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Consumer Electronics

Book Description

Consumer Electronics is the first book of its kind, and comprehensively covers the theory, applications and maintenance of various audio/video systems, telecommunication systems and electronic home/office appliances. The book completely covers the syllabus of the Consumer Electronics paper offered to diploma as well as undergraduate courses in electronics engineering. The book can also be used by service engineers/technicians dealing with troubleshooting and maintenance of electronic gadgets.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Contents
  4. Dedication
  5. Preface
  6. Part I—Audio and Video Systems
    1. 1. Wave Motion
      1. Mechanical Waves
      2. Types of Waves
      3. Longitudinal Waves
      4. Wave Properties
      5. Energy Dissipation and Wave Motion
      6. Intensity of a Wave
      7. Sound Level
      8. Properties of Sound Waves
      9. Transverse Waves
      10. Refraction of Waves
      11. Reflection of Waves
      12. Interference of Waves
      13. Superposition of Waves
      14. Complex Waves
      15. Beats
      16. Forced Vibrations
      17. Resonance
      18. Echoes
      19. Descriptive Questions
      20. Multiple Choice Questions
      21. Fill in the Blanks
      22. Numerical Questions
    2. 2. Microphones
      1. Microphone
      2. Characteristics of Microphones
      3. Carbon Microphones
      4. Crystal Microphones
      5. Moving Coil (Dynamic) Microphones
      6. Ribbon (Velocity) Microphones
      7. Capacitor Microphones
      8. Electret Microphones
      9. Gun Microphones
      10. Lavalier Microphones
      11. Tie-clip Microphones
      12. Wireless Microphones
      13. Dual-unit Microphones
      14. Electrical, Mechanical and Acoustical Analogs
      15. Descriptive Questions
      16. Multiple Choice Questions
      17. Fill in the Blanks
    3. 3. Headphones and Hearing Aids
      1. Headphones and Headsets
      2. Types of Headphones
      3. Moving-iron Headphones
      4. Crystal Headphones
      5. Dynamic Headphones
      6. Electrostatic Phones
      7. Electret Electrostatic Headphones
      8. Hearing Impairments
      9. Audiometry
      10. Hearing Aids
      11. Inside a Hearing Aid
      12. User Operated Controls
      13. Dispenser Operated Controls
      14. Filters
      15. Output Controls and AGC
      16. Other Types of AGC
      17. Descriptive Questions
      18. Multiple Choice Questions
      19. Fill in the Blanks
    4. 4. Loudspeakers
      1. Ideal Loudspeaker
      2. Basic Loudspeaker
      3. Crystal Loudspeakers
      4. Electrostatic (Condenser/Capacitor) Loudspeakers
      5. Dynamic Loudspeakers
      6. Permanent Magnet Loudspeakers
      7. Loudspeaker Construction
      8. Permanent Magnet
      9. Voice Coil
      10. Loudspeaker Impedance
      11. Acoustic Impedance and Resonance
      12. Woofers
      13. Mid-range and Extended-range Speakers
      14. High Frequency Loudspeakers
      15. Cone Type Tweeters
      16. Dome Type Tweeters
      17. Horn Type Tweeters
      18. High Fidelity
      19. Multispeaker Systems
      20. Crossover Networks
      21. Impedance Matching
      22. Descriptive Questions
      23. Multiple Choice Questions
      24. Fill in the Blanks
    5. 5. Speaker Baffles and Enclosures
      1. Acoustic doublets
      2. Baffles
      3. Infinite Baffle Systems
      4. Bass-reflex systems
      5. Acoustic Labyrinth Systems
      6. Folded-horn Systems
      7. Corner Folded Horn Systems
      8. Descriptive Questions
      9. Multiple Choice Questions
      10. Fill in the Blanks
    6. 6. Acoustics
      1. Reflection of Sound
      2. Reverberation
      3. Absorption of Sound
      4. Sabin's Equation
