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Content Networking Fundamentals

Book Description

A comprehensive introduction to the theory and practical applications of content networking 

  • Get a strong introduction to the basic networking concepts necessary for content networking, including network address translation, IP multicast content delivery, quality of service, and streaming media

  • Master the application-layer protocols, including HTTP, SSL, RSTP, RTP and FTP

  • Design redundancy and high availability by using server load balancing, Domain Name System (DNS) directory services, Cisco DistributedDirector software, proximity-based load balancing, and global sticky databases

  • Learn to switch and offload encrypted content by importing, creating, and configuring certificates and keys in Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) termination devices

  • Examine how to configure routers with Web Cache Communication Protocol (WCCP) and to switch content requests to content engines for serving frequently requested objects

  • Learn how to configure caching, live push- and pull-splitting, content acquisitioning, and pre-positioning using Cisco Application and Content Networking System (ACNS) software

  • Content networking is the most popular technology used to enhance network and application performance. The growth of content networking has been driven by end-user demands for richer content and lowered response times. These demands have caused the field of content networking to flourish with technological advances. Today many companies use content networking to add a layer of intelligence to their systems, scaling server availability and optimizing content delivery.

    Content Networking Fundamentals introduces you to content networking solutions and the underlying networking technologies that content networking uses to accelerate your applications in new and unique ways. You’ll discover various algorithms behind content networking and learn how the Cisco Systems® product suite implements them.

    In this comprehensive guide, you start with a review of the protocols required for content networking, building your knowledge of introductory concepts and applications. From there, you delve into the components specific to content networking, with a focus on the content-aware Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Layers 4 through 7. Numerous deployment examples help you understand the more advanced topics. You can use the configuration snapshots in this book as skeletal configurations for your production network.

    Following the valuable lessons taught in Content Networking Fundamentals, you’ll be able to effectively design, deploy, maintain, and troubleshoot content networks.

