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Cross-Cultural Interaction

Book Description

In a globalized society, individuals in business, government, and a variety of other fields must frequently communicate and work with individuals of different cultures and backgrounds. Effectively bridging the culture gap is critical to success in such scenarios. Cross-Cultural Interaction: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools and Applications explores contemporary research and historical perspectives on intercultural competencies and transnational organizations. This three-volume compilation will present a compendium of knowledge on cultural diversity and the impact this has on modern interpersonal interactions. Within these pages, a variety of researchers, scholars, professionals, and leaders who interact regularly with the global society will find useful insight and fresh perspectives on the field of cross-cultural interaction.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Editorial Advisory Board and List of Reviewers
    1. Editor-in-Chief
    2. Associate Editors
    3. Editorial Advisory Board
  5. Preface
  6. Section 1: Fundamental Concepts and Theories
    1. Chapter 1: Dynamics of Globalization
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. THE RISE OF A NEW WORLD ORDER
      3. THE IMPACT ON WORLD FINANCIAL MARKETS
    2. Chapter 2: Open, Flexible and Participatory Pedagogy in the Era of Globalisation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION: EDUCATIONAL PRESSURES IN THE GLOBAL ERA
      3. DRIVERS FOR CHANGE: MOBILITY AND UPTAKE OF DIGITAL TOOLS AND SNS’s
      4. CALL FOR 21 CENTURY SKILLS
      5. SOCIAL MEDIA, CROSS-BORDER COLLABORATION AND GLOBAL CITIZENSHIP
      6. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK: COMPLEXITY THEORY AND CONNECTIVISM
      7. NEW DYNAMICS AND FLEXIBLE, OPEN LEARNING RESOURCES AND GLOBALISATION OF EDUCATION
      8. DEVELOPMENT OF GLOBAL SKILLS FOR TRANS-NATIONAL EDUCATION
      9. FUTURE AND EMERGING TRENDS
      10. CONCLUSION: RESPONDING TO PEDAGOGICAL REQUIREMENTS THE GLOBAL EDUCATION MARKET
    3. Chapter 3: K-20 Education and Globalization
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RESEARCH IN FIELDS RELATED TO THE GLOBALIZATION AND INTERNATIONALIZATION OF EDUCATION
      4. SELECTED ISSUES RELATED TO THE GLOBALIZATION OF K-20 EDUCATION
      5. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 4: Globalization and International Labor Standards, Codes of Conduct, and Ethics
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SOLUTIONS
      4. EVALUATION AND CONCLUSION: WHAT’S HAPPENING TODAY?
    5. Chapter 5: Culture-Laden Social Engagement
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE STUDY
      5. SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION
      6. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 6: How Similar or Different are We?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. RESULTS
      6. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 7: An Exploratory Study of Cross-Cultural Engagement in the Community of Inquiry
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
      4. STUDY
      5. RESULTS
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. APPENDIX A
      10. APPENDIX B
    8. Chapter 8: Mixing Metaphors
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORIZING THE INTERNET
      4. VIRTUAL COMMUNITIES: A SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE
      5. VIRTUAL COMMUNITIES: A PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE
      6. CONCLUSION: OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES IN VIRTUAL COMMUNITY RESEARCH
    9. Chapter 9: Understanding Culture and its Implications for E-Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CROSS-CULTURAL DIMENSIONS AND CLASSIFICATIONS
      4. HIGHER EDUCATION VARIABLES: THE IMPACT OF CROSS-CULTURAL SETTINGS ON E-LEARNING
      5. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH
    10. Chapter 10: Fostering Global Literacies among Pre-Service Teachers through Innovative Transdisciplinary Projects
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THEORY TO PRACTICE
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS AND CONCLUSION
    11. Chapter 11: Libraries and Preservation of Indigenous Knowledge in Developing Countries
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
