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CWTS™: Certified Wireless Technology Specialist Official Study Guide:Exam PW0-070

Book Description

About the Book

This Official Study Guide for the CWTS exam features complete coverage of the exam objectives, as well as hands-on exercises, Real World Scenarios, chapter review questions, a detailed glossary, objective map, and a pre-assessment test. The enhanced CD includes two bonus exams, 150 flashcards, Case Studies, and demo software.

Exam coverage includes:

  • Wi-Fi Technology, Standards, and Certifications

  • Hardware and Software

  • Radio Frequency (RF) Fundamentals

  • Site Surveying and Installation

  • Applications, Support, and Troubleshooting

  • Security & Compliance

About the CWTS Certification

The Certified Wireless Technology Specialist (CWTS) is a vendor-neutral certification administered by CWNP. This brand new certification is the only entry-level vendor neutral wireless certification for IT Professionals, and was developed for IT support staff who work with wireless technologies. It is a springboard to the foundation-level Certified Wireless Network Administrator (CWNA), and more advanced Certified Wireless Security Professional (CWSP) and Certified Wireless Network Expert (CWNE) certifications. The exam is offered in over 100 countries through both Prometric and Pearson VUE testing centers. The cost of the exam is $125.

Note: CD-ROM/DVD and other supplementary materials are not included as part of eBook file.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Dear Reader,
  3. Acknowledgments
  4. About the Author
  5. Foreword
  6. Introduction
    1. About CWNP®
    2. CWNP Learning Resources
    3. How to Become a CWTS
    4. Who Should Buy this Book?
    5. How to Use this Book and the CD
    6. Exam Objectives
      1. Wireless Technologies, Standards, and Certifications—15%
        1. 1.1. Define the roles of the following organizations in providing direction and accountability within the wireless networking industry
        2. 1.2. Define basic characteristics of Wi-Fi technology
        3. 1.3. Summarize the basic attributes and advantages of the following WLAN standards, amendments, and product certifications
      2. Hardware and Software—25%
        1. 2.1 Identify the purpose, features, and functions of the following wireless network components. Choose the appropriate installation or configuration steps in a given scenario.
        2. 2.2. Identify the purpose, features, and functions of the following client devices. Choose the appropriate installation or configuration steps in a given scenario.
        3. 2.3. Identify the purpose, features, and functions of and the appropriate installation or configuration steps for the following types of antennas
      3. Radio Frequency (RF) Fundamentals—15%
        1. 3.1 Define the basic units of RF measurements
        2. 3.2 Identify factors that affect the range and speed of RF transmissions
        3. 3.3 Define and differentiate between the following Physical layer wireless technologies
        4. 3.4 Define concepts that make up the functionality of RF and spread spectrum technology
        5. 3.5 Identify RF signal characteristics and the applications of basic RF antenna concepts
        6. 3.6 Describe the proper locations and methods for installing RF antennas
        7. 3.7 Identify the use of the following WLAN accessories and explain how to select and install them for optimal performance and regulatory domain compliance
      4. Site Surveying and Installation—15%
        1. 4.1 Understand and describe the requirements to gather information prior to the site survey and do reporting after the site survey
        2. 4.2 Define and differentiate between the following WLAN system architectures and understand site survey concepts related to each architecture. Identify and explain best practices for access point placement and density.
