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Corporate Media Production, 2nd Edition

Book Description

With the advent of affordable equipment, there are more opportunities than ever in the field of corporate media production. This book examines all aspects of this creative field, from concept development to the final stages of postproduction. The book also clarifies the roles of the writer, producer, director and client while focusing on the dynamics among these key players. This in-depth book captures all the technical and creative elements used in the creation of media in the corporate world.

The new edition has been updated to reflect the most current media production, editing, delivery formats and processes, with an emphasis on DV. There is material on the new digital video cameras and non-linear editing systems, as well as an expanded discussion of audio sweetening. A new chapter on evaluation demystifies this critical process, and there is a new discussion of multimedia.

Table of Contents

  1. Front Cover
  2. Title
  3. Copyright
  4. Dedication
  5. Contents
  6. Preface and acknowledgments
  7. I The Corporate Media Evolution
    1. 1 The Changing Role of Corporate Media
      1. Uses of Media in the Corporate World
      2. Distribution and Delivery Systems
        1. Videocassettes
        2. Corporate Broadcasts
        3. Distance Learning
        4. CD-ROM, DVD, Streaming Video/Audio
        5. Interactivity—A Key
        6. The World Wide Web
        7. Local Area Networks and Intranets
      3. Creative Changes?
    2. 2 The Key Players
      1. The Corporate Media Producer
        1. Staff and Freelance Producers
        2. Producer “Musts”
        3. The Reward
      2. THE DIRECTOR
        1. A Definition
        2. The Director as an Artist
        3. Not for the Fainthearted
        4. The Reward
      3. The Scriptwriter
        1. The Real Differences
        2. The Working Environment
        3. The Research Factor
        4. Staff and Freelance Writers
      4. Clients
        1. Client Profiles
        2. A Dynamic Relationship
    3. 3 Media Groups in the Corporate World
      1. Large In-House Media Groups
        1. Advantages and Disadvantages
      2. Small In-House Media Groups
        1. Advantages and Disadvantages
      3. Outside Production Companies
        1. Advantages and Disadvantages
      4. Prosumers
        1. Advantages and Disadvantages
      5. Freelancers
        1. Advantages and Disadvantages
    4. 4 A Production Overview
      1. Writing
        1. Program Design
        2. Scriptwriting
      2. Preproduction
        1. Budgeting
        2. Talent Auditions and Bookings
        3. Crew Bookings
        4. Equipment Reservations or Rentals
        5. Location and Set Arrangements
        6. Blocking, Storyboards, and Diagrams
        7. Rehearsals and Meetings
        8. Production Scheduling
      3. Production
        1. Location Production
        2. Studio Production
        3. Graphic Arts Production
        4. Audio Production
      4. Postproduction
        1. The Traditional Offline Edit
        2. The Traditional Online Edit
        3. Nonlinear Editing
        4. Audio “Sweetening”
        5. The Traditional Laydown and Layback
        6. Nonlinear Audio Sweetening
        7. Duplication/Distribution
    5. 5 Production People
      1. The Line Producer
      2. The Production Manager
      3. The Assistant Director (AD)
      4. the Production Assistant (PA)
      5. The Director of Photography (DP) or Videographer
      6. The Camera Operator
      7. The Gaffer
      8. The Grip
      9. The Sound Recordist/Mixer
      10. The Audio Boom Operator
      11. The Floor Manager or Stage Manager
      12. Technical Director (TD)
      13. Videotape Recorder Operator (TAPE OP)
      14. Video Control Engineer (VC)
      15. Engineer in Charge (EIC)
      16. Teleprompter Operator
      17. The Makeup Artist
      18. Graphic Artist
      19. The Offline Editor
      20. The Online Editor
      21. The Audio Sweetening Engineer
      22. Part One Summary
  8. II The Script
    1. 6 The Program Needs Analysis
      1. The Scenario of the Unneeded Media Program
      2. Program Design
      3. The Problem or Need
      4. Objectives
        1. Instructional Objectives
        2. Motivational Objectives
        3. Mixing Objectives
      5. Audience Analysis
        1. Multiple Audiences
      6. Utilization
      7. Interactive Design
      8. Design Summary
      9. A Complete Program Needs Analysis
      10. Commentary
      11. The Decision
    2. 7 The Content Outline
      1. Acquiring Content Information
      2. Interview Techniques and Research Sources
        1. Use a Tape Recorder if Possible
        2. Use Open-Ended Questions
        3. Guide the Discussion
        4. Keep it Simple
        5. Listen
        6. Other Sources
      3. Organizing Content Information
      4. Content Outline Formats
        1. Informal
        2. Formal
        3. Other Structures
      5. A Formal Content Outline
      6. Commentary