    Table of Contents

    1. Copyright
      1. Dedications
    2. About the Author
    3. About the Technical Reviewers
    4. Acknowledgments
    5. Icons Used in This Book
      1. Command Syntax Conventions
    6. Introduction
      1. Goals and Methods
      2. Who Should Read This Book?
      3. How This Book Is Organized
    7. I. Overview of Content Networking
      1. 1. Introducing Content Networking
        1. Defining Content Networking
        2. Understanding the Underlying Technologies
        3. Purpose and Goals
          1. Scalability and Availability
            1. Scaling the Application
            2. Increasing Application Availability
          2. Bandwidth and Response Times
          3. Customization and Prioritization
          4. Security, Auditing, and Monitoring
            1. Securing Content on the Network
              1. TCP/IP Filtering
              2. Network Security Auditing
            2. Securing Client and Origin Server Content
            3. Monitoring, Administration, and Reporting
              1. Network Monitoring and Administration
              2. Application Monitoring and Administration
        4. Cisco Content Networking Solutions
          1. Content Switching
            1. Server Load Balancing (SLB)
            2. Firewall Load Balancing (FWLB) and VPN Load Balancing
            3. Global Server Load Balancing
          2. Application and Content Networking System
            1. Content Edge Delivery
              1. Content Caching
              2. Streaming Media Delivery
            2. Content Distribution and Routing
          3. Content Network Partnership Program
            1. Content Management
            2. Content Distribution
            3. Content Providers
            4. E-Learning Applications
            5. Content Filtering and Scanning
        5. Summary
        6. Review Questions
        7. Recommended Reading
    8. II. Networking Fundamentals
      1. 2. Exploring the Network Layers
        1. Ethernet Physical and Data Link Layers
          1. Physical Layer
            1. Ethernet Mechanical Properties—The Media
              1. Ethernet over Copper
              2. Ethernet over Fiber
            2. Ethernet Electrical Properties—The Signaling
          2. Data Link Layer
        2. Internet Protocol
          1. Address Resolution Protocol
          2. Internet Control Message Protocol
            1. Layer 3 Connectivity Determination
            2. Unavailable Port Errors
            3. Announcement of New Default Routers
          3. Internet Group Management Protocol and Protocol Independent Multicast
        3. Transport Layer
          1. Transmission Control Protocol
            1. TCP Three-Way Handshake
            2. TCP Sliding Window
            3. TCP Slow Start
            4. TCP Congestion Avoidance
            5. TCP Fast Retransmit
            6. TCP Fast Recovery
            7. TCP Maximum Segment Size
            8. TCP over Satellite
            9. TCP Variable Summary
          2. User Datagram Protocol
        4. Putting It All Together with a Detailed Network Trace
        5. Summary
        6. Review Questions
        7. Recommended Reading
      2. 3. Introducing Switching, Routing, and Address Translation
        1. Exploring Ethernet Frame Switching
        2. Configuring Virtual LANs
          1. Configuring VLAN Trunking
          2. Exploring MAC Learning with Multiple VLANs
          3. VLAN Trunking Protocol
        3. Understanding IP Routing
          1. Configuring Static Routing
          2. Understanding Dynamic Routing
        4. Packet Switching
          1. Process Switching Path
          2. Fast Switching Path
          3. Cisco Express Forwarding
        5. Transparent Bridging
        6. Exploring Network Address Translation
          1. Source Network Address Translation
            1. Static Network Address Translation
            2. Dynamic NAT
            3. Port Address Translation (PAT)
          2. Destination Translation
        7. Summary
        8. Review Questions
        9. Recommended Reading
      3. 4. Exploring Security Technologies and Network Infrastructure Designs
        1. Filtering Packets with Access Control Lists
        2. Application Layer Inspection
        3. Designing Enterprise Campuses
        4. Designing Enterprise Edge Networks
        5. Designing Headquarters with Remote Office Networks
        6. Employing Internet Content Delivery Networks
        7. Summary
        8. Review Questions
        9. Recommended Reading
    9. III. Intelligent Network Services for Content Delivery
      1. 5. IP Multicast Content Delivery
        1. Introducing IP Multicast
        2. Internet Group Management Protocol
          1. Internet Group Management Protocol, Version 1
          2. Internet Group Management Protocol, Version 2
          3. Internet Group Management Protocol, Version 3
        3. Internet Standard Multicast
          1. Distribution Trees
          2. Protocol Independent Multicast
            1. PIM Dense Mode
            2. PIM Sparse Mode
            3. PIM Sparse-Dense Mode
            4. Bidirectional PIM
          3. Configuring Rendezvous Point and Multicast Group Selection
            1. Auto-RP
            2. Bootstrap Routers