      5. Listening Room Characteristics
      6. Live Rooms
      7. Dead Rooms
      8. Absorbent Materials
      9. Acoustic Design of Auditoriums
      10. Acoustics of Studios
      11. Sound Insulation
      12. Noise
      13. Descriptive Questions
      14. Multiple Choice Questions
      15. Fill in the Blanks
    7. 7. Loudspeaker Systems
      1. Horns
      2. Indoor Acoustics
      3. Stereo Systems
      4. Cost and Efficiency
      5. Multiway Systems
      6. Descriptive Questions
      7. Fill in the Blanks
    8. 8. Disc Recording and Reproduction
      1. Making the Tape
      2. Making the Record
      3. Professional Record Manufacture
      4. Stereo Pickup Techniques
      5. Stereo Recording Systems
      6. Extracting the Music
      7. Types of Microgrooves
      8. Moving-magnet Cartridges
      9. Moving-iron Cartridges
      10. Moving-coil Cartridges
      11. Ceramic Cartridges
      12. Features of Stereo Cartridges
      13. Playback Needles
      14. Tone (Pickup) Arms
      15. Turntable
      16. Descriptive Questions
      17. Multiple Choice Questions
      18. Fill in the Blanks
    9. 9. Distortion in Disc Equipment
      1. Loudspeakers
      2. Disc Equipment-recording Characteristics
      3. Disc Equipment-playback Characteristics
      4. Magnetic Pickup Heads
      5. Crystal Pickup Heads
      6. Stereo Pickup Heads
      7. Discs
      8. Tracing Distortion
      9. Pinch Effect
      10. Needle-scratch
      11. Tracking Error
      12. Turntable Driving Systems
      13. Descriptive Questions
      14. Multiple Choice Questions
      15. Fill in the Blanks
    10. 10. Magnetic Recording and Reproduction
      1. Magnetic Recording
      2. Magnetic Playback
      3. Magnetic Erasing
      4. Recording Medium
      5. Magnetic Heads
      6. Cassettes
      7. Tape Speeds
      8. Maximum Usable Frequency
      9. Track Configurations
      10. Tape Transport Mechanism
      11. Mechanical Controls
      12. Miscellaneous Features
      13. Electronic Controls
      14. Erasure Guard
      15. Tape Recorders
      16. Tape vs Disc
      17. Descriptive Questions
      18. Multiple Choice Questions
      19. Fill in the Blanks
    11. 11. Distortion in Tape Equipment
      1. Recording and Playback Heads
      2. Erase Heads
      3. Tapes
      4. Tape Transport Systems
      5. Amplitude Distortion
      6. Erasing
      7. Oscillator Coil
      8. Frequency Response
      9. Equalisation
      10. Block Diagram
      11. Descriptive Questions
      12. Multiple Choice Questions
      13. Fill in the Blanks
    12. 12. Noise Reduction
      1. Noise Reduction
      2. Pre-emphasis and De-emphasis
      3. Companders
      4. Noise Reduction Systems
      5. Descriptive Questions
      6. Multiple Choice Questions
      7. Fill in the Blanks
    13. 13. Recording Level Indicators
      1. VU Meters
      2. Peak Reading Meters
      3. Peak Reading Led Meters
      4. Zero dB Level
    14. 14. Optical Recording and Reproduction
      1. Disc
      2. Processing of the Audio Signal
      3. Readout from the Disc
      4. Reconstitution of the Audio Signal
      5. Descriptive Questions
      6. Multiple Choice Questions
      7. Fill in the Blanks
    15. 15. Mono, Stereo and Quad
      1. Monophony
      2. Stereophony
      3. Quadraphony
      4. Stereo Practice
      5. Descriptive Questions
      6. Multiple Choice Questions
      7. Fill in the Blanks
    16. 16. Recorder/Amplifier Circuits
      1. 4 W Tape Recorder
      2. Tape Preamplifier
      3. Modifications for Stereo Operation
      4. AGC Circuit for Tape Recorders
      5. 6 W Universal Hi-Fi Amplifier
    17. 17. Amplifying Systems
      1. Monaural systems
      2. Stereophonic Systems
      3. Power Supplies
      4. Layout of High-Quality Audio Circuitry