        3. 4.3 Define the need for and the use of a manual site survey tool and differentiate between the following manual site survey types
        4. 4.4 Differentiate between manual and predictive site surveys
        5. 4.5 Define the need for and use of a protocol analyzer in a manual site survey as it relates to the following
        6. 4.6 Differentiate between site surveys involving networks with and without a mesh access layer
        7. 4.7 Define the need for and use of a spectrum analyzer in a manual site survey
        8. 4.8 Identify limitations on hardware placement
        9. 4.9 Understand industry best practices for optimal use of directional and omnidirectional antennas in site surveys
      5. Applications, Support, and Troubleshooting—15%
        1. 5.1 Identify deployment scenarios for common WLAN network types
        2. 5.2 Recognize common problems associated with wireless networks and their symptoms, and identify steps to isolate and troubleshoot the problem. Given a problem situation, interpret the symptoms and the most likely cause. Problems may include:
        3. 5.3 Identify procedures to optimize wireless networks in specific situations
      6. Security and Compliance—15%
        1. 6.1 Identify and describe the following WLAN security techniques
        2. 6.2 Regulatory Compliance
      7. CWNP Exam Terminology
    7. Assessment Test
    8. Answers to Assessment Test
  7. 1. Introduction to Wireless Local Area Networking
    1. 1.1. Common WLAN Deployment Scenarios
      1. 1.1.1. Small Office/Home Office (SOHO)
      2. 1.1.2. Enterprise Deployments: Corporate Data Access and End-User Mobility
      3. 1.1.3. Extending Existing Networks with Wireless LAN
      4. 1.1.4. Mobile Office and Public Wireless Hotspots
      5. 1.1.5. Educational Institutions: Classroom Deployments
      6. 1.1.6. Healthcare
      7. 1.1.7. Last-Mile Data Delivery: Wireless ISP
      8. 1.1.8. Industrial, Municipal, Law Enforcement, and Transportation Networks
      9. 1.1.9. Building-to-Building Connectivity
        1. 1.1.9.1. Point-to-Point Link
        2. 1.1.9.2. Point-to-Multipoint Link
    2. 1.2. Radio Frequency Regulatory Domain Governing Bodies
      1. 1.2.1. United States: Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
      2. 1.2.2. Europe: European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI)
    3. 1.3. IEEE and Wireless LAN Standards
      1. 1.3.1. 802.11
      2. 1.3.2. 802.11b
      3. 1.3.3. 802.11a
      4. 1.3.4. 802.11g
      5. 1.3.5. 802.11n
      6. 1.3.6. Additional IEEE 802.11 Amendments
        1. 1.3.6.1. 802.11e
        2. 1.3.6.2. 802.11i
    4. 1.4. Interoperability Certifications
      1. 1.4.1. Wi-Fi Alliance
      2. 1.4.2. Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) Certification Overview
      3. 1.4.3. Wi-Fi Protected Access 2 (WPA 2.0) Certification Overview
      4. 1.4.4. Wi-Fi Multimedia (WMM) Certification Overview
      5. 1.4.5. Wi-Fi Multimedia Power Save (WMM-PS) Certification Overview
      6. 1.4.6. Wi-Fi Protected Setup (WPS) Certification Overview
    5. 1.5. Summary
    6. 1.6. Key Terms
    7. 1.7. Exam Essentials
    8. 1.8. Review Questions
