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CTS Certified Technology Specialist Exam Guide, Second Edition

Book Description

The Most Complete, Up-to-Date CTS Exam Study SystemPublished with InfoComm International, CTS Certified Technology Specialist Exam Guide, Second Edition provides comprehensive coverage of all objectives on the latest release of the InfoComm Certified Technology Specialist exam—the leading internationally recognized audiovisual (AV) certification.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover 
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. About the Author
    1. About the Technical Editors
  5. Contents at a Glance
  6. Contents 
  7. Foreword
  8. Acknowledgments
  9. PART I: The Certified Technology Specialist and the CTS Exam
    1. Chapter 1. What Is a Certified Technology Specialist?
      1. What Does a CTS Do?
      2. Why Earn Your CTS?
      3. The Purpose of the CTS Exam
      4. Are You Eligible for the CTS Exam?
      5. The CTS Exam Application Process
      6. Chapter Review
    2. Chapter 2. The CTS Exam
      1. The Scope of the CTS Exam
      2. The CTS Exam Over Time
      3. Studying for the Exam
      4. Sample CTS Exam Questions
      5. Question-Evaluation Strategies
      6. What to Expect on Exam Day
        1. Identification Requirements
        2. Items Restricted from the Exam Room
        3. The Exam
      7. Chapter Review
  10. PART II: Essentials of AV Technology
    1. What Is an AV System?
    2. AV System Goals
    3. Chapter 3. Analog and Digital Signals
      1. Analog and Digital Waveforms
      2. Digital Signal Basics
        1. Digital Signal Processing and Sampling
        2. Bit Depth of a Digital Signal
        3. Bit Rate
        4. Signal Compression
        5. Digital Formats
      3. Noise and Signal Transmission
      4. Analog and Digital Signal Considerations
      5. Chapter Review
        1. Review Questions
        2. Answers
    4. Chapter 4. Audio Systems
      1. Sound Waves
        1. Wavelength
        2. Frequency
        3. Octaves and Bands
      2. Harmonics
        1. Logarithms
        2. Decibels
      3. The Inverse Square Law and Sound
      4. Acoustics
        1. Reflected Sound Energy
        2. Reverberation
        3. Absorption
        4. Transmission
        5. Ambient Noise
      5. Sound Capture
        1. Microphones
        2. Audio Signal Levels
        3. Audio Devices
        4. Loudspeakers
        5. Audio Signal-Level Monitoring
      6. Examples of Audio System Applications
        1. Sound Reinforcement
        2. Mix-Minus
        3. Intercom and Paging Systems
        4. Audioconferencing and Audio for Videoconferencing
        5. Sound Masking
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Review Questions
        2. Answers
    5. Chapter 5. Video Systems
      1. Light
        1. Units of Light Measure
        2. Inverse Square Law and Light
        3. Color Mixing and Temperature
        4. Ambient Light
      2. Image Capture
        1. Camera and Focus
        2. Video Signals
        3. Video Signal Decoding
        4. Digital Signals
      3. Producing an Image
        1. Display and Projection Technology
        2. Flat-Panel Display Technologies
        3. Positioning a Display Within a Room
        4. Aspect Ratio
      4. The Projected Image
        1. Projector Optics
        2. Front Projection and Rear Projection
        3. Screens
        4. Perceived Quality
        5. Viewer Placement
        6. Throw Distance
        7. Keystone Error and Correction
        8. Digital Display Alignment
        9. Projection System Brightness
        10. Brightness and Contrast Adjustments
      5. Chapter Review
        1. Review Questions
        2. Answers
    6. Chapter 6. Networks
      1. Types of Networks
      2. Network Topology
        1. Star Topology
        2. Bus Topology
        3. Ring Topology
      3. Ethernet
        1. Ethernet Connections
        2. Fiber-Optic Connections
        3. Wireless Connections
      4. The OSI Reference Model
      5. Network Interface Cards and MAC Addresses
      6. Internet Protocol Addressing
        1. IPv4
        2. IPv6
        3. Subnet Masks
        4. Static IP Addressing
        5. Dynamic IP Addressing
      7. The Domain Name System
      8. Network Switches and Routers
        1. Network Switches
        2. Routers
        3. Gateways
        4. Bridges
      9. Network Security
        1. Network Access Control
        2. Firewalls
        3. Navigating Firewalls
      10. Chapter Review
        1. Review Questions
        2. Answers
    7. Chapter 7. Signal-Management Systems