          4. Configuring Inter-Domain Multicast with Multicast Source Discovery Protocol
          5. Anycast RP
          6. Layer 2 Multicast Protocols
            1. Cisco Group Management Protocol (CGMP)
            2. IGMP Snooping
          7. Router-Port Group Management Protocol
        4. Source Specific Multicast (SSM)
        5. Ensuring Multicast Delivery With Pragmatic General Multicast
        6. Summary
        7. Review Questions
        8. Recommended Reading
      2. 6. Ensuring Content Delivery with Quality of Service
        1. Classification and Marking
          1. Marking Packets at Layer 3
            1. Marking a Packet’s IP Precedence Value
            2. Marking a Packet’s IP Differentiated Services Code Field
            3. IP QoS Group Value
          2. Marking Frames, Cells, and Trunks at Layer 2
          3. Network-Based Application Recognition
        2. Congestion Management
          1. Understanding Layer 3 Router Packet Queuing
            1. Configuring Priority Queuing
            2. Configuring Custom Queuing
            3. Configuring Weighted Fair Queuing and IP RTP Priority Queuing
            4. Configuring Class-Based WFQ with Low Latency
          2. Understanding Layer 2 Switch Ethernet Frame QoS
        3. Congestion Avoidance
          1. Configuring Weighted Random Early Detection
          2. Understanding Policing and Shaping
            1. Configuring Generic Traffic Shaping
            2. Configuring Class-Based Traffic Shaping
            3. Configuring Committed Access Rate (CAR)
            4. Configuring Class-Based Policing
            5. Configuring Two-Rate Policing
          3. QoS Policy Signaling
            1. BGP QoS Policy Propagation
            2. Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP)
        4. Summary
        5. Review Questions
        6. Recommended Reading
    10. IV. Applications for Serving Content, at the Network Edge
      1. 7. Presenting and Transforming Content
        1. Introducing Markup Languages
          1. Hypertext Markup Language
          2. Extensible Markup Language
          3. Extensible Hypertext Markup Language
          4. Wireless Application Protocol Markup Languages
        2. Transforming and Formatting Content
          1. Transforming XML to XHMTL/HMTL
          2. Using Cascading Style Sheets
          3. Transforming XML to XSL-FO
        3. Summary
        4. Review Questions
        5. Recommended Reading
      2. 8. Exploring the Application Layer
        1. HTTP
          1. HTTP 1.0 Versus HTTP 1.1
          2. HTTP Transactions
            1. HTTP Connection Persistence and Pipelining
            2. Maintaining Client-Side State with HTTP Cookies
          3. HTTP Authentication
          4. HTTP Caching Controls
            1. Implicit Cache Controls
            2. Explicit Controls
        2. Public Key Infrastructure
          1. Secret Key Cryptography
          2. Public-Key Cryptography
          3. Identity Theft Prevention Using Certificates
          4. Secure Sockets Layer
        3. File Transfer Protocol
        4. Summary
        5. Review Questions
        6. Recommended Reading
      3. 9. Introducing Streaming Media
        1. Streaming Files and Content Playback
          1. Creating Streaming On-Demand Container Files
          2. Describing Streaming On-Demand Content with Meta-Files
          3. Streaming with Microsoft WMT, Real Networks, and Apple QuickTime
          4. Streaming Motion Picture Experts Group
        2. Delivering Streaming Media
          1. Transferring Streaming Media with the Real-Time Transport Protocol
          2. Real-time Data Control with Real Time Streaming Protocol
          3. Fast-Forwarding and Rewinding a Stream with RTSP
          4. Using Quality of Service and IP Multicast with Streaming Media
        3. Summary
        4. Review Questions
        5. Recommended Reading
    11. V. Application Layer Services for Content, within the Network
      1. 10. Exploring Server Load Balancing
        1. Exploring Your Server Load-Balancing Devices
          1. Content Services Switch
            1. CSS Packet Flow
            2. CSS Models
          2. Content Switching Module
        2. Content Switch Operational Modes
          1. Bridge-Mode Content Switching
          2. Router Mode Content Switching
        3. Load-Distribution Algorithms
          1. Round Robin
          2. Least Connections
          3. Configuring Server Load
            1. Calculating Relative Load
            2. Calculating Absolute Load
          4. Hash Distribution
          5. Layer 5–7 Load Balancing
          6. Equal-Cost Multi-Path Router Load Balancing
        4. Health Checking
          1. Out-of-Band Health Checking
          2. In-Band Health Checking
        5. Session Persistence
          1. Hash Load Balancing
          2. IP Address Stickiness
          3. HTTP Cookies
          4. URL Sticky Strings
          5. SSL Sticky
          6. SIP Caller ID and MSISDN Number Sticky
          7. Permanent Session Information Storage
        6. Content Switch High Availability
          1. CSS High Availability
          2. CSM High Availability
        7. Summary
        8. Review Questions
        9. Recommended Reading
      2. 11. Switching Secured Content
        1. SSL Termination
          1. Configuring Your CSS for SSL Termination