    12. Chapter 12: Cross-Border Inter-Firm Networks in Contemporary Europe
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO INTER-FIRM NETWORKS AND FIRM PERFORMANCE IN INTER-FIRM NETWORKS
      4. EUROPEAN INTEGRATION AND CROSS-BORDER INTER-FIRM NETWORKING
      5. ANALYSIS OF CROSS-BORDER INTER-FIRM NETWORKS
      6. CONCLUSION
    13. Chapter 13: Selection of the 3rd/4th Party Logistics Provider
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. LOGISTICS OUTSOURCING SERVICES
      4. 3. SYSTEM DEFINITION
      5. 4. APPLICATION OF THE MODEL
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
    14. Chapter 14: The New Age E-Enterprise
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    15. Chapter 15: Assessing Mobile Value-Added Preference Structures
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PROFILE OF JAMAICA’S MOBILE MARKET
      4. BACKGROUND
      5. STATE OF THE GLOBAL MOBILE MARKET
      6. CONSUMER BEHAVIOR AND MOBILE PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT
      7. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. RESULTS
      9. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
      10. RECOMMENDATIONS
      11. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    16. Chapter 16: Impact of Economic Culture on the Development of Enterprises
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. IMPACT OF ECONOMIC CULTURE ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF SMEs
      5. CONCLUSION
    17. Chapter 17: Theoretical Frameworks and Models Supporting the Practice of Leveraging Workforce Diversity
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BUSINESS CASE FOR DIVERSITY
      4. DRIVING CULTURAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE
      5. CONCLUSION
  7. Section 2: Development and Design Methodologies
    1. Chapter 18: The Theory of Cultural Dimensions
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE MAIN STUDIES OF CULTURAL DIMENSIONS
      4. CULTURAL DIMENSIONS: USES
      5. CULTURAL DIMENSIONS: CRITIQUE
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION: THE USEFULNESS OF CULTURAL DIMENSIONS FOR INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS RESEARCH
    2. Chapter 19: Leveraging Diversity in a Virtual Context
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TEAM HETEROGENEITY AND AGGRESSION
      4. INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS AND AGGRESSION
      5. CYBER-AGGRESSION
      6. STRUCTURAL AND INTERPERSONAL MODERATING FACTORS
      7. STRUCTURAL FACTORS
      8. INTERPERSONAL FACTORS
      9. RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 20: Due Diligence in Cyberspace
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. STATE RESPONSIBILITY VS. INTERNATIONAL LIABILITY IN INTERNATIONAL LAW
      4. DUE DILIGENCE IN INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL LAW
      5. DUE DILIGENCE IN CYBERSPACE
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 21: A Social Capital Approach to Inter-Cultural Differences
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. THEORETICAL AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
      4. 3. THE CASE STUDY METHODOLOGY
      5. 3. EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF CASE STUDY
      6. 4. STRUCTURAL, COGNITIVE AND RELATIONAL SOCIAL CAPITAL: AN IMPROVEMENT OF PROPOSED CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
      7. 5. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 22: Leading Global Virtual Teams
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. CHALLENGES IN IMPLEMENTING SHARED LEADERSHIP
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 23: Practising Language Interaction via Social Networking Sites
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PERSONAL LANGUAGE LEARNING AND AUTONOMOUS LEARNING
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. RESULTS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 24: Global Status Elevation in Today’s Classroom
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE WAY WE WERE (AND ARE)
      4. A GLOBAL MISSION FOR EDUCATORS
      5. MS. LENTZ’S TECHNOLOGICAL CULTURAL EXCHANGE
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
    8. Chapter 25: Intercultural Education with Indigenous Peoples and the Potential of Digital Technologies to make it Happen
