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Control of Power Inverters in Renewable Energy and Smart Grid Integration

Book Description

Integrating renewable energy and other distributed energy sources into smart grids, often via power inverters, is arguably the largest "new frontier" for smart grid advancements. Inverters should be controlled properly so that their integration does not jeopardize the stability and performance of power systems and a solid technical backbone is formed to facilitate other functions and services of smart grids.

This unique reference offers systematic treatment of important control problems in power inverters, and different general converter theories. Starting at a basic level, it presents conventional power conversion methodologies and then 'non-conventional' methods, with a highly accessible summary of the latest developments in power inverters as well as insight into the grid connection of renewable power.

Consisting of four parts – Power Quality Control, Neutral Line Provision, Power Flow Control, and Synchronisation – this book fully demonstrates the integration of control and power electronics.

Key features include:

  • the fundamentals of power processing and hardware design

  • innovative control strategies to systematically treat the control of power inverters

  • extensive experimental results for most of the control strategies presented

  • the pioneering work on "synchronverters" which has gained IET Highly Commended Innovation Award

Engineers working on inverter design and those at power system utilities can learn how advanced control strategies could improve system performance and work in practice. The book is a useful reference for researchers who are interested in the area of control engineering, power electronics, renewable energy and distributed generation, smart grids, flexible AC transmission systems, and power systems for more-electric aircraft and all-electric ships. This is also a handy text for graduate students and university professors in the areas of electrical power engineering, advanced control engineering, power electronics, renewable energy and smart grid integration.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Dedication
  5. Preface
  6. Acknowledgments
  7. About the Authors
  8. List of Abbreviations
    1. Conventions
  9. Chapter 1: Introduction
    1. 1.1 Outline of the Book
    2. 1.2 Basics of Power Processing
    3. 1.3 Hardware Issues
    4. 1.4 Wind Power Systems
    5. 1.5 Solar Power Systems
    6. 1.6 Smart Grid Integration
  10. Chapter 2: Preliminaries
    1. 2.1 Power Quality Issues
    2. 2.2 Repetitive Control
    3. 2.3 Reference Frames
  11. Part I: Power Quality Control
    1. Chapter 3: Current H∞ Repetitive Control
      1. 3.1 System Description
      2. 3.2 Controller Design
      3. 3.3 Design Example
      4. 3.4 Experimental Results
      5. 3.5 Summary
    2. Chatper 4: Voltage and Current H∞ Repetitive Control
      1. 4.1 System Description
      2. 4.2 Modelling of an Inverter
      3. 4.3 Controller Design
      4. 4.4 Design Example
      5. 4.5 Simulation Results
      6. 4.6 Summary
    3. Chapter 5: Voltage H∞ Repetitive Control with a Frequency-adaptive Mechanism
      1. 5.1 System Description
      2. 5.2 Controller Design
      3. 5.3 Design Example
      4. 5.4 Experimental Results
      5. 5.5 Summary
    4. Chapter 6: Cascaded Current-Voltage H∞ Repetitive Control
      1. 6.1 Operation Modes in Microgrids
      2. 6.2 Control Scheme
      3. 6.3 Design of the Voltage Controller
      4. 6.4 Design of the Current Controller
      5. 6.5 Design Example
      6. 6.6 Experimental Results
      7. 6.7 Summary
    5. Chapter 7: Control of Inverter Output Impedance
      1. 7.1 Inverters with Inductive Output Impedances (L-inverters)
      2. 7.2 Inverters with Resistive Output Impedances (R-inverters)
      3. 7.3 Inverters with Capacitive Output Impedances (C-inverters)
      4. 7.4 Design of C-inverters to Improve the Voltage THD
      5. 7.5 Simulation Results for R-, L- and C-inverters
      6. 7.6 Experimental Results for R-, L- and C-inverters
      7. 7.7 Impact of the Filter Capacitor
      8. 7.8 Summary
    6. Chapter 8: Bypassing Harmonic Current Components
      1. 8.1 Controller Design
      2. 8.2 Physical Interpretation of the Controller
      3. 8.3 Stability Analysis
      4. 8.4 Experimental Results
      5. 8.5 Summary