      1. Wire and Cable
        1. Conductors
        2. Insulation
        3. Shields
        4. Jackets
      2. Cable Types
        1. Coax Cable
        2. Twisted-Pair Cable
        3. Fiber-Optic Cable
      3. Connectors
      4. Signal Integrity
      5. Distance Limits
      6. Switchers
        1. Switcher Ins and Outs
        2. Switcher Types
      7. Distribution Amplifiers
      8. Rack-Building Considerations
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Review Questions
        2. Answers
    8. Chapter 8. Control Systems
      1. Control System Functions
      2. Control System Components and Interfaces
      3. Control Signals
      4. Types of Control Systems
        1. Contact-Closure Control
        2. Variable-Voltage Control
        3. IR Control
        4. RF Control
      5. Control System Cabling
      6. Ethernet Control Systems
      7. Control Systems on Networks
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Review Questions
        2. Answers
    9. Chapter 9. Electrical Systems
      1. Electrical Power Basics
        1. Voltage and Current
        2. Resistance and Impedance
        3. Power
        4. Ohm’s Law
        5. Electrical Circuits
        6. Grounding
      2. Electrical Power and Distribution
      3. Electrical Safety
      4. Chapter Review
        1. Review Questions
        2. Answers
    10. Chapter 10. Radio Waves
      1. Transmitting and Receiving RF
      2. Allocations of RFs
      3. The Importance of Antennas
        1. Antenna Lengths
        2. Ground Plane
        3. Antenna Orientation
      4. Diversity Systems
      5. RF Video Systems
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Review Questions
        2. Answers
  11. PART III: Preparing for AV Solutions
    1. Chapter 11. Gathering Customer Information
      1. Communicating with Clients
        1. Obtaining Client Contact Information
        2. Face-to-Face Communication
        3. Speaking on the Phone
        4. Business Writing
      2. Obtaining Information About Client Needs
        1. Conducting Initial Meetings with the Client and End Users
        2. Conducting a Needs Analysis
        3. Benchmarking
      3. Obtaining Scale Drawings of the Customer Space
      4. Obtaining Information About Constraints
      5. Chapter Review
        1. Review Questions
        2. Answers
    2. Chapter 12. Conducting a Site Survey
      1. Health and Safety Requirements at a Work Site
        1. Safety Regulations
        2. Safety Equipment
      2. Gathering General Site Information
      3. Interpreting Site Layout Drawings
        1. Drawing Views
        2. Title Blocks and Drawing Schedules
        3. Drawing Scales
        4. Common Architectural Drawing Abbreviations
        5. Architectural Drawing Symbols
      4. Converting Measurements
      5. Calculating Area and Volume
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Review Questions
        2. Answers
    3. Chapter 13. Evaluating a Site Environment
      1. Identifying Room Needs
        1. Types of Rooms
        2. General Room Features and Characteristics
        3. The Technical Functions of a Room
        4. Functions of Associated Spaces
      2. Assessing the Room Environment
        1. Assessing the Acoustic Environment
        2. Assessing the Visual Environment
        3. Assessing Room Lighting
      3. Assessing Services
        1. Assessing Electric Power Availability
        2. Assessing Data System Capabilities
        3. Identifying Cable Access Locations
        4. Assessing HVAC Components
      4. Chapter Review
        1. Review Questions
        2. Answers
    4. Chapter 14. Maintaining Awareness of Changes to the Site Environment
      1. Addressing Room Environment Issues
        1. Acoustic Issues
        2. Sightline Issues
        3. Ambient and Artificial Lighting Issues
        4. Furniture and Room Finish Issues
      2. Addressing Building Environment Issues
        1. Building Services Issues
        2. Building Structure and Substructure Issues
        3. Building Regulation Issues
      3. Chapter Review
        1. Review Questions
        2. Answers
    5. Chapter 15. Developing a Functional AV Scope
      1. Compiling Information for the Functional AV System Scope
        1. Needs Determine Applications
        2. Form Follows Function
        3. Gathering Information About Facilities
        4. Conducting Project Planning and Coordination Meetings
      2. Documenting the Functional AV Scope with the Program Report
        1. Objectives of the Program Report
        2. Contents of the Program Report
      3. Presenting the Program Report to the Client