    3. 8 The Creative Concept
      1. Print Versus Visual (Showing Versus Telling)
        1. Telling (Print-Oriented Writing)
        2. Showing (Visual Writing)
      2. The Creative Visual Concept
      3. Types of Concepts
      4. Concept Thinking
      5. Concept Examples
        1. Host on Camera with Stills Transferred to Tape
        2. Music Video
        3. Documentary
        4. Children Interviewed on Clean Air
      6. Concept Summary
    4. 9 The Treatment
      1. A Definition
      2. Treatment Summary
      3. A Complete Program Treatment
      4. Commentary
    5. 10 The Script
      1. Formats
        1. The Two-Column Format
        2. The Screenplay Format
        3. Interactive Scripts
        4. Storyboard
        5. Narration Script
    6. 11 Script Terminology
      1. Editing Terms
        1. Fade In/Fade Out
        2. Dissolve
        3. Cut
        4. Wipe
        5. Digital Video Effect (DVE)
      2. Camera Terms
        1. Wide Shot (WS)
        2. Establishing Shot
        3. Long Shot
        4. Medium Shot (MS)
        5. Medium Close-up (MCU)
        6. Close-up (CU)
        7. Extreme Close-up (ECU)
        8. Two Shot
        9. Over the Shoulder (OTS)
        10. Point of View (POV)
        11. Reverse Angle
        12. Rack Focus
        13. f.g./b.g.
        14. Low Angle
        15. High Angle
        16. Pan/Tilt
        17. Dolly/Truck
      3. Scene Heading Terms
        1. Int./Ext./Day/Night
      4. Sound Terms
        1. Sound Effects (SFX)
        2. Music Up/Under/In/Out/Sting
        3. Sound Terms
      5. Master Scenes Versus Detailed Descriptions
    7. 12 Dialogue and Narration
      1. Dialogue Credibility
        1. Natural Speech Patterns
        2. Believable Character Motivation
        3. Use of Contractions and Colloquialisms
      2. The Dialogue Test
      3. Narration
        1. Effective Narration Qualities
    8. 13 Structure and Transitions
      1. Types of Structures
      2. Structure Versus Storyline
      3. Corporate Structures
        1. The Tell ’em Structure
        2. Benefits Bookends
        3. Contrasting Actions
        4. Creative Use of Structure
    9. 14 A Screenplay Format Script
      1. Commentary
      2. Part Two Summary
  9. III Preproduction: The Plan for Success
    1. 15 Preproduction
      1. Detail—The Key
      2. The Players
        1. The Client
        2. The Producer
        3. The Director
        4. The Assistant Director
        5. The Production Assistant
      3. Crew Costs
      4. Run ’N’ Gun Shoots
      5. Preproduction Tasks
        1. Budgeting
        2. Creating the Master File
        3. Reviewing and Breaking Down the Script
        4. Obtaining Props and Wardrobe
        5. Scouting and Confirming Locations and Obtaining Permits and Releases
        6. Auditioning and Selecting Talent, Professional and Otherwise
        7. Developing and Writing the Shooting Schedule
        8. Hiring the Crew
        9. Designing Sets
        10. Renting or Reserving Production Equipment and Vehicles
        11. Designing and Creating Artwork, Animation, and Character-Generated Titles
        12. Reviewing and Selecting Stock Footage
        13. Reviewing and Selecting Music
        14. Blocking the Script
        15. Rehearsals
        16. Conducting Preproduction Meetings
        17. Preparing Equipment for the Shoot
      6. Part Three Summary
  10. IV Production
    1. 16 Production Formats, Equipment, and Shooting Styles
      1. Glamour or Grind?
      2. The Videotape, Digital Video, and Film Recording Processes
        1. Film Recording
        2. Analog and Digital Video Recording
      3. Formats
        1. One-Inch Reel-to-Reel
        2. Three-Quarter-Inch U-Matic
        3. Half-Inch Camcorders
        4. D (Digital) Formats
        5. Mini DV (Digital Video)
        6. Custom Mini DV Formats
        7. High Definition
      4. Equipment
        1. Cameras
        2. Video Streaming
        3. Videotape Recorders (VTRs)
        4. Microphones
        5. Mixers
        6. Monitors
        7. Lights
        8. Lighting Accessories
        9. Other Equipment
      5. Production Styles
        1. Location Shooting
        2. Studio Shooting
        3. “Virtual” Production
        4. Compositing Systems
        5. Modern Authoring Programs
    2. 17 A Day on Location and a Day in the Studio
      1. Location Production
        1. Set-up
        2. Rehearsal
        3. Take One
        4. The Strike
      2. Small Location Shoots
      3. Studio Production
        1. Rehearsal
        2. Switching Live-on-Tape
      4. Nondramatic Studio Shoots
      5. Smaller Studio Shoots
    3. 18 Audio Production
      1. Audio Recording in the Studio
      2. The Production Audio Room
      3. The Recording Session
      4. The Audio Script
      5. Transfer to Videotape
      6. Audio Recording on Location
      7. Field or Studio?
      8. The Importance of Sound
      9. Part Four Summary
  11. V The Director
    1. 19 The Director’s Role
      1. Illusionism: The Director’s Art
      2. Script Aesthetics
        1. Informational Clarity
        2. Character Profiles
        3. Plot
        4. Structure and Transitions
        5. Tone and Pace
      3. Summary
    2. 20 Human Aesthetics
      1. Image And Performance—The Critical Ingredients
      2. Casting
      3. Auditions
        1. Appearance (“Look”)
        2. Performance Capability
        3. Ability to Take Direction
        4. Personality
        5. Audition Review
      4. Rehearsal
        1. Before the Shoot
        2. Rehearsal on the Set
      5. Execution
        1. Distractions
        2. Directing Nonprofessional Talent
    3. 21 Audiovisual Aesthetics
      1. Pictures And Sound
      2. Script Analysis And Visualization
      3. Visual Elements
      4. Camera Placement And Movement
      5. Standard Coverage
      6. Editing Coverage
      7. Nonstandard Camera Placement And Movement
      8. Movement
      9. Frame Size
        1. Short Focal Lengths
        2. Mid-Range Focal Lengths
        3. Long Focal Lengths
      10. Prime Lenses
      11. Zoom Lenses
      12. Shot Descriptions
        1. Wide Shot (WS)
        2. Medium Shot (MS)
        3. Medium Close-up (MCU)
        4. Close-up (CU)
        5. Extreme Close-up (ECU)
        6. Insert
      13. Avoiding “Jump Cuts”
        1. Change Focal Lengths
        2. Change Camera Positions
        3. Plan Edits Carefully
      14. Frame Composition
        1. Balance
        2. Depth
        3. Lighting
      15. Sound
        1. Sound Quality
        2. Microphone Choices
        3. Types of Sounds
      16. Summary
    4. 22 Technical Aesthetics
      1. Avoiding Technical Inaccuracies
        1. Props
        2. Makeup
        3. Wardrobe
      2. Continuity Problems
        1. Physical Continuity
        2. Performance Continuity
      3. Screen Direction
        1. “Sneaking” Across the Line
      4. Summary
    5. 23 General Aesthetics
      1. A Definition
      2. Tone
        1. Corporate Tone Considerations
      3. Pace
        1. Shot Content
        2. Shot Length
        3. Editing for Pace
      4. Transitions
        1. Use of the Cut
        2. Use of Dissolves
        3. Use of Wipes
        4. Use of Digital Video Effects (DVE)
      5. Summary
    6. 24 People Skills
      1. The Director As Consultant
      2. The Director As Manager
        1. Planning
        2. Organizing
        3. Confirming
        4. Preproduction Meetings
      3. The Director As Supervisor
        1. Communicate
        2. Be Accessible
        3. Be Decisive
        4. Be Reasonable
        5. Recognize Good Work
        6. Have Fun
        7. Say Thanks
      4. The Director As Coach
        1. Communicating with Actors
        2. Articulating
        3. Allowing Flexibility
        4. Clarifying Motivation
        5. Recognizing the “Real World”
        6. Encouraging Actors
        7. Demanding Excellence
        8. Recognizing Effort
        9. Knowing When to Let Up
        10. Gaining Respect
        11. Coaching Employee Talent
      5. Summary
    7. 25 Judgment Skills
      1. Sensitivity To The People And The World Around Us
      2. Sensitivity To Audience Tastes
      3. Sensitivity To The Client’s And Producer’s Tastes
      4. Other Judgment Calls
      5. Judgment Under Pressure
      6. Visual Versus Content
      7. Content Versus Visual
      8. Summary
      9. Part Five Summary
  12. VI Postproduction
    1. 26 A Postproduction Overview
      1. Traditional Versus Nonlinear
      2. Traditional Editing Overview
        1. Duplication
        2. The Master Script Package
        3. The Editing Process and Time Code
        4. Time Code and Control Track
    2. 27 The Traditional Offline and Online Edit
      1. The Offline Edit
        1. The Editor
        2. The Offline
        3. The Editing Process
      2. The Traditional Rough-Cut Screening
      3. Additional Notes
      4. The Online Edit
      5. Auto Assemble
      6. SpeciaL Effects
    3. 28 Nonlinear Editing
      1. A Nonlinear Analogy
      2. The Nonlinear Editing Process
        1. Logging and Digitization
        2. Editing
        3. Titles and Artwork
        4. Client and Producer Review
        5. Rendering Effects
        6. Output
      3. The Future Of Nonlinear Editing
      4. Summary
    4. 29 Audio Sweetening
      1. The Sweetening Room— Traditional Audio Sweetening
      2. The Laydown, Mix, And Layback
      3. Nonlinear Audio Sweetening
      4. Part Six Summary
    5. 30 Why Evaluate?
      1. The Evaluation Payback
      2. Feedback And The Need To Improve
      3. Documentation: Ammunition Against Executive Attack
      4. Which Evaluation?
      5. Administering The Evaluation
      6. What Next?
      7. Indices Evaluations
      8. Considerations
      9. A Few Final Notes On Evaluations
    6. 31 The Future of Corporate Media
      1. Network Media Delivery
      2. Interactivity
      3. Going Global–And Wireless!
      4. Distance Learning
      5. Sales And Information Programming On The Nets
      6. A Challenging Tomorrow
  13. Glossary
  14. Bibliography
  15. Index