      5. Descriptive Questions
      6. Multiple Choice Questions
      7. Fill in the Blanks
    18. 18. Control Circuits
      1. Input-switching Arrangements
      2. Stereo Balance Control
      3. Stereo Balance Indicator
      4. Active Tone Control
      5. Sound Source Width (Dimension) Control
      6. Low-pass/High-pass Filter
      7. Scratch and Rumble Filter
      8. Bass and Treble Controls
      9. Descriptive Questions
      10. Fill in the Blanks
    19. 19. Low Level Amplifiers
      1. Circuit Configuration
      2. Number of Stages
      3. Interstage Coupling
      4. Gain Control
      5. Frequency Response Control
      6. Negative Feedback
      7. Low Noise Considerations
      8. Requirements for Audio Preamplifiers
      9. Low Level Amplifier Circuits
      10. Universal Preamplifier
      11. Descriptive Questions
      12. Fill in the Blanks
    20. 20. Integrated Amplifiers
      1. Operational Amplifier
      2. The TAA 300 Integrated Circuit
      3. 1 W Transformerless Class-B Audio Amplifier Using IC-TAA300
      4. The TAA320 Integrated Circuit
      5. Pickup Amplifier using IC-TAA320
      6. The CA810 Integrated Circuit
      7. The BEL 700 Integrated Circuit
      8. Practical Circuits using IC-BEL 700
      9. The CA-3020 Integrated Circuit
      10. Guitar Preamplifier Using IC-LF 536
      11. Small High-power Amplifier Incorporating IC-TDA2030
      12. 20 W + 20 W Integrated Stereo Amplifier
      13. Descriptive Questions
      14. Fill in the Blanks
    21. 21. Power Supplies
      1. Rectifier Circuits
      2. Voltage Regulation
      3. Zener Diode Shunt Stabiliser
      4. Transistor Shunt Stabiliser
      5. Series Voltage Stabiliser
      6. Feedback Series Stabiliser
      7. Practical Power Supply Circuits
      8. Power Supply Circuits for Stereo Amplifiers
      9. How to Protect your Equipment from Spikes, Surges, and Blackout?
      10. Uninterrupted Power Supply Systems (UPS)
      11. Descriptive Questions
      12. Fill in the Blanks
    22. 22. Stereo Multiplexing
      1. Stereo Multiplex Objectives
      2. Sum and Difference of Signals
      3. Stereo Multiplex Modulation Signal
      4. Demodulating the (L–R) Signal
      5. FM Multiplex Detector Circuits
      6. Stereo Decoder Circuit
      7. Stereo Indicator
      8. Descriptive Questions
      9. Fill in the Blanks
    23. 23. Equalisers and Mixers
      1. Equalisers
      2. Loudness Compensation
      3. Types of Equalisers
      4. Mixers
      5. Descriptive Questions
      6. Fill in the Blanks
    24. 24. Portable Stereo
      1. Eight-Track System
      2. Ocean Stereo Car Cassette Player Model HT-808B
      3. Auto-reverse Car Stereo Player CS-600N
      4. Car Cassette Stereo Player with Auto Eject and Fast-forward Rewind System
      5. Speakers
      6. Walkman
      7. Descriptive Questions
      8. Fill in the Blanks
    25. 25. Electronic Music Synthesizers
      1. Typical Generators
      2. Basic Modifiers
      3. Voltage Control
      4. Envelope Generator
      5. Other Signal Modifiers
      6. Assembling a Synthesizer
      7. Descriptive Questions
      8. Multiple Choice Questions
      9. Fill in the Blanks
    26. 26. Commercial Sound
      1. Electric Guitar
      2. Electric Wind Instruments
      3. Recording
      4. Manual Synthesizer
      5. Programmed Synthesizer
      6. Digital Computer
      7. Public Address Systems
      8. Planning a Public Address System
      9. Speaker Matching Systems
      10. PA System Characteristics
      11. Public Address Amplifiers
      12. Megaphones
      13. Intercommunication Equipment
      14. Background Music and Paging Systems
      15. Descriptive Questions
      16. Multiple Choice Questions
      17. Fill in the Blanks
    27. 27. Theatre Sound System