    9. 1.9. Answers to Review Questions
  8. 2. Wireless LAN Infrastructure Devices
    1. 2.1. OSI Model Basics
    2. 2.2. Access Points (AP)
      1. 2.2.1. Autonomous Access Points
        1. 2.2.1.1. SOHO Access Points
          1. 2.2.1.1.1. IEEE 802.11 Standards Support
          2. 2.2.1.1.2. Wi-Fi Certifications
          3. 2.2.1.1.3. Removable Antennas
          4. 2.2.1.1.4. Static Output Power
          5. 2.2.1.1.5. Security
          6. 2.2.1.1.6. Bridge Functionality
          7. 2.2.1.1.7. Repeater Functionality
          8. 2.2.1.1.8. DHCP Server
          9. 2.2.1.1.9. Configuration and Settings Options
        2. 2.2.1.2. Enterprise Access Points
          1. 2.2.1.2.1. IEEE 802.11 Standards Support
          2. 2.2.1.2.2. Wi-Fi Certifications
          3. 2.2.1.2.3. Removable or Expandable Antennas
          4. 2.2.1.2.4. Adjustable Transmit Output Power
          5. 2.2.1.2.5. Advanced Security
          6. 2.2.1.2.6. Multiple Operation Modes
          7. 2.2.1.2.7. Command-Line Interface (CLI) Configuration
      2. 2.2.2. Lightweight Access Points
      3. 2.2.3. Mesh Access Points
      4. 2.2.4. Wireless LAN Routers
        1. 2.2.4.1. Wireless Residential Gateway
        2. 2.2.4.2. Wireless VPN Router
      5. 2.2.5. Wireless Bridges
      6. 2.2.6. Wireless Repeaters
      7. 2.2.7. Wireless LAN Controller/Switch
        1. 2.2.7.1. Centralized Administration
        2. 2.2.7.2. Lightweight Access Points
        3. 2.2.7.3. Virtual LAN (VLAN)
        4. 2.2.7.4. Power over Ethernet (PoE) capability
        5. 2.2.7.5. Improved Roaming
        6. 2.2.7.6. Security Profiles
        7. 2.2.7.7. Captive Portal
        8. 2.2.7.8. Built-in RADIUS Services
        9. 2.2.7.9. Site Survey Tools
        10. 2.2.7.10. Radio Frequency Spectrum Management
        11. 2.2.7.11. Firewall
        12. 2.2.7.12. Quality of Service (QoS)
        13. 2.2.7.13. Redundancy
        14. 2.2.7.14. Intrusion Prevention System (IPS)
        15. 2.2.7.15. Direct and Distributed AP Connectivity
        16. 2.2.7.16. Layer 2 and Layer 3 AP Connectivity
    3. 2.3. Power over Ethernet (PoE)
      1. 2.3.1. Power Sourcing Equipment (PSE)
      2. 2.3.2. Powered Device (PD)
      3. 2.3.3. Benefits of PoE
      4. 2.3.4. Midspan Devices
      5. 2.3.5. Endpoint Devices
    4. 2.4. Summary
    5. 2.5. Exam Essentials
    6. 2.6. Key Terms
    7. 2.7. Review Questions
    8. 2.8. Answers to Review Questions
  9. 3. Wireless LAN Client Devices
    1. 3.1. PCMCIA
      1. 3.1.1. Features of PCMCIA Cards
      2. 3.1.2. Installation and Configuration of PCMCIA Cards
        1. 3.1.2.1. Configuration Using Installer Software
        2. 3.1.2.2. Configuration Using a Wizard
    2. 3.2. ExpressCard
      1. 3.2.1. Features of the ExpressCard
      2. 3.2.2. Installation and Configuration of an ExpressCard
    3. 3.3. USB 1.0, USB 1.1, and USB 2.0
      1. 3.3.1. Features of USB
      2. 3.3.2. Installation and Configuration of USB Devices
    4. 3.4. CompactFlash (CF) Devices
      1. 3.4.1. Features of CF Cards
      2. 3.4.2. Installation and Configuration of a CF Card
    5. 3.5. Secure Digital (SD)
      1. 3.5.1. Features of SDIO Cards
      2. 3.5.2. Installation and Configuration of SDIO Cards