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. IMPORTANCE OF PRESERVING INDIGENOUS CULTURES
      4. EDUCATION WITH INDIGENOUS PEOPLES
      5. : PROPOSAL OF MODEL FOR CULTURE REVITALIZATION
      6. THE WEB 2.0 AND POSSIBILITIES FOR SOCIAL CHANGE
      7. THE FIVE TASKS OF
      8. CONCLUSION
    9. Chapter 26: Teaching and Learning in English as the Medium for Instruction for International Students
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. EMI AND HIGHER EDUCATION INTERNATIONALIZATION
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH AND DIRECTION
      6. CONCLUSION
    10. Chapter 27: Cultural Considerations of Online Pedagogy
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE SOCIAL SCIENCE APPROACH TO CULTURE AND ONLINE PEDAGOGY RESEARCH
      4. THE INTERPRETIVE APPROACH TO CULTURE AND ONLINE PEDAGOGY RESEARCH
      5. THE CRITICAL APPROACH TO CULTURE AND ONLINE PEDAGOGY RESEARCH
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. APPENDIX: JOURNALS REVIEWED FOR THIS ARTICLE
    11. Chapter 28: Designing, Developing and Evaluating Professional Language and Intercultural Competencies with Phone Simulations
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. STEP BY STEP DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE PHONE SIMULATION
      5. LESSONS LEARNED
      6. CONCLUSION
    12. Chapter 29: Cross-Cultural Competences in the New Economy
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. MAIN PURPOSE
      4. 3. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK: CROSS-CULTURAL COMPETENCIES IN THE E-ENVIRONMENT
      5. 4. RESULTS: CONCEPTUALIZATION OF E-COMPETENCES AND CROSS-CULTURAL COMPETENCES
      6. 5. CONCLUSION AND FINAL THOUGHTS
    13. Chapter 30: Internationalization of Business in Emerging Countries and National Culture
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CHAPTER STRUCTURE
      4. CONCLUSION
    14. Chapter 31: The Customer Relationship Management as an Element of the Acceleration of Society Evolution
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. RESULTS
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
  8. Section 3: Utilization and Application
    1. Chapter 32: Computer Mediated Cross-Cultural Communication
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. A CONTEXT FOR CONSIDERATION
      4. INSTITUTIONAL RELATIONSHIPS
      5. PROJECTS AND OUTCOMES
      6. INFLUENCES ON COURSE DESIGN
      7. STUDENTS
      8. APPROACH
      9. RESULTS
      10. DISCUSSION
    2. Chapter 33: Promoting Global Virtual Teams across the Globe
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND OF STUDY
      4. QUALITATIVE METHODOLOGY
      5. RESULT
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 34: Electronic Collaboration in Strategic Decision-Making Processes
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    4. Chapter 35: Multiple Dimensions of Media Communication Skills
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 36: Interaction in Google Wave Sends Chat Rooms Out with the Tide
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. RESULTS
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. SOLUTIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS, AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 37: Immersion and Interaction via Avatars within Google Street View
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE ROLE OF ATTITUDES IN CULTURAL LEARNING
      4. WAYS TO LEARN CULTURE
      5. CULTURAL SIMULATIONS AND LEARNING IN VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS
      6. CULTURAL LEARNING TASKS AND THE CURRICULUM
      7. A CASE STUDY
      8. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      9. IMPLICATIONS AND CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 38: Integrating Social Media and Traditional Media within the Academic Environment
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. A. CHANGING ACADEMIC ENVIRONMENT IN EDUCATION SYSTEM
      5. B. TEACHER VS. STUDENT’S PERSPECTIVES IN TEACHING AND LEARNING
      6. C. ACADEMICS AND USE OF TRADITIONAL AND SOCIAL MEDIA
      7. D. INTEGRATING TRADITIONAL AND SOCIAL MEDIA WITHIN THE ACADEMIC ENVIRONMENT
      8. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. CONCLUSION
    8. Chapter 39: ICT in Arab Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND EDUCATION
      4. ICT AND EDUCATION IN THE ARAB WORLD