      1. Sound Track
      2. Types of Sound Film
      3. Theatre Sound Reproduction systems
      4. Working of a Projector
      5. Sound pick-up
      6. Cine Screens
      7. Descriptive Questions
      8. Multiple Choice Questions
      9. Fill in the Blanks
    28. 28. AM/FM Tuners
      1. AM/FM Basics
      2. Tuners
      3. AM Tuners
      4. Practical AM Tuner Circuit
      5. FM Tuners
      6. Practical FM Tuner Circuits
      7. Descriptive Questions
      8. Multiple Choice Questions
      9. Fill in the Blanks
    29. 29. Audio Systems
      1. Anatomy of a Hi-Fi system
      2. Source Units
      3. Signal Propagation
      4. Stereo Multiplex
      5. Compatibility
      6. Descriptive Questions
    30. 30. Monochrome TV Standards and Systems
      1. Elements of a Television System
      2. The Scanning Process
      3. Scanning Methods and Aspect Ratio
      4. Persistence of Vision and Flicker
      5. Vertical Resolution
      6. Picture Elements
      7. The Kell Factor
      8. Horizontal Resolution and Video Bandwidth
      9. Interlacing of Scanning Lines
      10. Test Card
      11. The Video Signal
      12. Control Pulses
      13. Composite Video Signal
      14. The Highest Video Frequency
      15. The Lowest Carrier Frequency
      16. Side Band Frequencies
      17. Frequency Modulated Sound Carrier
      18. Monochrome TV Camera
      19. Camera Tube Characteristics
      20. Vidicon Camera Tube
      21. Monochrome Picture Tube
      22. Television as a System
      23. American 525-line TV System
      24. The 625-line System
      25. Vestigial Sideband Transmission
      26. Descriptive Questions
      27. Multiple Choice Questions
      28. Fill in the Blanks
    31. 31. Colour TV Standards and Systems
      1. Dispersion and Recombination of Light
      2. Primary and Secondary Colours
      3. Attributes of Colour
      4. Luminance Signal
      5. Chrominance Signal
      6. Colour Picture Tube
      7. Difference between a Monochrome and a Colour Picture Tube
      8. Delta Gun And In-line Gun
      9. Colour TV Cameras
      10. Plumbicon Camera Tube
      11. Colour TV Systems
      12. Compatibility Considerations
      13. The NTSC System
      14. The PAL System
      15. The SECAM System
      16. Consolidated CCIR System-B Standards
      17. Broadcasting of TV Programs
      18. System Parameters (For Standards B/G)
      19. Descriptive Questions
      20. Multiple Choice Questions
      21. Fill in the Blanks
    32. 32. Television Controls
      1. Common Operating Controls of Black-and-white and Colour Receivers
      2. Common Service Controls for Black-and-white and Colour Receivers
      3. Colour Operating Controls
      4. Descriptive Questions
    33. 33. Video Tape Recording and Reproduction
      1. Video Tape
      2. Problems in Video Recording on Tape
      3. Early Video
      4. FM Modulation
      5. Head Gap and Writing Speed
      6. Helical Tape Scan
      7. Domestic Video
      8. Slant Azimuth System
      9. Colour Recording
      10. VHS and Beta Formats
      11. Video 2000 Format
      12. Common Features
      13. 8mm Format
      14. Video Tape Format Parameters
      15. Video Tape Track Configuration
      16. Video and Audio Heads
      17. Additional Heads
      18. Video Head Geometries
      19. Head Switching
      20. VHS High-fidelity Audio
      21. AutoTracking
      22. PCM Audio
      23. CVBS Signal
      24. Block Diagram of a Video Cassette, Recorder
      25. Controls on Video Cassette Recorders
      26. Descriptive Questions
      27. Multiple Choice Questions
      28. Fill in the Blanks
    34. 34. Video Disc Recording and Playbacks
      1. Optical Recording Mediums
      2. Tellurium-selenium Alloys
      3. Organic Compounds
