAMEWORK
      5. CASE STUDY AND RESULTS DISCUSSION
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS AND CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    2. Chapter 85: The Role of Web 2.0 in the Arab Spring
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ARAB SPRING AND WEB 2.0: USING PATH DEPENDENCE TO EXPLAIN THE ROLE OF SOCIAL MEDIA
      4. E-GOVERNMENT AND E-GOVERNANCE
      5. MEDIA IN THE ARAB WORLD: HISTORICAL CONTEXT
      6. NEW COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY IN THE ARAB WORLD
      7. SOCIAL MEDIA AND THE PATH TOWARD DEMOCRACY: THE CASES OF MOROCCO, EGYPT, BAHRAIN, AND LIBYA
      8. CONCLUSION: WEB 2.0 AND THE ARAB AWAKENING
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ENDNOTES
    3. Chapter 86: The Use and Abuse of Digital Democracy
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. METHOD
      5. FINDINGS AND INTERPRETATIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. APPENDIX
    4. Chapter 87: Are ICT/Web 2.0 Tools Influencing Civic Engagement in Modern Democracies?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW: CONTEXTUAL TAXONOMY
      4. METHODOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK
      5. DECONSTRUCTING THE DISCOURSES
      6. CONCLUSION AND OUTLOOK
      7. REFERENCES
    5. Chapter 88: Studying Web 2.0 Interactivity
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. A CLOSER LOOK AT INTERACTIVITY
      4. A RESEARCH FRAMEWORK FOR THE ANALYSIS OF WEB 2.0 INTERACTIVITY
      5. CASE STUDIES: FLICKR AND DEVIANTART
      6. RESULTS
      7. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
    6. Chapter 89: Empirical Study of Cyber Harassment among Social Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. RESULTS
      6. IMPLICATIONS AND DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    7. Chapter 90: A Study of the Predictive Relationship between Online Social Presence and ONLE Interaction
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ONLE
      4. METHOD
      5. RESULTS
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. IMPLICATIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
    8. Chapter 91: The Role of Social Networking Sites for Language Learning in UK Higher Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE STUDY
      4. RESULTS
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    9. Chapter 92: Toward an Infrastructural Approach to Understanding Participation in Virtual Communities
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THREE VIRTUAL COMMUNITIES’ CHALLENGES SHARING DATA
      5. VC MOTIVATIONS UNDER THE INFRASTRUCTURAL VC APPROACH
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FROM THE INFRASTRUCTURAL VC APPROACH
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 93: An Examination of the Factors Influencing Consumers' Visit of C2C Websites
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
      6. THE PROFILE OF C2C WEBSITES’ USERS: PERSONAL AND SITUATIONAL FACTORS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. APPENDIX A
    11. Chapter 94: Understanding Brand Implication and Engagement on Facebook
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. BACKGROUND
      4. 3. CREATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE MOTIVATION SCALE
      5. 4. CREATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE BRAND ENGAGEMENT SCALE
      6. 5. HYPOTHESES
      7. 6. DATA COLLECTION
      8. 7. MEASURE
      9. 8. RESULTS
      10. 9. ISSUES, CONTROVERSIES, PROBLEMS
      11. 10. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      12. 11. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      13. 12. CONCLUSION
      14. REFERENCES
      15. ADDITIONAL READING
      16. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    12. Chapter 95: Virtual Communities in Marketing Processes
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE MARKETING FRAMEWORK
      5. THE MARKETING FRAMEWORK APPLIED TO THE EBAY VC
      6. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORKS
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    13. Chapter 96: Networked Knowledge Workers on the Web
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHODS
      4. RESULTS
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. ISSUES, CONTROVERSIES, AND PROBLEMS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    14. Chapter 97: Social Net/work(ing) on Facebook
