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Creating the Market University

Book Description

American universities today serve as economic engines, performing the scientific research that will create new industries, drive economic growth, and keep the United States globally competitive. But only a few decades ago, these same universities self-consciously held themselves apart from the world of commerce. Creating the Market University is the first book to systematically examine why academic science made such a dramatic move toward the market. Drawing on extensive historical research, Elizabeth Popp Berman shows how the government--influenced by the argument that innovation drives the economy--brought about this transformation.

Americans have a long tradition of making heroes out of their inventors. But before the 1960s and '70s neither policymakers nor economists paid much attention to the critical economic role played by innovation. However, during the late 1970s, a confluence of events--industry concern with the perceived deterioration of innovation in the United States, a growing body of economic research on innovation's importance, and the stagnation of the larger economy--led to a broad political interest in fostering invention. The policy decisions shaped by this change were diverse, influencing arenas from patents and taxes to pensions and science policy, and encouraged practices that would focus specifically on the economic value of academic science. By the early 1980s, universities were nurturing the rapid growth of areas such as biotech entrepreneurship, patenting, and university-industry research centers.

Contributing to debates about the relationship between universities, government, and industry, Creating the Market University sheds light on how knowledge and politics intersect to structure the economy.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Dedication
  5. Contents
  6. Acknowledgments
  7. Chapter 1 Academic Science as an Economic Engine
    1. The Changing Nature of Academic Science
    2. Studying the Changes in Academic Science
    3. Explaining the Rise of Market Logic in Academic Science
    4. Overview of the Book
  8. Chapter 2 Market Logic in the Era of Pure Science
    1. Federal Funding and the Support of Science Logic
    2. Using Market Logic in the 1950s and 1960s
    3. Limits to the Spread of Market Logic
    4. The Pillars of the Postwar System Begin to Crumble
    5. The Effects of the Dissolving Federal Consensus
  9. Chapter 3 Innovation Drives the Economy—an Old Idea with New Implications
    1. Market-Logic Practices of the 1970s and Their Limits
    2. The Political Power of an Economic Idea
    3. The Innovation Frame and the University
  10. Chapter 4 Faculty Entrepreneurship in the Biosciences
    1. Before Biotech
    2. Early Entrepreneurship
    3. 1978: A Turning Point
    4. Academic Entrepreneurship: Money Changes Everything
    5. Why Did Bioscience Entrepreneurship Take Off?
  11. Chapter 5 Patenting University Inventions
    1. University Patenting during the Science-Logic Era
    2. Barriers to the Expansion of University Patenting
    3. Innovation, the Economy, and Government Patent Policy
    4. University Patenting after 1980
    5. Why Did University Patenting Take Off?
  12. Chapter 6 Creating University-Industry Research Centers
    1. UIRCs versus Biotech Entrepreneurship and University Patenting
    2. The Trajectory of University-Industry Research Centers
    3. The Emergence of Federal and State Support for UIRCs
    4. The Expansion of State and Federal Support for UIRCs in the 1980s
    5. Why Did University-Industry Research Centers Spread?
  13. Chapter 7 The Spread of Market Logic
    1. The Expansion of Biotech Entrepreneurship, Patenting, and UIRCs
    2. Market Logic Elsewhere in Academic Science
    3. University Administrators and the Rhetoric of Innovation
    4. Science Logic and Market Logic: An Uneasy Coexistence
  14. Chapter 8 Conclusion
    1. How Academic Science Became an Economic Engine: Considering the Evidence
    2. Reconsidering Alternative Arguments
    3. Speaking to Larger Conversations
  15. Notes
  16. Bibliography
  17. Index