      5. ECONOMIC, INSTITUTIONAL, AND INNOVATIVE PARTNERSHIPS
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
    9. Chapter 40: Second Language Strategic Interactions Using Emerging Technologies and Experiential Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE STUDY
      5. METHOD
      6. RESULTS
      7. DISCUSSION
      8. APPENDIX
    10. Chapter 41: The Children’s Virtual Museum of Small Animals
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. CHILDREN ACTIVE ACTORS IN THE INFORMATION SOCIETY
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
    11. Chapter 42: A Collaborative Inquiry
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. HOW WE USED CI TO INCREASE CROSS-CULTURAL AWARENESS
      4. THE COMPLEX AND PARADOXICAL NATURE OF DIVERSITY WORK: ISSUES, CONTROVERSIES, PROBLEMS
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
    12. Chapter 43: The Effects of Culture on Planning and Technology in the Internationalisation of Medellín’s SMEs
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. CULTURAL INFLUENCES FOR INTERNATIONALISATION ON PLANNING AND TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS OF COLOMBIAN SMEs
      5. MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
    13. Chapter 44: Beyond Brain Drain
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. 1. THE CIRCULATION OF HEALTH PROFESSIONALS: A GROWING MOVEMENT
      4. 2. ON THE CIRCULATION OF HEALTH WORKERS: MOTIVES FOR PUSH AND PULL
      5. 3. MIGRATION FLOWS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR SENDING COUNTRIES
      6. 4. MEDICAL MIGRATION: A WIN-WIN FRAMEWORK
      7. 5. DISCUSSION AND PUBLIC POLICY IMPLICATIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
    14. Chapter 45: Promoting Global Citizenship through Intercultural Exchange Using Technology
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
      4. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
      5. INTERCULTURAL EXCHANGE
      6. ARTIFACTS
      7. IMPLICATIONS FOR LEARNING
      8. CONCLUSION
  9. Section 4: Organizational and Social Implications
    1. Chapter 46: International Co-Operation and Intercultural Relations
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. GLOBAL SOLUTIONS FOR SECURITY
      4. SAFEGUARDS ARE NOT UNIVERSAL
      5. THE POLITICS OF CULTURAL ARGUMENTS ABOUT HUMAN RIGHTS AND PRIVACY
      6. THE SHARED SENSE OF ABSENCE OF PROTECTIONS
      7. ANALYSIS
      8. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 47: Linguistic and Cultural Skills for Communication in Global Workplaces of the 21st Century
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE USE OF ENGLISH AS A GLOBAL LANGUAGE IN TWO MULTINATIONAL WORKPLACES
      5. THE STUDENT MULTINATIONAL TEAMS CASE STUDY
      6. A MODEL FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. NOMENCLATURE
    3. Chapter 48: A Community-Oriented Approach to CIIP in Developing Countries
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. DEVELOPING WORLD INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE PROTECTION
      5. COMMUNITY-ORIENTED SECURITY, ADVISORY, AND WARNING
      6. SERVICES
      7. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 49: Work-Groups Conflict at PetroTech-Italy, S.R.L.
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
      3. CONTEXTUAL HIGHLIGHTS
      4. COMPANY BACKGROUND
      5. WORK GROUPS AND MANAGEMENT DEMOGRAPHICS
      6. TURBULENT TIMES AT PTI
      7. SUGGESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION ABOUT POSSIBLE SOLUTION SCENARIO
    5. Chapter 50: Follow the Experts
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. A VIEW OF INTERCULTURAL COMPETENCE FROM INTERNATIONAL MANAGEMENT
      4. BICULTURAL CANADIANS AS INTERCULTURAL EXPERTS
      5. METHOD
      6. FINDINGS
      7. DISCUSSION
      8. APPENDIX: SCENARIOS
    6. Chapter 51: Cultural Differences in Trust in High-Tech International Business Ventures
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. NATIONAL DIFFERENCES IN TRUST: RESULTS OF THE WORLD VALUES SURVEY
      4. WHERE DO DIFFERENCES COME FROM? CULTURAL/HISTORIC BACKGROUND OF THE DIFFERENCES ON TRUST
      5. METHOD
      6. THE STUDY (EXCERPTS)
      7. DISCUSSION
    7. Chapter 52: A Synthesis of Globalisation, Business Culture and E-Business Adoption in Vietnam
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. GLOBALISATION AND THE GLOBAL ECONOMY