    6. 3.6. Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI)
      1. 3.6.1. Features of PCI
      2. 3.6.2. Installation and Configuration of PCI Cards
    7. 3.7. Mini-PCI and Mini-PCIe (Mini-PCI Express)
      1. 3.7.1. Features of Mini-PCI and Mini-PCIe Cards
      2. 3.7.2. Installation and Configuration of Mini-PCI and Mini-PCIe Cards
    8. 3.8. Workgroup Bridges
      1. 3.8.1. Features of Workgroup/Client Bridges
      2. 3.8.2. Installation and Configuration of Workgroup/Client Bridges
    9. 3.9. Client Device Drivers
    10. 3.10. Client Utility Software
      1. 3.10.1. Manufacturer-Specific Client Utilities
      2. 3.10.2. Third-Party Client Utilities
    11. 3.11. Summary
    12. 3.12. Exam Essentials
    13. 3.13. Key Terms
    14. 3.14. Review Questions
    15. 3.15. Answers to Review Questions
  10. 4. Radio Frequency (RF) Fundamentals for Wireless LAN Technology
    1. 4.1. Understanding Radio Frequency (RF)
      1. 4.1.1. Wavelength
      2. 4.1.2. Frequency
      3. 4.1.3. Amplitude
      4. 4.1.4. Phase
      5. 4.1.5. Frequencies Used for Wireless LANs
      6. 4.1.6. U.S. (FCC) Unlicensed Frequency Bands
        1. 4.1.6.1. Channels
        2. 4.1.6.2. Range
    2. 4.2. Coverage and Capacity
      1. 4.2.1. Coverage
        1. 4.2.1.1. Size of Area
        2. 4.2.1.2. Number of Users
        3. 4.2.1.3. Applications in Use
        4. 4.2.1.4. Obstacles, Propagation, and Radio Frequency Range
        5. 4.2.1.5. WLAN Hardware and Output Power
      2. 4.2.2. Capacity
        1. 4.2.2.1. Software Applications in Use
        2. 4.2.2.2. Desired Throughput or Performance
      3. 4.2.3. Channel Reuse and Co-location
    3. 4.3. RF Range and Speed
      1. 4.3.1. Line of Sight
      2. 4.3.2. Interference
        1. 4.3.2.1. Co-channel and Adjacent Channel Interference
        2. 4.3.2.2. WLAN/WPAN Interference
        3. 4.3.2.3. Bright Sunlight Interference
      3. 4.3.3. Environment: RF Behavior
        1. 4.3.3.1. Reflection
        2. 4.3.3.2. Refraction
        3. 4.3.3.3. Diffraction
        4. 4.3.3.4. Scattering
        5. 4.3.3.5. Absorption
        6. 4.3.3.6. Diffusion
    4. 4.4. Basic Units of RF Measurement
      1. 4.4.1. Absolute Measurements of Power
        1. 4.4.1.1. Watt (W)
        2. 4.4.1.2. Milliwatt (mW)
        3. 4.4.1.3. Decibel Relative to a Milliwatt (dBm)
      2. 4.4.2. Relative Measurements of Power
        1. 4.4.2.1. Decibel (dB)
        2. 4.4.2.2. Decibel Isotropic (dBi)
        3. 4.4.2.3. Decibel Dipole (dBd)
    5. 4.5. Summary
    6. 4.6. Exam Essentials
    7. 4.7. Key Terms
    8. 4.8. Review Questions
    9. 4.9. Answers to Review Questions
  11. 5. Access Methods, Architectures, and Spread Spectrum Technology
    1. 5.1. Network Access Methods
      1. 5.1.1. Detecting Network Traffic Collisions with CSMA/CD
      2. 5.1.2. Avoiding Network Traffic Collisions with CSMA/CA
      3. 5.1.3. Reserving Time for Data Transmission Using Distributed Coordination Function (DCF)
      4. 5.1.4. Effects of Half Duplex on Wireless Throughput
      5. 5.1.5. Narrowband vs. Spread Spectrum Communication
    2. 5.2. Spread Spectrum Technology