    7. Chapter 9: Power Quality Issues in Traction Power Systems
      1. 9.1 Introduction
      2. 9.2 Description of the Topology
      3. 9.3 Compensation of Negative-sequence Currents, Reactive Power and Harmonic Currents
      4. 9.4 Special Case: cos θ=1
      5. 9.5 Simulation Results
      6. 9.6 Summary
  12. Part II: Neutral Line Provision
    1. Chapter 10: Topology of a Neutral Leg Neutral Line Provision
      1. 10.1 Introduction
      2. 10.2 Split DC Link
      3. 10.3 Conventional Neutral Leg
      4. 10.4 Independently-controlled Neutral Leg
      5. 10.5 Summary
    2. Chapter 11: Classical Control of a Neutral Leg
      1. 11.1 Mathematical Modelling
      2. 11.2 Controller Design
      3. 11.3 Performance Evaluation
      4. 11.4 Selection of the Components
      5. 11.5 Simulation Results
      6. 11.6 Summary
    3. Chapter 12: H∞ Voltage-Current Control of a Neutral Leg
      1. 12.1 Mathematical Modelling
      2. 12.2 Controller Design
      3. 12.3 Selection of Weighting Functions
      4. 12.4 Design Example
      5. 12.5 Simulation Results
      6. 12.6 Summary
    4. Chapter 13: Parallel PI Voltage-H∞ Current Control of a Neutral Leg
      1. 13.1 Description of the Neutral Leg
      2. 13.2 Design of an H∞ Current Controller
      3. 13.3 Addition of a Voltage Control Loop
      4. 13.4 Experimental Results
      5. 13.5 Summary
    5. Chapter 14: Applications in Single-phase to Three-phase Conversion
      1. 14.1 Introduction
      2. 14.2 The Topology under Consideration
      3. 14.3 Basic Analysis
      4. 14.4 Controller Design
      5. 14.5 Simulation Results
      6. 14.6 Summary
  13. Part III: Power Flow Control
    1. Chapter 15: Current Proportional–Integral Control
      1. 15.1 Control Structure
      2. 15.2 Controller Implementation
      3. 15.3 Experimental Results
      4. 15.4 Summary
    2. Chapter 16: Current Proportional-Resonant Control
      1. 16.1 Proportional-resonant Controller
      2. 16.2 Control Structure
      3. 16.3 Controller Design
      4. 16.4 Experimental Results
      5. 16.5 Summary
    3. Chapter 17: Current Deadbeat Predictive Control
      1. 17.1 Control Structure
      2. 17.2 Controller Design
      3. 17.3 Experimental Results
      4. 17.4 Summary
    4. Chapter 18: Synchronverters: Grid-friendly Inverters that Mimic Synchronous Generators
      1. 18.1 Mathematical Model of Synchronous Generators
      2. 18.2 Implementation of a Synchronverter
      3. 18.3 Operation of a Synchronverter
      4. 18.4 Simulation Results
      5. 18.5 Experimental Results
      6. 18.6 Summary
    5. Chapter 19: Parallel Operation of Inverters
      1. 19.1 Introduction
      2. 19.2 Problem Description
      3. 19.3 Power Delivered to a Voltage Source
      4. 19.4 Conventional Droop Control
      5. 19.5 Inherent Limitations of Conventional Droop Control
      6. 19.6 Robust Droop Control of R-inverters
      7. 19.7 Robust Droop Control of C-inverters
      8. 19.8 Robust Droop Control of L-inverters
      9. 19.9 Summary
    6. Chapter 20: Robust Droop Control with Improved Voltage Quality
      1. 20.1 Control Strategy
      2. 20.2 Experimental Results
      3. 20.3 Summary
    7. Chapter 21: Harmonic Droop Controller to Improve Voltage Quality
      1. 21.1 Model of an Inverter System
      2. 21.2 Power Delivered to a Current Source
      3. 21.3 Reduction of Harmonics in the Output Voltage
      4. 21.4 Simulation Results
      5. 21.5 Experimental Results
      6. 21.6 Summary
  14. Part IV: Synchronisation
    1. Chapter 22: Conventional Synchronisation Techniques
      1. 22.1 Introduction
      2. 22.2 Zero-crossing Method
      3. 22.3 Basic Phase-locked Loops (PLL)
      4. 22.4 PLL in the Synchronously Rotating Reference Frame (SRF-PLL)
      5. 22.5 Second-order Generalised Integrator-based PLL (SOGI-PLL)
      6. 22.6 Sinusoidal Tracking Algorithm (STA)
      7. 22.7 Simulation Results with SOGI-PLL and STA
      8. 22.8 Experimental Results with SOGI-PLL and STA
      9. 22.9 Summary
    2. Chapter 23: Sinusoid-locked Loops
      1. 23.1 Single-phase Synchronous Machine (SSM) Connected to the Grid
      2. 23.2 Structure of a Sinusoid-locked Loop (SLL)
      3. 23.3 Tracking of the Frequency and the Phase
      4. 23.4 Tracking of the Voltage Amplitude
      5. 23.5 Tuning of the Parameters
      6. 23.6 Equivalent Structure
      7. 23.7 Simulation Results
      8. 23.8 Experimental Results
      9. 23.9 Summary
  15. References
  16. Index