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CTS-D Certified Technology Specialist-Design Exam Guide

Book Description

Exclusively from McGraw-Hill Professional and InfoComm International, this exam guide covers the latest Certified Technology Specialist Design exam for AV professionals.

CTS-D Certified Technology Specialist Design Exam Guide is a complete study system for the leading internationally recognized audiovisual (AV) certification from InfoComm International—the audiovisual association. This exam guide covers AV systems design, including the assessment of client's needs, AV design documents preparation, and coordination with other professionals to ensure AV systems satisfy client requirements. Each chapter contains exam objective call-outs, exam tips, and end-of-chapter review questions with in-depth answer explanations.

  • Covers the 2014 exam update which includes updated IT security design-related content, more networking coverage, and additional business content
  • Electronic content includes an official InfoComm CTS-D practice exam
  • More than 150 photos and illustrations reinforce key AV design concepts

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Contents
  5. Foreword
  6. About the Author
  7. Acknowledgments
  8. Part I The Certified Technology Specialist-Design
    1. Chapter 1 What Is a Certified Technology Specialist-Design?
      1. Introducing InfoComm International
      2. Why Earn Your CTS-D Credential?
      3. What Does a CTS-D Do?
      4. Are You Eligible for the CTS-D Exam?
      5. Chapter Review
    2. Chapter 2 The CTS-D Exam
      1. The Scope of the CTS-D Exam
      2. Exam Preparation Strategies
      3. Math Strategies
        1. Order of Operations
        2. Ohm’s Law and Electrical Circuits
      4. The CTS-D Exam Process
        1. Getting to the Testing Center
        2. Identification Requirements
        3. Items Restricted from the Exam Room
        4. About the Exam
        5. During the Exam
        6. Dismissal or Removal from the Exam
        7. Hazardous Weather or Local Emergencies
        8. Special Accommodations for Exams
        9. Exam Scoring
        10. Retesting
      5. CTS-D Exam Practice Questions
        1. Answers to CTS-D Practice Questions
      6. Chapter Review
  9. Part II Environment
    1. Chapter 3 Communicating Design Intent
      1. The Phases of an AV Design Project
        1. Program Phase
        2. Design Phase
        3. Construction Phase
        4. Verification Phase
      2. Reading Construction Drawings
        1. Scaled Drawings
        2. Drawing Types
        3. Architectural Drawing Symbols
        4. Common Architectural Drawing Abbreviations
      3. The AV Design Package
        1. Front-End Documentation
        2. Architectural and Infrastructure Drawings
        3. AV System Drawings: Facility Drawings
        4. AV System Drawings: System Diagrams
        5. AV System Specifications
      4. The Basics of AV-Enabled Rooms
        1. Audience and Presenter Areas
        2. Control and Projection Areas
      5. Programming
      6. The Needs Analysis
        1. Who Are the End Users?
        2. Clients on a Project
      7. Conducting the Needs Analysis
        1. Step 1: Ask Questions
        2. Step 2: Review Existing Documentation
        3. Step 3: Evaluate the Site Environment/Benchmarking
        4. Step 4: Conduct Program Meetings
        5. Step 5: Write the Program Report
      8. A Closer Look at the Program Report
        1. AV Budget Terms
        2. Distribution and Approval
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Review Questions
        2. Answers
    2. Chapter 4 Ergonomics in AV Design
      1. Human Dimensions and Visual Field
        1. The Horizontal Visual Field
        2. The Vertical Visual Field
        3. Head Rotation
      2. Sightlines
      3. Human Sightlines
      4. Eye Height
      5. Seating Layouts
      6. Floor Layouts
      7. Furniture
        1. Tables and Chairs
        2. Lecterns
        3. Other Furniture
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Review Questions