      1. 5.2.1. Frequency-Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS)
      2. 5.2.2. Direct-Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS)
      3. 5.2.3. High Rate/Direct-Sequence Spread Spectrum (HR/DSSS)
      4. 5.2.4. DSSS and HR/DSSS Channels
      5. 5.2.5. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)
      6. 5.2.6. OFDM Channels
      7. 5.2.7. Multiple Input/Multiple Output (MIMO)
      8. 5.2.8. MIMO Channels
      9. 5.2.9. Co-location of HR/DSSS and ERP-OFDM Systems
      10. 5.2.10. Adjacent-Channel and Co-channel Interference
      11. 5.2.11. WLAN/WPAN Coexistence
    3. 5.3. Summary
    4. 5.4. Exam Essentials
    5. 5.5. Key Terms
    6. 5.6. Review Questions
    7. 5.7. Answers to Review Questions
  12. 6. WLAN Antennas and Accessories
    1. 6.1. Basic RF Antenna Concepts
      1. 6.1.1. RF Lobes
      2. 6.1.2. Beamwidth
      3. 6.1.3. Antenna Gain
      4. 6.1.4. Passive Gain
      5. 6.1.5. Active Gain
      6. 6.1.6. Antenna Polarization
    2. 6.2. WLAN Antenna Types
      1. 6.2.1. Omnidirectional Antennas
      2. 6.2.2. Omnidirectional Antenna Specifications
      3. 6.2.3. Semidirectional Antennas
        1. 6.2.3.1. Patch/Panel Antennas
        2. 6.2.3.2. Patch/Panel Antenna Specifications
        3. 6.2.3.3. Sector Antennas
        4. 6.2.3.4. Sector Antenna Specifications
        5. 6.2.3.5. Yagi Antennas
        6. 6.2.3.6. Yagi Antenna Specifications
      4. 6.2.4. Highly Directional Antennas
      5. 6.2.5. Highly Directional Antenna Specifications
    3. 6.3. RF Cables and Connectors
      1. 6.3.1. Cable Types
      2. 6.3.2. Cable Length
      3. 6.3.3. Cable Cost
      4. 6.3.4. Impedance and VSWR
      5. 6.3.5. RF Connectors
    4. 6.4. Factors in Antenna Installation
      1. 6.4.1. Addressing the Effects of Earth Curvature
      2. 6.4.2. Antenna Placement
        1. 6.4.2.1. Omnidirectional Placement
        2. 6.4.2.2. Semidirectional Placement
        3. 6.4.2.3. Highly Directional Placement
      3. 6.4.3. Minimizing the Effects of Multipath Using Antenna Diversity
    5. 6.5. Combating Effects of Wind and Lightning on Wireless Connections
      1. 6.5.1. Lightning Arrestors
      2. 6.5.2. Grounding Rods
    6. 6.6. Installation Safety
    7. 6.7. Antenna Mounting
      1. 6.7.1. Pole/Mast Mount
      2. 6.7.2. Ceiling Mount
      3. 6.7.3. Wall Mount
    8. 6.8. Maintaining Clear Communications
      1. 6.8.1. Visual Line of Sight
      2. 6.8.2. RF Line of Sight
      3. 6.8.3. Fresnel Zone
    9. 6.9. Summary
    10. 6.10. Exam Essentials
    11. 6.11. Key Terms
    12. 6.12. Review Questions
    13. 6.13. Answers to Review Questions
  13. 7. WLAN Terminology and Technology
    1. 7.1. Wireless LAN Modes of Operation
      1. 7.1.1. Independent Basic Service Set (IBSS)
        1. 7.1.1.1. Service Set Identifier (SSID)
        2. 7.1.1.2. Radio Frequency Channel
        3. 7.1.1.3. IBSS Security
        4. 7.1.1.4. IBSS Terms
        5. 7.1.1.5. Advantages and Disadvantages of IBSS
      2. 7.1.2. Basic Service Set (BSS)
        1. 7.1.2.1. Advantages and Disadvantages of BSS
      3. 7.1.3. Extended Service Set (ESS)
    2. 7.2. Connecting to a Wireless Network
      1. 7.2.1. Frame Types