      4. Magneto-optical Materials
      5. Evolution of Video Disc
      6. Video Disc
      7. Video Disc Mastering and Replication
      8. Video Disc Formats
      9. Laser Vision
      10. Selectavision (RCA)
      11. Video High Density (JVC/Thorn-EMJ)
      12. Video Disc Systems—A Comparison
      13. Recording System
      14. Playback System
      15. Digital Address Signals
      16. Solid-state Laser
      17. Focusing
      18. Radial and Tangential Tracking
      19. Block Diagram of VLP Player
      20. VLP Player Controls
      21. Automatic Actions
      22. Optical Memory Discs
      23. Descriptive Questions
      24. Multiple Choice Questions
      25. Fill in the Blanks
    35. 35. Remote Controls
      1. Ultrasonic Transducers
      2. Frequency Signal Encoding
      3. Pulse Position Modulation Encoding
      4. Encoding by Time Ratio Discrimination
      5. Remote Control Transmitter
      6. Description of Ultrasonic Transmitter Circuit
      7. Troubleshooting Remote Control Systems
      8. Remote Control Operation
      9. Descriptive Questions
      10. Fill in the Blanks
    36. 36. Video Systems
      1. Canon Portable Video System
      2. Laservision—Video Disc System
      3. Interactive Video Systems
      4. Descriptive Questions
  7. Part II—Electronic Gadgets and Home Appliances
    1. 37. Telecommunication Systems
      1. Telecommunication Systems
      2. Line System Characteristics
      3. Radio System Characteristics
      4. Telephone Receivers and Handsets
      5. Signalling
      6. CCITT No. 7
      7. Modes of Operation
      8. Station Interconnections
      9. The RS232C Interconnecting Cable
      10. Descriptive Questions
      11. Fill in the Blanks
    2. 38. Switching Systems
      1. Switching System Principles
      2. Uniselectors
      3. Two-motion Selectors
      4. Four Digit Step-by-step Automatic Exchange
      5. Reed Relay and Crossbar Exchanges
      6. Traffic Handling Capacity
      7. Stored Program Control
      8. PBX Switching
      9. Functions of a switching Office
      10. Hands Free Phones vs Speakerphones
      11. Feature Phones and Answering Machines
      12. Descriptive Questions
      13. Fill in the Blanks
    3. 39. Modulation Techniques
      1. Analog Methods
      2. Digital Methods
      3. Pulse Methods
      4. Multiplexing
      5. Concentrators and Multiple Access
      6. Two-channel TDM System
      7. Descriptive Questions
      8. Fill in the Blanks
    4. 40. Carrier Systems
      1. Carrier system
      2. Submarine Cables
      3. Descriptive Questions
      4. Fill in the Blanks
    5. 41. Fibre Optics
      1. The Telephone Network
      2. Nonvoice Traffic
      3. Fiber in Local Loop
      4. Optical Systems
      5. Optical Fibre Cable
      6. Types of Optical Fibre
      7. Optical Fibre Advantages and Disadvantages
      8. Descriptive Questions
      9. Fill in the Blanks
    6. 42. Data Services
      1. Why digital?
      2. Digital Exchanges
      3. The Borscht Functions
      4. Local Distribution Networks
      5. Data Services
      6. Message Switching
      7. Message Switching and Circuit Switching
      8. Packet Switching
      9. Packet Switching and Message Switching
      10. Packet Format
      11. Lan, Man and Wan
      12. Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)
      13. The Internet
      14. Descriptive Questions
      15. Fill in the Blanks
    7. 43. Mobile Radio Systems
      1. Wireless Local Loop
      2. The Role of WLL
      3. Point-to-point, Point-to-multipoint Wireless Local Loops
      4. Radio Paging Service
      5. Call Centres
      6. VHF/UHF Radio Systems
      7. Limited Range Cordless Phones
      8. Cellular Communications
      9. Transmitting Receiving Antenna
      10. Digital Cellular Phone Block Diagram