        2. Answers
    3. Chapter 5 Visual Principles of Design
      1. Determining Image Specifications
      2. Determining Text Size
        1. Visual Acuity and the Snellen Eye Chart
        2. Character Height
      3. Determining the Farthest Viewing Distance
        1. The Simple Image Height Formula Wheel
      4. Determining the Nearest Viewing Distance
      5. Determining the Viewing Range
      6. Display Device Selection
        1. Video Resolution
        2. Aspect Ratio
        3. Calculating Aspect Ratio
        4. Calculating Screen Diagonal
      7. Display Types
      8. Front Projection
        1. Front-Projection Screens
        2. Specifying Front-Screen Projection
      9. Rear Projection
        1. Rear-Projection Screens
        2. Rear-Projection Design Considerations
      10. Videowalls
        1. Common Videowall Applications
        2. Videowall Design
      11. Display Environment
        1. Measuring Light
        2. System Black
        3. Contrast Ratio
      12. ANSI/INFOCOMM 3M-2011
        1. Five Viewing Positions
        2. Four Viewing Tasks
        3. 3M Conformance
      13. Projector Positioning
        1. Projector Light Path
        2. Projection Throw
      14. Predicting Projector Brightness
        1. Screen Gain
        2. Hot Spotting
        3. Lamp Life
        4. Projector Lens
        5. Ambient Light Levels
        6. Calculating Required Projector Brightness
      15. Measuring OFE Projector Brightness
      16. Task-Light Levels
        1. Calculating Task-Light Levels
      17. Chapter Review
        1. Review Questions
        2. Answers
    4. Chapter 6 Audio Principles of Design
      1. Introduction to the Decibel
        1. Why Use Decibels?
        2. Calculating Decibel Changes
      2. Reference Level
      3. Sound Pressure Level
      4. SPL Meters
        1. SPL Meter Settings
        2. SPL Meter Classes
        3. SPL Meter Weighting Curves
        4. Loudness vs. Weighting
        5. SPL Meter Weighting: Spectrum Analysis
      5. Loudspeaker Directivity
      6. Calculating Loudspeaker Coverage
      7. Distributed Layout Options
        1. Edge-to-Edge Coverage
        2. Partial Overlap Coverage
        3. Edge-to-Center Coverage
      8. Ohm’s Law Revisited
      9. Loudspeaker Impedance
      10. Wiring Loudspeakers
        1. Loudspeakers Wired in a Series
        2. Loudspeakers Wired in Parallel, Same Impedance
        3. Loudspeakers Wired in Parallel, Different Impedances
        4. Loudspeakers Wired in a Series and Parallel Combination
      11. Measuring Impedance
      12. Transformers
      13. Specifying a Power Amplifier
        1. Headroom Requirements
        2. Loudspeaker Sensitivity
      14. Power Amplifiers
        1. Specifying a Power Amplifier for Direct-Connection Audio
        2. Specifying a Power Amplifier for Distributed Audio
      15. Microphones
        1. Handheld Microphones
        2. Instrument, Lavalier, and Head Microphones
        3. Boundary and Gooseneck Microphones
        4. Shotgun Microphones
      16. Microphone Construction
      17. Microphone Polar Response
      18. Polar Plot
      19. Microphone Frequency Response
      20. Microphone Signal Levels
      21. Microphone Sensitivity
      22. Microphone Pre-Amp Gain
      23. Microphone Mixing and Routing
      24. Microphone Placement: A Conference Table
      25. Microphone Placement: The 3:1 Rule
      26. Reinforcing a Presenter
        1. Microphones and Clothing
        2. Polar Plots for Reinforcing a Presenter
      27. Audio System Quality
        1. It Must Be Loud Enough
        2. It Must Be Intelligible
        3. It Must Remain Stable
      28. PAG/NAG
      29. More Variables: NOM and FSM
      30. PAG/NAG in Action
      31. Chapter Review
        1. Review Questions
        2. Answers
  10. Part III Infrastructure
    1. Chapter 7 Communicating with Allied Trades
      1. Communicating with Stakeholders
      2. Tracking the Project
        1. Work Breakdown Structure
        2. Gantt Chart
        3. Logic Network Diagram