        1. 7.2.1.1. Management Frames
        2. 7.2.1.2. Control Frames
        3. 7.2.1.3. Data Frames
      2. 7.2.2. Passive Scanning
      3. 7.2.3. Active Scanning
      4. 7.2.4. Authentication
        1. 7.2.4.1. Open System Authentication
        2. 7.2.4.2. Shared Key Authentication
      5. 7.2.5. Association
      6. 7.2.6. Deauthentication and Disassociation
    3. 7.3. Distribution System (DS)
    4. 7.4. Data Rates
    5. 7.5. Throughput
    6. 7.6. Dynamic Rate Switching (DRS)
    7. 7.7. WLAN Roaming
    8. 7.8. Power Saving Operation
      1. 7.8.1. Active Mode (AM)
      2. 7.8.2. Power Save (PS) Mode
      3. 7.8.3. Automatic Power Save Delivery (APSD)
    9. 7.9. Protection Mechanisms
      1. 7.9.1. Extended Rate Physical (ERP) Protection Mechanism
        1. 7.9.1.1. 802.11b Only Mode
        2. 7.9.1.2. 802.11g Only Mode
        3. 7.9.1.3. 802.11b/g Mixed Mode
      2. 7.9.2. High Throughput (HT) Protection Mechanism
        1. 7.9.2.1. Mode 0—Greenfield Mode
        2. 7.9.2.2. Mode 1—HT Non-member Protection Mode
        3. 7.9.2.3. Mode 2—HT 20 MHz Protection Mode
        4. 7.9.2.4. Mode 3—HT Mixed Mode
        5. 7.9.2.5. Additional HT Protection Modes
    10. 7.10. Summary
    11. 7.11. Exam Essentials
    12. 7.12. Key Terms
    13. 7.13. Review Questions
    14. 7.14. Answers to Review Questions
  14. 8. Planning a WLAN Site Survey
    1. 8.1. Wireless LAN Site Surveys
      1. 8.1.1. Size of Physical Location
      2. 8.1.2. Intended Use of the Network
      3. 8.1.3. Number of Users
      4. 8.1.4. Performance Expectations
    2. 8.2. Gathering Business Requirements
      1. 8.2.1. General Office/Enterprise
        1. 8.2.1.1. Case study—Enterprise
        2. 8.2.1.2. Customer
        3. 8.2.1.3. Requirements
        4. 8.2.1.4. Solution
        5. 8.2.1.5. Benefits
      2. 8.2.2. Manufacturing
        1. 8.2.2.1. Case study—Manufacturing
        2. 8.2.2.2. Customer
        3. 8.2.2.3. Objective
        4. 8.2.2.4. Solution
        5. 8.2.2.5. Result
      3. 8.2.3. Warehousing
        1. 8.2.3.1. Case Study—Warehousing
        2. 8.2.3.2. Customer
        3. 8.2.3.3. Objective
        4. 8.2.3.4. Solution
        5. 8.2.3.5. Result
      4. 8.2.4. Retail/Point of Sale (POS)
      5. 8.2.5. Health Care/Medical
        1. 8.2.5.1. Case study—Healthcare
        2. 8.2.5.2. Customer
        3. 8.2.5.3. Challenge
        4. 8.2.5.4. Solution
        5. 8.2.5.5. Results
      6. 8.2.6. Government/Military
        1. 8.2.6.1. Case study—Government
        2. 8.2.6.2. Customer
        3. 8.2.6.3. Business Challenge
        4. 8.2.6.4. Network Solution
        5. 8.2.6.5. Business Results
      7. 8.2.7. Education
        1. 8.2.7.1. Case study—Education
        2. 8.2.7.2. Customer
        3. 8.2.7.3. Solution
        4. 8.2.7.4. Results
      8. 8.2.8. Public Access, Hotspots, Hospitality
        1. 8.2.8.1. Case study—Hospitality
        2. 8.2.8.2. Customer
        3. 8.2.8.3. Requirements
        4. 8.2.8.4. Solution
        5. 8.2.8.5. Benefits
    3. 8.3. Interviewing Managers and Users
      1. 8.3.1. Manufacturer Guidelines and Deployment Guides
    4. 8.4. Defining Physical and Data Security Requirements
    5. 8.5. Gathering Site-Specific Documentation
      1. 8.5.1. Floor Plans and Blueprints
      2. 8.5.2. Furnishings
      3. 8.5.3. Electrical Specifications
    6. 8.6. Documenting Existing Network Characteristics
    7. 8.7. Identifying Infrastructure Connectivity and Power Requirements
    8. 8.8. Understanding RF Coverage and Capacity Requirements
    9. 8.9. Client Connectivity Requirements
    10. 8.10. Antenna Use Consideration
    11. 8.11. Summary
    12. 8.12. Exam Essentials
    13. 8.13. Key Terms
    14. 8.14. Review Questions
    15. 8.15. Answers to Review Questions
  15. 9. Performing a WLAN Site Survey
    1. 9.1. The Physical Site Survey Process
    2. 9.2. RF Spectrum Analysis
      1. 9.2.1. Wi-Fi and Non-Wi-Fi Interference Sources
      2. 9.2.2. Wi-Fi Interference
    3. 9.3. Performing a Manual Site Survey
      1. 9.3.1. Obtaining a Floor Plan or Blueprint
      2. 9.3.2. Identifying Existing Wireless Networks
      3. 9.3.3. Testing Access Point Placement
      4. 9.3.4. Analyzing the Results
      5. 9.3.5. Advantages and Disadvantages of Manual Site Survey
      6. 9.3.6. Software Assisted Manual Site Survey
        1. 9.3.6.1. Passive Site Survey
        2. 9.3.6.2. Active Site Survey
      7. 9.3.7. Manual Site Survey Toolkit
    4. 9.4. Performing a Predictive Site Survey
    5. 9.5. Protocol Analysis
    6. 9.6. Documenting Existing Network Characteristics
    7. 9.7. RF Coverage Requirements
    8. 9.8. Infrastructure Hardware Selection and Placement
    9. 9.9. Infrastructure Connectivity and Power Requirements
    10. 9.10. Received Signal Strength
    11. 9.11. Antenna Use Considerations
      1. 9.11.1. Testing Multiple Antenna Types
      2. 9.11.2. Choosing the Correct Antennas
    12. 9.12. Channel Architectures
      1. 9.12.1. Multiple Channel Architecture (MCA)
      2. 9.12.2. Single Channel Architecture (SCA)
    13. 9.13. Installation Limitations
    14. 9.14. Site Survey Report
    15. 9.15. Summary
    16. 9.16. Exam Essentials
    17. 9.17. Key Terms
    18. 9.18. Review Questions
    19. 9.19. Answers to Review Questions
  16. 10. WLAN Security
    1. 10.1. Introduction to Wireless Security
    2. 10.2. Wireless LAN Threats and Intrusion
    3. 10.3. IEEE 802.11 Standards Security
      1. 10.3.1. Open System Authentication
      2. 10.3.2. Shared Key Authentication
    4. 10.4. Early WLAN Security Mechanisms
      1. 10.4.1. Service Set Identifier (SSID)
      2. 10.4.2. SSID Hiding
      3. 10.4.3. Media Access Control (MAC) Address
        1. 10.4.3.1. MAC Address Filtering
        2. 10.4.3.2. MAC Spoofing
    5. 10.5. Authentication and Encryption
      1. 10.5.1. About Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP)
      2. 10.5.2. How to Use WEP
    6. 10.6. SOHO and Enterprise Security Solutions
    7. 10.7. PIN-Based or Push-Button Configuration (PBC) Wireless Security
      1. 10.7.1. PIN-Based Security
      2. 10.7.2. Push-Button Configuration (PBC) Security
    8. 10.8. Passphrase-Based Security
      1. 10.8.1. Passphrase Features
    9. 10.9. User-Based Security
      1. 10.9.1. 802.1X
      2. 10.9.2. EAP
      3. 10.9.3. 802.1X/EAP
      4. 10.9.4. Remote Authentication Dial In User Service
    10. 10.10. Encryption: WEP/TKIP/CCMP
      1. 10.10.1. WEP
      2. 10.10.2. TKIP
      3. 10.10.3. CCMP
    11. 10.11. Role-Based Access Control (RBAC)
    12. 10.12. Virtual Private Networking (VPN)
      1. 10.12.1. PPTP
      2. 10.12.2. L2TP
      3. 10.12.3. Components of a VPN Solution
    13. 10.13. Wireless Intrusion Prevention Systems (WIPS)
    14. 10.14. Regulatory Compliance
      1. 10.14.1. PCI Compliance
      2. 10.14.2. HIPAA Compliance
      3. 10.14.3. Other Regulatory Compliances
    15. 10.15. Summary
    16. 10.16. Exam Essentials
    17. 10.17. Key Terms
    18. 10.18. Review Questions
    19. 10.19. Answers to Review Questions
  17. 11. Troubleshooting and Maintaining Wireless Networks
    1. 11.1. Identifying Wireless LAN Problems
      1. 11.1.1. Transmitters and Receivers
        1. 11.1.1.1. Transmitter
        2. 11.1.1.2. Receiver
      2. 11.1.2. No Connectivity
        1. 11.1.2.1. No Connectivity on the Client Side
        2. 11.1.2.2. Other Connectivity Issues
        3. 11.1.2.3. IP Address Connectivity Issues
        4. 11.1.2.4. Security Settings
      3. 11.1.3. Intermittent Connectivity
        1. 11.1.3.1. Understanding Received Signal Strength
        2. 11.1.3.2. Testing Received Signal Strength
        3. 11.1.3.3. Weak Signal or No Signal
      4. 11.1.4. Throughput
        1. 11.1.4.1. Distance from Access Point
        2. 11.1.4.2. Output Power of Access Point
        3. 11.1.4.3. Number of Users Associated
        4. 11.1.4.4. Solutions to Low Throughput
      5. 11.1.5. Software and Hardware Upgrades
        1. 11.1.5.1. Software Upgrades
          1. 11.1.5.1.1. Device Drivers
          2. 11.1.5.1.2. Client Utilities
          3. 11.1.5.1.3. Firmware
        2. 11.1.5.2. Infrastructure and Client Device Hardware Upgrades
          1. 11.1.5.2.1. Infrastructure Devices
          2. 11.1.5.2.2. Antennas
          3. 11.1.5.2.3. Client Device Upgrades
    2. 11.2. Optimizing Wireless Networks
      1. 11.2.1. Infrastructure Hardware Selection and Placement
      2. 11.2.2. Identifying, Locating, and Removing Sources of Interference
      3. 11.2.3. Client Load Balancing
      4. 11.2.4. Analyzing Infrastructure Capacity and Utilization
      5. 11.2.5. Multipath
      6. 11.2.6. Hidden Node
        1. 11.2.6.1. Hidden Node Obstacle
        2. 11.2.6.2. Hidden Node Distance
        3. 11.2.6.3. Hidden Node Technology
        4. 11.2.6.4. Software Solution to Hidden Node Problems
    3. 11.3. Summary
    4. 11.4. Exam Essentials
    5. 11.5. Key Terms
    6. 11.6. Review Questions
    7. 11.7. Answers to Review Questions
  18. A. About the Companion CD
    1. A.1. What You'll Find on the CD
      1. A.1.1. Demonstration Software Programs
      2. A.1.2. Demonstration Software Programs Available for Download
      3. A.1.3. Case Studies
      4. A.1.4. Case Studies Available for Download
      5. A.1.5. Generic Floor Plan
      6. A.1.6. Applications
      7. A.1.7. Sensor Placement Site Survey Form
      8. A.1.8. Sybex Test Engine
      9. A.1.9. Electronic Flashcards
    2. A.2. System Requirements
    3. A.3. Using the CD
    4. A.4. Troubleshooting
      1. A.4.1. Customer Care
  19. Glossary