      11. Types of Mobile Phones
      12. Cellular Systems
      13. Establishing a Call
      14. Smart Card
      15. Descriptive Questions
      16. Fill in the Blanks
    8. 44. Facsimile (FAX)
      1. Facsimile Machine
      2. Basic Fax Machine Operations
      3. Group-3 Fax Machines
      4. Descriptive Questions
      5. Fill in the Blanks
    9. 45. Xerography
      1. Xerographic Process
      2. Extension to a Dynamic Copier
      3. Descriptive Questions
      4. Fill in the Blanks
    10. 46. Calculators
      1. Structure of a Calculator
      2. Internal Organisation of a Calculator
      3. Servicing Electronic Calculators
      4. Descriptive Questions
      5. Fill in the Blanks
    11. 47. Digital Clocks
      1. Digital Clock
      2. LSI Digital Clock
      3. Descriptive Questions
      4. Fill in the Blanks
    12. 48. Microprocessors, Microcomputers and Microcontrollers
      1. Microprocessors
      2. Microcomputer
      3. Microcontroller
      4. Comparing Microprocessors and Microcontrollers
      5. The Z80 and the 8051
      6. Descriptive Questions
      7. Fill in the Blanks
    13. 49. In-Car Computers
      1. Applications
      2. Electronic Ignition
      3. Electronic Ignition Lock System
      4. Antilock Braking System (ABS)
      5. Electronically Controlled Suspension (ECS)
      6. Instrument Panel Displays
      7. Ultrasonic Car Safety Belt System
      8. Air Bag System
      9. Vehicle Proximity Detection System
      10. Car Navigation System (Travel Pilot)
      11. Car Navigation System (AVIC-1)
      12. Descriptive Questions
      13. Fill in the Blanks
    14. 50. Microwave Ovens
      1. Microwaves
      2. Transit Time
      3. Magnetrons
      4. Wave Guides
      5. Microwave Oven Block Diagram
      6. LCD Timer with Alarm
      7. Single-chip Controllers
      8. Types of Microwave Ovens
      9. Microwave Cooking
      10. Features Diagram
      11. Wiring Instructions
      12. Safety Instructions
      13. Microwave Cookware
      14. Operating Problems
      15. Care and Cleaning
      16. Removable Parts
      17. Special Care
      18. Metal Rack Care
      19. Descriptive Questions
      20. Fill in the Blanks
    15. 51. Washing Machines
      1. Electronic controller for Washing Machines
      2. Washing Machine Hardware
      3. Washing Cycle
      4. Hardware and Software Development
      5. Types of Washing Machines
      6. Fuzzy Logic Washing Machines
      7. Miscellaneous Features
      8. Descriptive Questions
      9. Fill in the Blanks
    16. 52. Air Conditioners and Refrigerators
      1. Air Conditioning
      2. Components of Air Conditioning Systems
      3. All-water Air Conditioning Systems
      4. All-air Air Conditioning Systems
      5. Remote Control-buttons
      6. Combination Systems
      7. Unitary and Central Air Conditioning Systems
      8. Split Air Conditioners
      9. Refrigeration
      10. Refrigerants
      11. Refrigeration Systems
      12. Domestic Refrigerators
      13. Descriptive Questions
      14. Fill in the Blanks
  8. Part III—Appendices
    1. Appendix A: Airline Reservations
      1. Objectives
      2. Functions
      3. Sita Network
    2. Appendix B: Bar Codes
      1. Bar Codes
      2. BAR Coding
      3. BAR-code Scanner and Decoder
    3. Appendix C: Automated Teller Machines (ATMs)
      1. Elecronic Funds Transfer
      2. Point-of-sale Terminal
      3. Automated Teller Machines
    4. Appendix D: Set-Top Boxes
      1. Set-top Boxes
      2. Interoperable Set-top Boxes
      3. MiddleWare for Set-top Boxes
      4. Personal Video Recorders (PVRs)
      5. Interactive Program Guides
      6. Digital Cable TV
      7. Video on Demand vs Pay per View
    5. Appendix E: Dishwasher
  9. Bibliography
  10. Copyright