            1. Creating and Importing Keys and Certificates on the CSS
            2. Terminating SSL on the CSS
            3. Configuring URL and Header Rewrite on the CSS
          2. Configuring Your Content Services Module with SSL
            1. Creating and Importing Keys and Certificates on the CSM
            2. Terminating SSL on the CSM-S
            3. Configuring URL and Header Rewrite on the CSM
        2. Firewall Load Balancing
          1. CSS Firewall Load Balancing
          2. CSM Firewall Load Balancing
            1. Configuring Reverse Stickiness
            2. Configuring Single-CSM FWLB
        3. VPN Load Balancing on the CSM
        4. Preventing Connection Table Flooding using SYN-Cookies
        5. Summary
        6. Review Questions
        7. Recommended Reading
      3. 12. Exploring Global Server Load Balancing
        1. Domain Name Service Operation
          1. Introducing DNS Resource Records
          2. Iterative DNS
          3. Recursive DNS
        2. BGP-Anycast and DNS Round-Robin
        3. Exploring Distributed Director Technologies
          1. Director Response Protocol and Boomerang Protocol
          2. HTTP Redirection
          3. A Robust Distributed Director Configuration
        4. Exploring CSS Global Server Load Balancing
          1. CSS Multisite Load Distribution
          2. CSS Proximity-Based Load Balancing
            1. Multitiered Proximity
            2. Configuring Content Routing Agents
        5. Exploring CSM Global Server Load Balancing
        6. GSLB Stickiness
        7. Summary
        8. Review Questions
        9. Recommended Reading
    12. VI. The Application and Content Networking System: Content Caching, Streaming, Routing, and Distribution
      1. 13. Delivering Cached and Streaming Media
        1. Redirecting Application Requests
          1. Introducing Web Cache Control Protocol
            1. Redirecting Traffic at Layer 2 and Layer 3 with Web Cache Control Protocol
            2. Input Redirection Vs. Output Redirection
          2. WCCP Load Distribution Using Hash Buckets
            1. Recovering from a CE Failure
            2. Adding a New CE
              1. WCCP Hot Spot Handling
              2. WCCP CE Load Shedding
            3. WCCP Load Distribution Using Mask Assignment
            4. Layer 4–7 Content Switch Redirection
            5. Content Switch Load Distribution
            6. Adding and Removing CEs When Using CSS Redirection
          3. Request Redirection Topologies
            1. Proxy Caching
            2. Transparent Caching
            3. Reverse Transparent Caching
          4. Ensuring Content Freshness
          5. Preloading Content
          6. Transparently Delivering Authenticated Content
        2. Enabling Transparent Value-Added Services on Your CEs
          1. Content Authentication and Authorization
          2. SSL Caching and Tunneling
          3. Internet Content Adaptation Protocol
          4. URL Filtering
          5. Adjusting TCP/IP Parameter Values
        3. Delivering Streaming Media
          1. Streaming Video-on-Demand
          2. Splitting Live and Prerecorded Broadcasts
          3. Streaming Windows Media Technology
            1. Configuring Windows Media Video on Demand
            2. Configuring the CE Internal WMS Server for Live and Scheduled Rebroadcast Presentations
            3. Configuring Unicast-to-Unicast Live Splitting
            4. Configuring Multicast-to-Unicast Live Splitting
            5. Configuring Multicast-to-Multicast Live Splitting
            6. Configuring Unicast-to-Multicast Live Splitting
            7. Configuring Unicast- or Multicast-to-Multicast Scheduled Rebroadcasts
          4. Streaming Real Media
            1. RealProxy Video-on-Demand Caching
            2. RealProxy Pull-Splitting
        4. Summary
        5. Review Questions
        6. Recommended Reading
      2. 14. Distributing and Routing Managed Content
        1. E-learning and Corporate Communications
        2. Software and File Distribution
        3. Introducing Content Distribution and Routing
        4. Initializing and Registering Your ACNS Network Devices
        5. Setting Up Your ACNS Network for Acquisition and Pre-Positioning
          1. Creating Location Trees
          2. Configuring Content Channels
        6. Acquiring Content to Pre-Position
          1. Configuring Acquisition Using Manifest Files
          2. Configuring Acquisition Using the CDM GUI
        7. Configuring Content Pre-Positioning
          1. Multicast-Push Distribution Trees
          2. Unicast-Pull Distribution Trees
        8. Content Request Routing
          1. Simplified Hybrid Routing
          2. Dynamic Proxy Auto-Configuration
        9. Configuring Streaming Media
          1. Streaming Prepositioned Video On-Demand Content
          2. Creating Scheduled Live and Rebroadcast Programs in ACNS
        10. Summary
        11. Review Questions
        12. Recommended Reading
    13. A. Answers to Review Questions
      1. Chapter 1
      2. Chapter 2
      3. Chapter 3
      4. Chapter 4
      5. Chapter 5
      6. Chapter 6
      7. Chapter 7
      8. Chapter 8
      9. Chapter 9
      10. Chapter 10
      11. Chapter 11
      12. Chapter 12
      13. Chapter 13
      14. Chapter 14