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW: IMMATERIAL LABOR, AUDIENCE STUDIES, AND SOCIAL NETWORKS
      4. METHOD
      5. QUALITATIVE DATA: “STALKER BOOK”
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    15. Chapter 98: Viewing Cybercommunities through the Lens of Modernity
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW: ON CYBERCOMMUNITIES AND INDIVIDUALS’ PARTICIPATION
      4. 3. EMPIRICAL RESEARCH IN SECOND LIFE
      5. 4. MAIN FINDINGS: MODERNITY, COMMUNITY, SELF-IDENTITY, COMMERCE AND LEISURE
      6. 5. DISCUSSION: HIDING PLACE AND PLAY GROUND
      7. 6. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTES
  13. Section 8: Emerging Trends
    1. Chapter 99: Virtual Communities as Subaltern Public Spheres
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE THEORY OF SUBALTERN PUBLIC SPHERES
      5. A CASE OF CHINESE ONLINE PUBLIC SPHERES
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTES
    2. Chapter 100: Citizens Collaboration and Co-Creation in Public Service Delivery
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. BACKGROUND AND STATE OF THE ART
      4. 3. PROPOSED SOLUTION
      5. 4. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH AND PRELIMINARY FINDINGS
      6. 5. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
    3. Chapter 101: Conducting Research in the Cloud
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. WEB 2.0-BASED RESEARCH WEBSITES
      4. CLOUD COMPUTING
      5. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
    4. Chapter 102: Child Security in Cyberspace through Moral Cognition
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONCLUSION
      4. REFERENCES
    5. Chapter 103: A Systemic Approach to Online Sharing Motivations
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
      5. SYNTHESIS
      6. CONCLUSION, IMPLICATIONS, AND FUTURE RESEARCH
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 104: The “Right to be Forgotten” in the Era of Social Media and Cloud Computing
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE NEW ICT ENVIRONMENT
      4. THE RIGHT TO BE FORGOTTEN
      5. STRIKING THE BALANCE BETWEEN CONFLICTING RIGHTS
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    7. Chapter 105: Law and Technology at Crossroads in Cyberspace
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. COMPUTER CRIME: AN OVERVIEW
      4. COUNTER-ACTING COMPUTER CRIMES: CONTROL MECHANISMS
      5. SOCIAL MEDIA AND CYBERCRIME
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 106: Motivating Cybersecurity
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE AS AN OBJECT OF CYBER THREATS, PAST AND PRESENT
      5. DISCUSSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 107: Advancing Cyber Resilience Analysis with Performance-Based Metrics from Infrastructure Assessments
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
      3. RESILIENCE ASSESSMENT METHODS
      4. A TWO-DIMENSIONAL, HYBRID RESILIENCE ASSESSMENT FRAMEWORK
      5. A CASE STUDY
      6. CONCLUSION AND SUMMARY
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTES
    10. Chapter 108: Abstract Service for Cyber Physical Service Composition
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. EXTENDING SOA MODEL FOR CPS SERVICES
      5. CASE STUDY
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    11. Chapter 109: Threats to the Critical Information Infrastructure Protection (CIIP) Posed by Modern Terrorism
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. 1. PROCESS OF GLOBALIZATION AND THE SECURITY ENVIRONMENT AFTER THE COLD WAR
      4. 2. AL QAEDA AND ITS ASSOCIATED MOVEMENTS: A SERIOUS THREAT TO CRITICAL INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROTECTION (CIIP)
      5. 3. AL QAEDA AND ITS ASSOCIATED MOVEMENTS’ ABILITY TO EMPLOY CHALLENGES TO EFFECTIVE CRITICAL INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROTECTION
      6. 4. WHAT NEEDS TO BE DONE TO IMPROVE CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE INFORMATION PROTECTION AND RESILIENCE FROM AQAM?
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    12. Chapter 110: Using Hybrid Attack Graphs to Model and Analyze Attacks against the Critical Information Infrastructure
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MODELING CYBER-PHYSICAL SYSTEMS IN THE SMART GRID
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS