Not-for-profit organizations (NPOs) are usually established to achieve philanthropic purposes rather than maximize the wealth of their stakeholders. The emerging corporate governance reforms discussed in the previous chapters are normally aimed at improving corporate governance of for-profit organizations (FPOs), particularly public companies. However, private companies and NPOs such as government entities, health care organizations, colleges and universities, and charitable organizations have been under scrutiny for their governance. In the context of corporate governance and accountability, NPOs have the same stewardship responsibilities as business corporations. NPOs have a fundamental difference with business corporations with respect to their relationship with their stakeholders in that NPOs receive grants, which are funds from their constituencies, to provide services to the community. This chapter discusses corporate governance in private companies, state and local government entities, health care, colleges and universities, and other NPOs.
The primary objectives of this chapter are to