      3. Industry Standards as Common Language
      4. Hierarchy of Design Consultation
      5. Showing Workmanship
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Review Questions
        2. Answers
    2. Chapter 8 Lighting Specifications
      1. Basics of Lighting
        1. Brightness
        2. Color Temperature
      2. Energy Consumption
      3. Lighting the Space
        1. Task Lighting
        2. Shades and Blackout Drapes
        3. Choosing Lamps
        4. Choosing Luminaires
        5. Lighting Coverage
        6. Documenting Luminaires
      4. Creating a Zoning Plan
        1. Determining Zones
      5. Lighting Control
        1. On/Off vs. Dimmable
        2. Lighting Scenes
      6. Lighting a Videoconference
        1. Glare
        2. Light Balance
        3. Color Temperature
        4. Wall and Table Finishes
      7. Emergency Lighting
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Review Questions
        2. Answers
    3. Chapter 9 Structural and Mechanical Considerations
      1. Codes and Regulations
        1. Designing for Equal Access
        2. Electric and Building Codes
      2. Mounting Considerations
        1. Mounting Options
        2. Load Limit
        3. Mounting Hardware
      3. Designing the Rack
        1. Rack Sizes
        2. Ergonomics
        3. Weight Distribution
        4. Signal Separation
        5. Block Diagrams
        6. Heat Load
        7. Calculating Heat Load from Power Amplifiers
        8. Cooling a Rack
      4. HVAC Considerations
        1. HVAC Issues that Impact Design
        2. AV Drawings
      5. Fire and Life Safety Protection
        1. Fire Safety
      6. Energy Management
        1. Data Collection
        2. Automation
        3. Education and Training
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Review Questions
        2. Answers
    4. Chapter 10 Specifying Electrical Infrastructure
      1. Circuit Theory
        1. Ohm’s Law and Power Formulas
        2. Series vs. Parallel Circuits
        3. Capacitors
        4. Inductors
      2. Coils and Magnetic Induction
        1. Coils, Capacitors, and Resistors in a Series Circuit
        2. Coils, Capacitors, and Resistors in a Parallel Circuit
      3. Specifying Electrical Power
        1. Established Terms
        2. Codes and Regulations
      4. Electrical Distribution Systems
        1. Power Distribution Systems
      5. Understanding Power Onsite
        1. The Master Technical Power Panel
      6. Specifying AV Circuits
        1. Branch Circuit Loads
        2. Calculating the Number of Circuits
      7. Power Strips and Cords
      8. Grounding (Earthing)
        1. System Grounding
        2. Equipment Grounding
        3. Ground Faults
        4. The Dangers of Three-to-Two-Prong Adapters
      9. Isolated Ground
        1. Isolated Ground Receptacles
      10. Interference Prevention and Noise Defense
        1. Magnetic-Field Coupling
        2. Electric-Field Coupling
        3. Shielding
      11. Ground Loops
      12. Balanced Circuits
      13. Differential- and Common-Mode Signals
        1. Common-Mode Rejection
        2. Twisted-Pair Cables and Common-Mode Rejection
      14. Transformers
      15. Unbalanced Interface
      16. The Pin 1 Problem
      17. Specifying AV Conduit
        1. Conduit Types
        2. Conduit Stubs
        3. Allowable Fill Percentages
        4. Jam Ratio
        5. Conduit Bends
      18. Chapter Review
        1. Review Questions
        2. Answers
    5. Chapter 11 Elements of Acoustics
      1. Acoustic Engineering
      2. Sound Production
      3. Sound Propagation
        1. Sound Intensity
        2. Sound Pressure
        3. Particle Displacement
      4. Sound Interaction
        1. Reflection
        2. Absorption
        3. Transmission
      5. Sound Reception
        1. Integration Process
        2. Noise Classes
        3. Background Noise Recommendations
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Review Questions
        2. Answers
  11. Part IV Applied Design
    1. Chapter 12 Digital Signals
      1. The Analog Sunset
      2. Digital Signals
      3. Digital Audio Bandwidth
      4. Digital Video Bandwidth
        1. 4:4:4 Sampling
        2. 4:4:4:4 Sampling
        3. 4:2:2 Sampling
        4. 4:1:1 Sampling
      5. Bandwidth: Determining Total Program Size
      6. Content Compression and Encoding
        1. Codecs
        2. Digital Audio Compression: MP3
        3. Digital AV Compression
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Review Questions
        2. Answers
    2. Chapter 13 Digital Video Design
      1. Digital Video Basics
        1. High-Definition and Ultra High-Definition Video
        2. The Cliff Effect
      2. Video Signal Types
      3. Serial Digital Interface
      4. Transition-Minimized Differential Signaling
      5. DVI and HDMI
        1. More About HDMI
      6. DisplayPort
      7. USB 3.1 and USB Type-C
      8. Thunderbolt
      9. Mobile High-Definition Link
      10. Introduction to EDID
        1. Creating an EDID Strategy
        2. EDID Truth Tables
        3. Resolving EDID Issues
      11. Digital Rights Management
        1. High-Bandwidth Digital Content Protection
        2. How HDCP Works
        3. Switchers and Repeaters
        4. HDCP Troubleshooting
      12. Chapter Review
        1. Review Questions
        2. Answers
    3. Chapter 14 Audio Design
      1. Analog vs. Digital Audio
        1. Audio Transport Methods
      2. DSP Architectures
      3. Signal Monitoring
        1. Analog vs. Digital Signal Monitoring
      4. Setting Up the System
        1. Where to Set Gain
        2. Common DSP Settings
      5. Introduction to Equalization
        1. Pass Filters
        2. Crossover Filters
        3. Feedback-Suppression Filters
        4. Noise-Reduction Filters
        5. Delays
        6. Graphic Equalizers
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Review Questions
        2. Answers
    4. Chapter 15 Control Requirements
      1. Types of Control Systems
      2. Control System Components
        1. Central Processing Unit
        2. Control Interfaces
        3. Control Points
      3. Control System Design
        1. Needs Analysis
        2. CPU Configurations
        3. Programming for Control
        4. Establishing Control Points
        5. Verifying System Performance
      4. Chapter Review
        1. Review Questions
        2. Answers
    5. Chapter 16 Networking for AV
      1. What Is a Network?
      2. Network Components
        1. Clients and Servers
        2. Network Interface Cards
        3. Switches, Routers, and Gateways
        4. Links
      3. The OSI Model
        1. OSI Model Layers
      4. Network Types and Topologies
        1. Local Area Networks
        2. Wide Area Networks
        3. Virtual Private Networks
      5. Network Layer Protocols
        1. Internet Protocol
        2. Subnetting
        3. IP Address Assignment
      6. Transport Layer Protocols
        1. Transmission Control Protocol Transport
        2. Universal Datagram Protocol Transport
        3. Transmission Control Protocol vs. Universal Datagram Protocol
        4. Ports
      7. Data Link Layer Protocols
        1. Why Professional AV Needs Its Own Protocols
        2. Audio Video Bridging/Time-Sensitive Networking
        3. EtherSound
        4. CobraNet
        5. Dante
        6. Q-Sys
        7. HDBaseT
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Review Questions
        2. Answers
    6. Chapter 17 Streaming Design
      1. Streaming Needs Analysis
        1. Streaming Tasks
        2. Audience
        3. End Points
        4. Content Sources
        5. Using Copyrighted Content
      2. Streaming Needs Analysis Questions
      3. Streaming Design and the Network Environment
        1. Topology
        2. Bandwidth: Matching Content to the Network
        3. Image Quality vs. Available Bandwidth
      4. Streaming and Quality of Service
        1. Latency
        2. Network Policies and Restrictions
        3. Cheat Sheet: Streaming Network Analysis Questions
      5. Designing the Streaming System
        1. Other Streaming Protocols
        2. High-Quality Streaming Video
      6. Unicast and Multicast
        1. Unicast vs. Multicast
        2. Implementing Multicast
        3. Multicast Addressing
        4. Streaming Reflectors
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Review Questions
        2. Answers
    7. Chapter 18 Security for Networked AV Applications
      1. Security Objectives
      2. Identifying Security Requirements
        1. Determining a Security Posture
        2. Stakeholder Input
      3. Assessing Risk
        1. Risk Registers
      4. Mitigation Planning
        1. Change Default Passwords
        2. Create Multiple User Roles
        3. Accounts for Every User
        4. Disable Unnecessary Services
        5. Enable Encryption and Auditing
      5. Chapter Review
        1. Review Questions
        2. Answers
    8. Chapter 19 Conducting Project Implementation Activities
      1. Performance Verification Standard
      2. System Verification Process
      3. Regional Regulations
        1. Resources for Regional Codes
        2. Verification Tools
      4. Audio System Verification
        1. Audio-Testing Tools
      5. Video System Verification
        1. Verifying the Video Signal Path
      6. Verifying Video Sources
        1. Camera Adjustments
        2. Display Setup
        3. Projector Verification
      7. Audio/Video Sync
        1. Correcting Audio/Video Sync Errors
      8. Conducting System Closeout
        1. Closeout Documentation
        2. Drawings of Record
        3. Operational Documentation
        4. Punch List
      9. Troubleshooting
      10. Customer Training
      11. Client Sign-Off
      12. Chapter Review
        1. Review Questions
        2. Answers
  12. Part V Appendixes
    1. Appendix A Math Formulas Used in AV Design
      1. Steps to Solving Word Problems
        1. Step 1: Understand the Problem
        2. Step 2: Create a Plan
        3. Step 3: Execute Your Plan
        4. Step 4: Check Your Answer
      2. Rounding
      3. AV Math Formulas
        1. Estimated Projector Throw
        2. Projector Lumens Output
        3. Image Height to Farthest Viewer Distance Ratio
        4. Decibel Formula for Distance
        5. Decibel Formula for Voltage
        6. Decibel Formula for Power
        7. Current Formula (Ohm’s Law)
        8. Power Formula
        9. Series Circuit Impedance Formula
        10. Parallel Circuit Impedance Formula: Loudspeakers with the Same Impedance
        11. Parallel Circuit Impedance Formula: Loudspeakers with Different Impedances
        12. Series/Parallel Circuit Impedance Formulas
        13. Needed Acoustic Gain
        14. Potential Acoustic Gain
        15. Audio System Stability (PAG/NAG)
        16. Conduit Capacity
        17. Jam Ratio
        18. Heat Load Formula
        19. Power Amplifier Heat Load
        20. Power Amplifier Wattage (Constant Voltage)
        21. Wattage at the Loudspeaker
        22. Simplified Room Mode Calculation
        23. Loudspeaker Coverage Pattern (Ceiling Mounted)
        24. Loudspeaker Spacing (Ceiling Mounted)
        25. Digital Video Bandwidth
        26. Analog Video Signal Bandwidth
        27. Minimum Video System Bandwidth
    2. Appendix B InfoComm Standards
      1. ANSI/INFOCOMM 1M-2009, Audio Coverage Uniformity in Enclosed Listener Areas
      2. ANSI/INFOCOMM 2M-2010, Standard Guide for Audiovisual Design and Coordination Processes
      3. ANSI/INFOCOMM 3M-2011, Projected Image System Contrast Ratio
      4. ANSI/INFOCOMM 4:2012, Audiovisual Systems Energy Management
      5. ANSI/INFOCOMM 10:2013, Audiovisual Systems Performance Verification
      6. CEA/CEDIA/INFOCOMM J-STD-710, Audio, Video and Control Architectural Drawing Symbols Standard
      7. INFOCOMM F501.01:2015, Cable Labeling for Audiovisual Systems
    3. Appendix C Video References
      1. Videos in This Guide
      2. Additional Videos
    4. Appendix D About the Download
      1. System Requirements
      2. Installing and Running Total Tester
      3. About Total Tester
      4. Technical Support
  13. Glossary
  14. Index