      4. GLOBALISATION, NATIONAL CULTURE, AND E-BUSINESS IN VIETNAM
      5. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. NOMENCLATURE
    8. Chapter 53: Icon Metaphors for Global Cultures
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE BUSINESS CULTURE
      5. THE COMPUTER CULTURE
      6. THE GLOBAL CULTURE
      7. THE INTERNET CULTURE
      8. THE SOCIAL MEDIA CULTURE
      9. RESEARCH
      10. SURVEY DESIGN
      11. FOCUS GROUP DESIGN
      12. PARTICIPANTS
      13. PROCEDURES
      14. MEASURES
      15. RESULTS
      16. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      17. CONCLUSION
    9. Chapter 54: Playing “Nice”
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CULTURE AND CONFLICT
      4. THE NEUTRAL ‘NET
      5. COMMUNITIES AND CONSTRAINTS
      6. UNDERSTANDING MMORPGs
      7. THE DYNAMICS OF THE MMORPG OMERTA
      8. OMERTA: EXAMINING DISCRIMINATION IN ONLINE GAMING
      9. EXCLUSIONARY PRACTICES IN OMERTA
      10. WHAT DOES IT ALL IMPLY?
      11. CONCLUSION
    10. Chapter 55: Cultural Property and Identity Issues in International Law
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION: CULTURAL AND INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY OR COLLECTIVE CULTURAL HERITAGE?
      3. INDIGENOUS DEMANDS RELATING TO CULTURAL PROPERTY / HERITAGE AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE FOR THEM
      4. THE INADEQUACY OF INTERNATIONAL CONVENTIONS ON CULTURAL PROPERTY/HERITAGE TO MEET INDIGENOUS DEMANDS
      5. CONCLUDING REMARKS
    11. Chapter 56: “Are you Married?”
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. NARRATIVE SCENE 1
      4. NARRATIVE SCENE 2A
      5. NARRATIVE SCENE 2B
      6. NARRATIVE SCENE 2C
      7. LIMITATIONS
    12. Chapter 57: Culture, Disorder, and Death in an Online World
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CYBERMIND
      4. ETHNOGRAPHY, CULTURE, AND DEATH
      5. DEATH ON CYBERMIND
      6. CONCLUSION
    13. Chapter 58: Multiculturality and Multimodal Languages
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MULTIMODALITY IN HCI
      4. THE CONCEPT OF CULTURE IN HCI
      5. CULTURE AND LANGUAGES
      6. DEFINITION OF A MULTIMODAL MULTICULTURAL LANGUAGE
      7. CONCLUSION
    14. Chapter 59: A Critical Perspective on the Challenges for Blended Learning and Teaching in Africa’s Higher Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. HIGHER LEARNING INSTITUTIONS IN AFRICA: AN OVERVIEW
      4. ICT AND HIGHER LEARNING INSTITUTIONS IN AFRICA
      5. PROBLEMS AT AFRICAN CONTINENTAL AND NATIONAL LEVEL
      6. IDEOLOGIES OR PARADIGMS THAT HAVE GUIDED AND BEDEVILED AFRICAN AFFAIRS SINCE EUROPEANS “DISCOVERED” AFRICA
      7. FOR A CONSTRUCTIVIST APPROACH OF ICT INTEGRATION IN HIGHER LEARNING
      8. COMPLEMENTARY RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CONSTRUCTIVISM AND TECHNOLOGY
      9. CONSIDER ASSESSMENT OF STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES
      10. STRATEGIES FOR INCREASING STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES
      11. CONCLUDING REMARKS
    15. Chapter 60: Information Systems in UAE Education Sector
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RECOMMENDATIONS AND SOLUTIONS
      4. CONCLUSION
    16. Chapter 61: Studying Locally, Interacting Globally
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. FINDINGS
      6. FUTURE TRENDS
      7. CONCLUSION
    17. Chapter 62: Challenge and Complexity of Virtual Team Management
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. VIRTUAL TEAMS
      4. CHALLENGES
      5. STRUCTURE
      6. STEPS
      7. INTERVENTIONS
      8. BEST PRACTICES
      9. BUILDING VIRTUAL TEAMS
      10. TRUST
      11. DECISION PROCESS
      12. LEADERSHIP ROLES
      13. EMPOWERMENT AND PERFORMANCE
      14. FUTURE OUTLOOK AND RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      15. CONCLUSION
  10. Section 5: Managerial Impact
    1. Chapter 63: Leadership in Globally Distributed Virtual Teams
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CHALLENGES OF VIRTUAL TEAMWORK
      4. THE ROLE OF TEAM LEADERS IN ADDRESSING CHALLENGES
      5. STRATEGIES FOR EFFECTIVE INFORMATION EXCHANGE IN GLOBALLY DISTRIBUTED VIRTUAL TEAMS
      6. STRATEGIES FOR ESTABLISHING TRUST IN GLOBALLY DISTRIBUTED VIRTUAL TEAMS
      7. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 64: Leveraging Workforce Diversity and Team Development
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TEAM WITHIN DIVERSE SETTINGS
      4. TEAM DEVELOPMENT
      5. GEERT HOFSTEDE CULTURAL DIMENSIONS
      6. ORGANIZATIONAL CONTEXT
      7. SUMMARY
    3. Chapter 65: Diversity Training in Organizations
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE BUSINESS RATIONALE FOR ENGAGING WITH DIVERSITY ISSUES
      4. DELIVERING DIVERSITY TRAINING
      5. IDENTITY AND PRIVILEGE
      6. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 66: Leveraging Intergenerational Diversity to Meet Business Goals
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. IDENTIFYING GENERATIONAL COHORTS
      4. AREAS OF THE INTERGENERATIONAL GAPS
      5. CLOSING GENERATIONAL GAPS
      6. BEST PRACTICES FOR LEVERAGING INTERGENERATIONAL DIVERSITY
      7. COMPANIES THAT ARE HAVING SUCCESS
      8. DISPELLING STEREOTYPES ABOUT THE GENERATIONS
      9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTION
      10. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 67: Bicultural Managers and their Role in Multinational Corporations
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BEING A BICULTURAL MANAGER IN JAPAN
      4. EMPIRICAL STUDY
      5. ANALYSIS
      6. OUTLOOK AND FUTURE RESEARCH AVENUES
    6. Chapter 68: Making Agile Development and Offshoring Practice Successful on Global Software Development Project
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. AGILE DEVELOPMENT
      4. IMPLICATIONS OF AGILE
      5. TECHNOLOGIES ENABLING OFFSHORING
      6. OFFSHORING IT DEVELOPMENT
      7. IMPLICATIONS OF OFFSHORING
      8. COMBINING AGILE WITH OFFSHORING
      9. PEOPLE FACTORS
      10. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS
      11. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 69: Organizational Culture and Organizational Effectiveness in a Global Context
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. FOCUS
      3. INTRODUCTION
      4. KEY CONCEPTS OVERVIEW
      5. COMPANY CULTURE AND PERFORMANCE
      6. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
      7. THEORY APPLICATIONS
      8. SUMMARY
    8. Chapter 70: Strategic Transcultural Marketing Management and Global Competitiveness
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. 1. A BRIEF REVIEW OF THE HISTORICAL AND CURRENT PERSPECTIVES OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT
      4. 2. THE GENERAL CONCEPT OF GLOBAL STRATEGIC MARKETING MANAGEMENT
      5. 3. THE MODEL OF GLOBAL STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PROCESS IN THE GLOBAL CONTEXT
      6. 4. STRATEGIC INTENT
      7. 5. THE PROCESS OF DEVELOPING A GLOBAL VISION
      8. 6. THE ENVIRONMENTAL SCANNING
      9. 7. STAGES OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT
      10. 8. OBJECTIVES OF GLOBAL STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT AND COMPETITIVENESS
      11. 9. FOREIGN COUNTRY ENTRY MODE
      12. 10. TRENDS IN GLOBAL STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT
      13. 11. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS
    9. Chapter 71: Managing Intercultural Service Encounters
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DEFINITION OF CULTURE
      4. THE IMPACTS OF CULTURAL DIFFERENCES DURING SERVICE ENCOUNTERS: THE EAST - WEST PERSPECTIVE
      5. CULTURAL DIMENSIONS THAT CAN CAUSE CONFLICT DURING INTERCULTURAL SERVICE ENCOUNTERS
