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Cost-Effectiveness Analysis in Health: A Practical Approach, 2nd Edition

Book Description

This second edition of Cost Effectiveness Analysis in Health reviews issues and methods of assessing health care technologies and related programs. It emphasizes methods to perform economic evaluations, such as cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analysis; methods to assess efficacy, effectiveness, and safety of health care technologies; effectiveness research; and applications to clinical and public policy. The book provides in-depth discussion of the uses and conducting of cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) as decision-making aids in public health, health services, and medicine. It explores cost-effectiveness in the context of societal decision making for resource allocation purposes. Chapter topics include: Defining and explaining cost-effectiveness, principles of cost-effectiveness analysis, how to develop a research project, working with costs, probabilities and models, calculating life expectancy, working with health-related quality of life measures, calculating quality-adjusted life years, conducting a sensitivity analysis, preparing your study for publication, working with data, and finding the data you need.

"For instructors, data sets and other ancillary materials are freely available at http://www.pceo.org/."

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Page
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Contents
  5. TABLES, FIGURES, & EXHIBITS
    1. TABLES
    2. FIGURES
    3. EXHIBITS
  6. PREFACE
    1. HOW TO USE THIS BOOK
    2. A NOTE ON METHODS
    3. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  7. THE AUTHOR
  8. CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO COST-EFFECTIVENESS
    1. OVERVIEW
    2. WHY COST-EFFECTIVENESS IS USEFUL
    3. ELEMENTS OF COST-EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS
    4. THE COST-EFFECTIVENESS RATIO
    5. WHY CONDUCT COST-EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS?
    6. THE REFERENCE CASE ANALYSIS
    7. COST-EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS AND POLICY
  9. CHAPTER 2: PRINCIPLES OF COST-EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS
    1. OVERVIEW
    2. THE PERSPECTIVE OF A COST-EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS
    3. CAPTURING COSTS
    4. CAPTURING QUALITY
    5. INTERPRETING THE COST-EFFECTIVENESS RATIO
    6. TYPES OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS
  10. CHAPTER 3: DEVELOPING A RESEARCH PROJECT
    1. OVERVIEW
    2. EIGHT STEPS TO A PERFECT RESEARCH PROJECT
    3. DEVELOPING A RESEARCH QUESTION
    4. DESIGNING YOUR ANALYSIS
  11. CHAPTER 4: WORKING WITH COSTS
    1. OVERVIEW
    2. OPPORTUNITY COSTS
    3. IDENTIFYING COSTS
    4. MICRO-COSTING AND GROSS COSTING
    5. GETTING COST DATA
    6. USING DIAGNOSIS CODES
    7. ADJUSTING COSTS
    8. COSTS ASSOCIATED WITH PAIN AND SUFFERING
    9. ASSESSING THE “RELEVANCY” OF COST DATA
    10. OTHER COST CONSIDERATIONS
  12. CHAPTER 5: PROBABILITIES AND MODELS
    1. OVERVIEW
    2. PROBABILITIES
    3. DECISION ANALYSIS MODELS
  13. CHAPTER 6: CALCULATING LIFE EXPECTANCY
    1. OVERVIEW
    2. HAND-CALCULATING YEARS GAINED
    3. CALCULATING LIFE YEARS LOST USING MARKOV MODELS
  14. CHAPTER 7: WORKING WITH HEALTH-RELATED QUALITY-OF-LIFE MEASURES
    1. OVERVIEW
    2. FRAMEWORK
    3. DERIVING HRQL SCORES
    4. OTHER CONSIDERATIONS AND REMINDERS
    5. USING DISABILITY-ADJUSTED LIFE YEARS
  15. CHAPTER 8: CALCULATING QALYs
    1. OVERVIEW
    2. USING THE SUMMATION METHOD
    3. USING THE LIFE TABLE METHOD
    4. CALCULATING INCREMENTAL COST-EFFECTIVENESS
    5. DISABILITY-ADJUSTED LIFE YEAR (DALY)
  16. CHAPTER 9: CONDUCTING A SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS
    1. OVERVIEW
    2. ONE-WAY SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS
    3. TWO-WAY SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS
    4. ANALYSIS OF INFLUENCE
    5. MONTE CARLO SIMULATION
    6. DETERMINING THE PLAUSIBLE RANGE OF EACH VARIABLE
  17. CHAPTER 10: PREPARING YOUR STUDY FOR PUBLICATION
    1. OVERVIEW
    2. CONTENT AND STRUCTURE OF COST-EFFECTIVENESS ARTICLES
    3. INTRODUCTION
    4. METHODS
    5. RESULTS
    6. TECHNICAL APPENDIX
  18. CHAPTER 11: WORKING WITH DATA
    1. OVERVIEW
    2. REVIEW OF RATES
    3. UNDERSTANDING ERROR
    4. MANAGING ERROR IN COST-EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS
    5. CALCULATING WEIGHTED MEANS
    6. EVALUATING STUDY LIMITATIONS
  19. CHAPTER 12: FINDING THE DATA YOU NEED
    1. OVERVIEW
    2. FINDING DATA IN THE MEDICAL LITERATURE
    3. GRADING PUBLISHED DATA
    4. USING ELECTRONIC DATASETS
    5. USING UNPUBLISHED DATA
    6. USING DATA FROM PIGGYBACKED STUDIES
    7. USING EXPERT OPINION
    8. ORGANIZING YOUR DATA
  20. APPENDIX A: ANSWER KEY TO EXERCISES
    1. CHAPTER 1
    2. CHAPTER 2
    3. CHAPTER 3
    4. CHAPTER 4
    5. CHAPTER 5
    6. CHAPTER 8
    7. CHAPTER 9
  21. APPENDIX B: LIFE EXPECTANCY AND QUALITY-ADJUSTED LIFE EXPECTANCY TABLES
  22. APPENDIX C: EUROQOL INSTRUMENT AND WEIGHTING SCHEME
  23. APPENDIX D: DIAGNOSIS, CHARGES, MEDICARE REIMBURSEMENT, AVERAGE LENGTH OF STAY, AND COST-TO-CHARGE RATIO BY DIAGNOSIS-RELATED GROUPS, 2004
  24. GLOSSARY
  25. REFERENCES
  26. INDEX