        1. Distributing the Program Report
        2. Preparing for the Client Presentation
        3. Conducting the Client Presentation
      4. Program Report Approval and Next Steps
      5. Chapter Review
        1. Review Questions
        2. Answers
  12. PART IV: Designing and Building an AV Solution
    1. Chapter 16. Designing an AV Solution
      1. Designing the Display System
        1. Determining the Display System’s Purpose
        2. Identifying the Display Devices
        3. Identifying Monitoring, Feed, and Recording Requirements
        4. Identifying the Display Signal Sources
        5. Identifying Switching and Distribution Components
        6. Addressing Video Signal Issues
        7. Adding Processing and Conversion
      2. Designing the Audio System
        1. Identifying the Audio System’s Purpose
        2. Addressing the Three Parameters for an Audio System
        3. Identifying the Audio Sources
        4. Identifying the Audio Destinations
        5. Meeting Mixing and Amplification Requirements
        6. Adding Processing and Conversion
        7. Considering Power Amplifiers and Loudspeaker Wiring
        8. Calculating Power Required at the Loudspeaker
      3. Designing Control Systems
        1. Defining the Control System
      4. Integrating with IT Networks
        1. Network Considerations for AV Systems
        2. Planning for Networked AV Systems
        3. Assessing Network Readiness for AV Systems
      5. Providing System Design Documentation
        1. System Drawings
        2. Bill of Materials
      6. Other Design Considerations
        1. Future Provisions
        2. Value Engineering
        3. Design and Measurement Tools
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Review Questions
        2. Answers
    2. Chapter 17. Conducting a Vendor-Selection Process
      1. Identifying Potential Equipment and Service Vendors
        1. Equipment and Service Considerations
        2. Criteria for Selecting Potential Vendors
        3. Creating an RFP for Equipment and Services
        4. Contacting Potential Vendors About Your RFP
      2. Reviewing Vendor Proposals
      3. Communicating with Vendors
      4. The Contract-Award Process
      5. Chapter Review
        1. Review Questions
        2. Answers
    3. Chapter 18. Performing AV Finance and Job-Costing Activities
      1. Creating Estimates for AV Activities
        1. Estimate Considerations
        2. Estimate Markup
      2. Creating a Project Estimate
        1. Estimating Equipment and Material Costs
        2. Estimating Project Labor Costs
        3. Estimating Labor Costs
        4. Estimating Other Costs
        5. Providing Estimates to Clients
      3. Purchasing AV Supplies and Equipment
        1. Identifying General Categories of Purchase Items
        2. Creating Purchase Lists
        3. Identifying Vendors and Suppliers
        4. Obtaining Pricing and Delivery Schedules
      4. Performing Job-Costing Activities
        1. Producing Interim Invoices
        2. Analyzing Utilization Rates
        3. Creating Project Profit-and-Loss Documents
      5. Chapter Review
        1. Review Questions
        2. Answers
    4. Chapter 19. Building AV Solutions
      1. Installing AV Equipment and Systems
        1. Preparing for the Installation
        2. Job Site Safety Concerns
        3. Cable Termination
        4. Rack Building
        5. Cable Handling and Pulling
        6. Mounting AV Components
      2. Setting Up and Configuring AV Control Systems
        1. Termination for Control Systems
        2. Assembling the Control System
        3. Using Control System Software
        4. Testing and Installing the Control System
        5. Final Control System Testing
      3. Configuring Networked AV Systems
        1. Subnetting
        2. VLANs
        3. VPNs
        4. IP Addressing
      4. Producing AV Events
        1. Preparing for the Event
        2. Loading and Unloading a Truck
        3. Setting Up Equipment
      5. Supporting AV Systems
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Review Questions
        2. Answers
    5. Chapter 20. Managing an AV Project
      1. Managing Project Activities and Resources
        1. Creating a Work Breakdown Structure
        2. Creating a Logic Network for Coordinating Resources
        3. Managing the Project Budget
        4. Monitoring Work at the Client Site
      2. Coordinating Project Activities
        1. Holding a Project Kickoff Meeting
        2. Attending Project Status Meetings
        3. Creating Project Schedules
        4. Coordinating AV Work with Other Trades
      3. Providing Project Documentation
        1. Information-Related Documents
        2. Change Documentation
      4. Chapter Review
        1. Review Questions
        2. Answers
  13. PART V: After the AV Installation
    1. Chapter 21. Operating an AV Solution
      1. Verifying That AV Equipment Is Operating Properly
        1. Sample AV Systems Performance Verification Checklist Items
        2. The AV Systems Performance Verification Process
        3. Checking Signal Flow
      2. Providing Support, Training, and Documentation
        1. Briefing the Client on AV System Operation
        2. Training Users and Support Staff
        3. Documenting How to Operate the AV System
        4. Documenting the AV Systems Themselves
      3. Documenting Preventive Maintenance
      4. Striking a Room
      5. Chapter Review
        1. Review Questions
        2. Answers
    2. Chapter 22. Conducting Maintenance Activities
      1. Maintaining AV Systems and Components
        1. Maintenance Warranties and Agreements
        2. Performing AV System Maintenance
      2. AV System Testing Equipment
      3. Documenting Maintenance Activities
      4. Chapter Review
        1. Review Questions
        2. Answers
    3. Chapter 23. Troubleshooting and Repairing AV Systems
      1. Preparing to Troubleshoot
      2. An Overview of the Troubleshooting Process
        1. Recognizing Symptoms and Elaborating on Them
        2. Selecting a Strategy
      3. A Troubleshooting Scenario
      4. An Overview of the Repair and Restoration Process
      5. Addressing Common AV System Problems
        1. AV Problems and Solutions
        2. Basic Network Troubleshooting Tools
      6. Maintenance and Repair Records
      7. Billing for Repair Activities
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Review Questions
        2. Answers
  14. PART VI: The Business of Professional AV
    1. Chapter 24. Managing AV Business Operations
      1. Working with Vendors, Suppliers, and Customers
      2. Managing Levels of Stock and Materials
      3. Ensuring Security of Equipment and Supplies
        1. Hiring Security Guards
        2. Deterring Theft
        3. Keeping Up-to-Date Equipment Records
      4. Maintaining the Professional Skills and Knowledge of Your Staff
        1. Resources for AV Staff
        2. Training
      5. Monitoring Client Sites
      6. Conducting Administrative Work
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Review Questions
        2. Answers
    2. Chapter 25. Marketing and Selling AV Solutions
      1. Defining Your Market, Audience, and Value Proposition
        1. Defining the Market
        2. Identifying Your Target Audience
        3. Establishing Your Value Proposition
      2. Developing Your Marketing Message
      3. Establishing Your Marketing Budget
      4. Creating Marketing Materials and Communicating Messages
      5. Developing a Sales Proposal
        1. Proposal Contents
        2. Copying and Packaging the Proposal
      6. Presenting the Proposal
        1. Salesmanship
        2. Typical Sales Mistakes
      7. Creating a Formal Contract
      8. Maintaining a Focus on Customer Service
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Review Questions
        2. Answers
    3. Chapter 26. Managing AV Personnel
      1. Hiring AV Staff
        1. Determining Job Requirements
        2. Writing Job Advertisements
        3. Assessing Job Applicants
        4. Interviewing Applicants
      2. Maintaining and Improving Staff Skills
      3. Assessing Staff Performance
        1. Promoting Staff
        2. Disciplining Problem Staff
      4. Chapter Review
        1. Review Questions
        2. Answers
  15. PART VII: Appendixes
    1. Appendix A: Future Trends in Professional AV
      1. Secure AV
      2. Sustainability
      3. Smart Buildings
    2. Appendix B: InfoComm Standards
      1. ANSI/INFOCOMM 1M-2009, Audio Coverage Uniformity in Enclosed Listener Areas
      2. ANSI/INFOCOMM 2M-2010, Standard Guide for Audiovisual Systems Design and Coordination Processes
      3. ANSI/INFOCOMM 3M-2011, Projected Image System Contrast Ratio
      4. ANSI/INFOCOMM 4:2012, Audiovisual Systems Energy Management
    3. Appendix C: AV Math
      1. Using the Proper Order of Operations
      2. Steps to Solving Word Problems
        1. Step One: Understand the Problem
        2. Step Two: Create a Plan
        3. Step Three: Execute Your Plan
        4. Step Four: Check Your Answer
      3. Rounding
      4. AV Math Formulas
    4. Appendix D: About the Exam
    5. Appendix E: Practice Exam
    6. Appendix F: AV Technology Image Library
  16. Glossary
  17. Index