You have seen how annotations can be processed at runtime or at the source code level. There is a third possibility: processing at the bytecode level. Unless annotations are removed at the source level, they are present in the class files. The class file format is documented (see http://docs.oracle.com/javase/specs/jvms/se7/html). The format is rather complex, and it would be challenging to process class files without special libraries. One such library is the Bytecode Engineering Library (BCEL), available at http://jakarta.apache.org/bcel.
In this section, we use BCEL to add logging messages to annotated methods. If a method is annotated with
then we add the bytecodes for the following ...