      6. TOWARDS SUCCESSFUL INTERCULTURAL SERVICE ENCOUNTERS
    10. Chapter 72: Managerial Communication in the Global Cross-Cultural Context
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. A QUALITATIVE FIELD INVESTIGATION ON MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION
      5. RESULTS
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
      8. CONCLUSION
    11. Chapter 73: The Term “Global” in Cross-Cultural Studies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. GLOBAL DEBATE AND CROSS-CULTURAL RESEARCH
      4. 3. KNOWLEDGE CONCEPTUALIZATION AND ONTOLOGIES FOR THE ANALYSIS OF THE TERM “GLOBAL” IN CROSS-CULTURAL STUDIES
      5. 4. LINGUISTIC CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT CONCORDANCES
      6. 5. MAIN CONCLUSION AND FUTURE CHALLENGES
      7. APPENDIX
    12. Chapter 74: Cultural Management 2.0
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. CULTURE 2.0: COLLECTIVE CULTURE
      4. 3. RECOMMENDATIONS FROM REPEATED OBSERVATION OF USE OF SOCIAL NETWORKS IN CULTURAL MANAGEMENT
      5. 4. CONCLUSION
    13. Chapter 75: Globalization and Human Resources Management
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. INTERNATIONAL HRM AND WORKFORCE DIVERSITY
      4. DIVERSITY MANAGEMENT
      5. THE ROLE OF HRM IN MANAGING A DIVERSE WORKFORCE
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
    14. Chapter 76: The Impact of Culture on Workplace Conflict in the Caribbean
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. WORKPLACE CONFLICT AS AN ASPECT OF BUSINESS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT
      4. CARIBBEAN CULTURE AS THE FOUNDATION FOR ITS CONFLICT STYLES
      5. MANAGING WORKPLACE CONFLICT IN A CARIBBEAN BUSINESS
      6. SUMMARY
    15. Chapter 77: Developing Global Leaders
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. GLOBAL LEADERSHIP
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
  11. Section 6: Emerging Trends
    1. Chapter 78: New Technologies and Democratic Participation on the International Level
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. DEMOCRACY, PARTICIPATION, AND INFORMATION
      3. DEMOCRACY AND GLOBAL GOVERNANCE
      4. UNITED NATIONS
      5. EUROPEAN UNION
      6. ICTs, ACCESS, AND GLOBAL DEMOCRACY
      7. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 79: Importance of Perpetual Government-University-Industry (GUI) Collaboration Today
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE JAPANESE CASE
      4. THE USA CASE
      5. THE CHINA-INDIA CASES
      6. DISCUSSION
    3. Chapter 80: The Changing State of the South African Nation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHODOLOGY
      4. SPEECH ANALYSIS
      5. MEDIA RECEPTION ANALYSIS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. NOMENCLATURE
    4. Chapter 81: Emerging Technology Trends and Implications for Diversity Management
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DIVERSITY MANAGEMENT
      4. DIVERSITY MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS AND CHALLENGES
      5. DIVERSITY AND TEAM PERFORMANCE
      6. CURRENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGY TRENDS
      7. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH
      9. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 82: Coevolving through Disrupted Discussions on Critical Thinking, Human Rights and Empathy
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. THE STORIES
      4. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    6. Chapter 83: Using the Cultural Challenges of Virtual Team Projects to Prepare Students for Global Citizenship
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. GLOBAL EDUCATION AND THE TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION CURRICULUM
      4. VIRTUAL TEAM PROJECTS AND GLOBAL COMPETENCY
      5. STRUCTURING VIRTUAL TEAM PROJECTS
      6. PROJECTS TO FOSTER GLOBAL COMPETENCY
      7. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 84: Culture and Websites Interaction
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. MAJOR RESEARCH ON CULTURE AND WEBSITES
      6. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
      7. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
      8. APPENDIX
    8. Chapter 85: Netnography
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE GENESIS OF NETNOGRAPHY
      4. METHOD
      5. RESULTS (SINGLE CASE ANALYSES)
      6. DISCUSSION (CROSS-CASE ANALYSIS)
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
    9. Chapter 86: Expanding Technology-Based Transcultural Diffusion
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. INNOVATION AND MARKET ENTRY
      4. THE VENTURE CAPITAL (VC) INDUSTRY
      5. TECHNOLOGY COMMERCIALISATION
      6. FINDINGS
      7. CONCLUSION
    10. Chapter 87: “I Love Being Able to Have my Colleagues around the World at my Fingertips”
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. FINDING OUT ABOUT TEACHER-LIBRARIANS AND THEIR PERSONAL LEARNING NETWORKS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
    11. Chapter 88: Quality Management
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. QUALITY MANAGEMENT RESEARCH FROM AN EVOLUTIONARY CROSS-CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE
      4. 3. TQM AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO NATIONAL CULTURE
      5. 4. METHODOLOGY
      6. 5. DATA ANALYSIS AND MAIN FINDINGS
      7. 6. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
      8. APPENDIX: IMSS QUESTIONS
    12. Chapter 89: Developing Cultural Competency in Engineering through Transnational Distance Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. RECOMMENDATIONS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
    13. Chapter 90: A Traditional African Perspective of Blended Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BLENDING OUTSIDER AND INSIDER PERSPECTIVES
      4. BLENDED LEARNING IN TRADITIONAL AFRICAN EDUCATION
      5. CONCLUSION
    14. Chapter 91: Beyond the Boundaries
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PURPOSE AND SCOPE
      4. PART 1: THE DRIVING FORCES OF GLOBAL HIGHER EDUCATION
      5. PART 2: GOING GLOBAL – THE CHALLENGES FOR UNIVERSITIES
      6. PART 3: THE FUTURE OF BORDERLESS HIGHER EDUCATION
      7. SUMMARY
      8. APPENDIX: RECOMMENDATIONS FOR MANAGING EFFECTIVE INTERNATIONAL PARTNERSHIPS
    15. Chapter 92: ePorticulture
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION: DESIGNING A NEW EDUCATIONAL LANDSCAPE
      3. BACKGROUND: ELEMENTS FOR SUCCESSFUL PLANTING
      4. ENCOURAGING EDU-DIVERSITY: CHANGING ASSESSMENT = CHANGING CURRICULUM = CHANGING THE CULTURE OF THE INSTITUTION
      5. CONCLUSION
    16. Chapter 93: Cultural Influence on Global Assessment of Higher Education Service Quality
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
      5. CONSTRUCT DEVELOPMENT
      6. RESEARCH METHOD
      7. DATA ANALYSIS
      8. DISCUSSION
      9. CONCLUSION
    17. Chapter 94: Language Abilities and Culture Clashes in Cyberspace
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE NEED FOR RESEARCH
      4. CULTURAL CONFLICT IN MAINSTREAM COLLEGE CLASSES
      5. ISSUES OF CLASSROOM COMMUNITY AND ACADEMIC IDENTITY
      6. AUTHORIAL SELF-IDENTITY
      7. MUTING
      8. CONSIDERATIONS FOR HYBRID INSTRUCTORS
      9. CONCLUSION
    18. Chapter 95: The Gramulator
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. WHAT IS THE GRAMULATOR?
      3. THE RELEVANCE OF THE GRAMULATOR
      4. THE GRAMULATOR APPROACH
      5. THE UNIT OF ANALYSIS: N-GRAMS
      6. THE ASSUMPTIONS OF THE GRAMULATOR
      7. THE ARCHITECTURE OF THE GRAMULATOR
      8. STUDIES USING THE GRAMULATOR
      9. VALIDATION STUDY
      10. RESULTS
      11. CONCLUSION
    19. Chapter 96: Towards a Participative Platform for Cultural Texts Translators
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION