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Construction Project Management: Theory and Practice

Book Description

Construction Project Management deals with different facets of construction management emphasizing the basic concepts that any engineering student is supposed to know. The major principles of project management have been derived through real life case studies from the field. Simplified examples have been used to facilitate better understanding of the concepts before going into the large and complex problems. The book features computer applications (Primavera and MS Project) used to explain planning, scheduling, resource leveling, monitoring and reporting; it is highly illustrated with line diagrams, cash-flow diagrams, bar diagrams, line graphs to make the book interactive and easy to understand; the pedagogy includes solved examples, and chapter-end exercises comprising both descriptive and non-descriptive questions; real life examples from sites of Delhi Metro construction, Delhi International Airport construction and many more; and case studies on preparation of documents for ISO 9001:2000, construction disputes, accidents in the construction industry, and preparation of estimates for live projects.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title page
  3. Contents
  4. About the Author
  5. Dedication
  6. List of Figures
  7. List of Tables
  8. List of Boxes
  9. Foreword
  10. Preface
  11. Chapter 1. Introduction
    1. 1.1 General
    2. 1.2 A Construction Project
      1. 1.2.1 Phases of a Construction Project
    3. 1.3 Importance of Construction and Construction Industry
    4. 1.4 Indian Construction Industry
    5. 1.5 Construction Project Management and Its Relevance
      1. 1.5.1 Role of Project Management
      2. 1.5.2 Why Construction Project Management?
    6. 1.6 Participants/Stakeholders of a Construction Project
      1. 1.6.1 Architect
      2. 1.6.2 Client (Owner)
      3. 1.6.3 Constructor
      4. 1.6.4 Engineer (Consultant)
      5. 1.6.5 Subcontractor/Supplier/Vendor
      6. 1.6.6 Lawyer, Insurer, etc.
    7. 1.7 Organization of the Book
    8. References
    9. Review Questions
  12. Chapter 2. Project Organization
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Construction Company
    3. 2.3 Forms of Business Organization
      1. 2.3.1 Sole Proprietorship
      2. 2.3.2 Partnership
      3. 2.3.3 Corporation
      4. 2.3.4 Limited Liability Company (LLC)
      5. 2.3.5 Private Limited Company
      6. 2.3.6 Public Limited Company
      7. 2.3.7 Government Enterprises
      8. 2.3.8 Joint Ventures
    4. 2.4 Structure of Construction Organization
      1. 2.4.1 Centralized Functional
      2. 2.4.2 Decentralized Multidivisional
    5. 2.5 Organizing for Project Management
      1. 2.5.1 Classical (Functional)
      2. 2.5.2 Pure Project or Product Management
      3. 2.5.3 Matrix Organizations
    6. 2.6 Management Levels
      1. 2.6.1 Director Level
      2. 2.6.2 President Level
      3. 2.6.3 Construction Management Level
      4. 2.6.4 Project Management Level
      5. 2.6.5 Functional Management Level
    7. 2.7 Traits of A Project Manager
      1. 2.7.1 Strategies for Enhancing the Performance of a Project Manager
    8. 2.8 Important Traits of a Project Coordinator
      1. 2.8.1 Team Building Skill
      2. 2.8.2 Contract Implementation Skill
      3. 2.8.3 Project Organization Skill
    9. 2.9 Ethical Conduct for Engineers
    10. 2.10 Factors Behind the Success of a Construction Organization
    11. References
    12. Review Questions
  13. Chapter 3. Construction Economics
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Economic Decision-Making
      1. 3.2.1 Out-of-pocket Commitment
      2. 3.2.2 Payback Period
      3. 3.2.3 Average Annual Rate of Return
    3. 3.3 Time Value of Money
    4. 3.4 Cash-Flow Diagrams
      1. 3.4.1 Project Cash-flow and Company Cash-flow Diagrams
      2. 3.4.2 Using Cash-flow Diagrams
    5. 3.5 Using Interest Tables
    6. 3.6 Evaluating Alternatives by Equivalence
      1. 3.6.1 Present Worth Comparison
      2. 3.6.2 Future Worth Comparison
      3. 3.6.3 Annual Cost and Worth Comparison
      4. 3.6.4 Rate of Return Method
    7. 3.7 Effect of Taxation on Comparison of Alternatives
    8. 3.8 Effect of Inflation on Cash-Flow
    9. 3.9 Evaluation of Public Projects: Discussion on Benefit–Cost Ratio
      1. 3.9.1 Benefit/Cost Criteria
    10. References
    11. Solved Examples
    12. Review Questions
  14. Chapter 4. Client’s Estimation of Project Cost
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Approximate Methods of Estimation
      1. 4.2.1 Preliminary Estimate for Buildings
      2. 4.2.2 Preliminary Estimate for Industrial Structures
    3. 4.3 Types of Estimates
      1. 4.3.1 Rough Order of Magnitude Estimates
      2. 4.3.2 Client’s Indicative Cost Estimate
      3. 4.3.3 Client’s Preliminary Cost Estimate
      4. 4.3.4 Client’s Detailed Estimate
      5. 4.3.5 Client’s Definitive Estimate
      6. 4.3.6 Revised Estimate
      7. 4.3.7 Supplementary Estimates
      8. 4.3.8 Project Closure Cost
    4. 4.4 Methods of Structuring Project Costs
    5. 4.5 Illustrative Cases in Preparation of Estimate
      1. 4.5.1 Case 1: Multi-Level Car Parking Facility
      2. 4.5.2 Case 2: Preliminary Estimate for Construction of Sewage Treatment Plant
    6. References
    7. Solved Examples
    8. Review Questions
  15. Chapter 5. Construction Contract
    1. 5.1 Construction Contract
    2. 5.2 Contract Document
      1. 5.2.1 The Contract Drawings
      2. 5.2.2 The Specifications
      3. 5.2.3 The General Conditions of Contract (GCC)
      4. 5.2.4 The Special Conditions of Contract (SCC)
      5. 5.2.5 The Bill of Quantities (BOQ)
    3. 5.3 Classification of Engineering Contracts
      1. 5.3.1 Separated Contract
      2. 5.3.2 Management Contract
      3. 5.3.3 Integrated Contract
      4. 5.3.4 Discretionary Contract
    4. 5.4 Bidding Process
      1. 5.4.1 Pre-qualification Process
      2. 5.4.2 Notice Inviting Tender
      3. 5.4.3 Submission of Bids
      4. 5.4.4 Analysis of Submitted Tenders
      5. 5.4.5 Basis for Evaluation and Acceptance
      6. 5.4.6 Letter of Intent
      7. 5.4.7 Work Order
      8. 5.4.8 Agreement
    5. 5.5 Cpwd Contract Conditions
    6. 5.6 Fidic form of Contract Agreement
      1. 5.6.1 Need and Principles of FIDIC Contracts
      2. 5.6.2 Salient Features of FIDIC Form of Contract
    7. 5.7 Subcontracting
      1. 5.7.1 Classification of Subcontractors
      2. 5.7.2 Selection of Subcontractors
      3. 5.7.3 Work Order
      4. 5.7.4 Terms and Conditions
      5. 5.7.5 Subcontractor Management—Some Guidelines
    8. References
    9. Review Questions
  16. Chapter 6. Construction Planning
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 Types of Project Plans
      1. 6.2.1 Time Plan
      2. 6.2.2 Manpower Plan
      3. 6.2.3 Material Plan
      4. 6.2.4 Construction Equipment Plan
      5. 6.2.5 Finance Plan
    3. 6.3 Work-Breakdown Structure
      1. 6.3.1 Methodology of WBS
    4. 6.4 Planning techniques—Terminologies Used
      1. 6.4.1 Event and Activity
      2. 6.4.2 Dummy Activity
      3. 6.4.3 Network
      4. 6.4.4 Precedence
      5. 6.4.5 Network Logic
      6. 6.4.6 Duration of an Activity
      7. 6.4.7 Forward and Backward Pass
      8. 6.4.8 Float or Slack Time
      9. 6.4.9 Path and Critical Path
    5. 6.5 Bar Charts
    6. 6.6 Preparation of Network Diagram
    7. 6.7 Programme Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)
    8. 6.8 Critical Path Method (CPM)
    9. 6.9 Ladder Network
    10. 6.10 Precedence Network
    11. 6.11 The Line-of-Balance (LOB)
    12. 6.12 Network Techniques Advantages
    13. References
    14. Solved Example
    15. Review Questions
  17. Chapter 7. Project Scheduling and Resource Levelling
    1. 7.1 Introduction
    2. 7.2 Resource Levelling
    3. 7.3 Resource Allocation
    4. 7.4 Importance of Project Scheduling
    5. 7.5 Other Schedules Derived from Project Schedules
      1. 7.5.1 Preparing Invoice Schedule
      2. 7.5.2 Schedule of Milestone Events
      3. 7.5.3 Schedule of Plant and Equipment
      4. 7.5.4 Schedule of Project Staff
      5. 7.5.5 Schedule of Labour Requirement
      6. 7.5.6 Schedule of Materials Requirement
      7. 7.5.7 Schedule of Specialized Agencies
      8. 7.5.8 Schedule of Direct Costs
      9. 7.5.9 Schedule of Overheads
      10. 7.5.10 Schedule of Cash Inflow
      11. 7.5.11 Schedule of Cash Outflow
    6. 7.6 Network Crashing and Cost-Time Trade-Off
    7. References
    8. Review Questions
  18. Chapter 8. Contractor’s Estimation of Cost and Bidding Strategy
    1. 8.1 Contractor’s Estimation and Bidding Process
      1. 8.1.1 Get Involved in Pre-Qualification Process
      2. 8.1.2 Study the Tender Document, Drawings and Prepare Tender Summary
      3. 8.1.3 Decisions to Take
      4. 8.1.4 Arrange for Site Visit and Investigation
      5. 8.1.5 Consultation, Queries and Meetings, and Other Associated Works
      6. 8.1.6 Prepare Construction Schedule and Other Related Schedules
      7. 8.1.7 Collect Information
      8. 8.1.8 Determining Bid Price
      9. 8.1.9 Analysis of Rates
      10. 8.1.10 Fix Mark-Up
      11. 8.1.11 Computing Bid Price
      12. 8.1.12 Submit Bid
      13. 8.1.13 Post-submission Activities
    2. 8.2 Bidding Models
      1. 8.2.1 Game Theory Models
      2. 8.2.2 Statistical Bidding Strategy Models
      3. 8.2.3 Cash Flow-Based Models
    3. 8.3 Determination of Optimum Mark-Up Level
    4. 8.4 Bidding and Estimation Practices in Indian Construction Industry
      1. 8.4.1 Prevailing Estimation Practices
      2. 8.4.2 Use of Statistical/Mathematical Tools in Estimation
      3. 8.4.3 Breakup of Mark-Up
      4. 8.4.4 Labour Cost Estimation
      5. 8.4.5 Plant and Equipment Cost Estimation
      6. 8.4.6 Dealing with Uncertainties
      7. 8.4.7 Average Range of Mark-Up
      8. 8.4.8 Mark-Up Distribution
      9. 8.4.9 Mark-Up Range
      10. 8.4.10 Summary and Conclusion from the Study
    5. References
    6. Solved Examples
    7. Review Questions
  19. Chapter 9. Construction Equipment Management
    1. 9.1 Introduction
    2. 9.2 Classification of Construction Equipments
    3. 9.3 Factors Behind the Selection of Construction Equipments
      1. 9.3.1 Economic Considerations
      2. 9.3.2 Company-Specific
      3. 9.3.3 Site-Specific
      4. 9.3.4 Equipment-Specific
      5. 9.3.5 Client- and Project-Specific
      6. 9.3.6 Manufacturer-Specific
      7. 9.3.7 Labour Consideration
    4. 9.4 Earthwork Equipments
    5. 9.5 Concreting Equipments
    6. 9.6 Hoisting Equipments
      1. 9.6.1 Hoists
      2. 9.6.2 Cranes
    7. 9.7 Plant and Equipment Acquisition
    8. 9.8 Depreciation
    9. 9.9 Depreciation and Taxation
    10. 9.10 Methods of Calculating Depreciation
      1. 9.10.1 Straight-Line Method
      2. 9.10.2 Sum of Years Digit Method
      3. 9.10.3 Declining Balance Method
      4. 9.10.4 Sinking Fund Method
      5. 9.10.5 Accelerated Depreciation
    11. 9.11 Example of Depreciation Calculations for Equipment at a Site
    12. 9.12 The Effect of Depreciation and Tax on Selection of Alternatives
    13. 9.13 Evaluating Replacement Alternatives
    14. 9.14 Advanced Concepts in Economic Analysis
      1. 9.14.1 Sensitivity Analysis
      2. 9.14.2 Breakeven Analysis
    15. Solved Examples
    16. References
    17. Review Questions
  20. Chapter 10. Construction Accounts Management
    1. 10.1 General
    2. 10.2 Principles of Accounting
    3. 10.3 Accounting Process
    4. 10.4 Construction Contract Revenue Recognition
      1. 10.4.1 Cash Method of Revenue Recognition
      2. 10.4.2 Straight Accrual Method of Revenue Recognition
      3. 10.4.3 Completed Contract Method of Revenue Recognition
      4. 10.4.4 Percentage of Completion Method of Revenue Recognition
    5. 10.5 Construction Contract Status Report
    6. 10.6 Limitations of Accounting
    7. 10.7 Balance Sheet
      1. 10.7.1 Liabilities
      2. 10.7.2 Assets
    8. 10.8 Profit and Loss Account
    9. 10.9 Working Capital
      1. 10.9.1 Need for Working Capital
      2. 10.9.2 Operating Cycle
      3. 10.9.3 Components of Working Capital
      4. 10.9.4 Determination of Working Capital
      5. 10.9.5 Financing Sources of Working Capital
    10. 10.10 Ratio Analysis
      1. 10.10.1 Liquidity Ratios
      2. 10.10.2 Capital Structure Ratios
      3. 10.10.3 Profitability Ratios
      4. 10.10.4 Activity Ratios
      5. 10.10.5 Supplementary Ratios
    11. 10.11 Funds Flow Statement
      1. 10.11.1 Changes in Working Capital or Funds
      2. 10.11.2 Determining Funds Generated/Used by Business Operations
      3. 10.11.3 Application of Funds Flow Statement
    12. References
    13. Review Questions
  21. Chapter 11. Construction Material Management
    1. 11.1 Introduction
    2. 11.2 Material Procurement Process in Construction Organization
    3. 11.3 Materials Management Functions
      1. 11.3.1 Materials Planning
      2. 11.3.2 Procurement
      3. 11.3.3 Custody (Receiving, Warehousing and Issuing)
      4. 11.3.4 Materials Accounting
      5. 11.3.5 Transportation
      6. 11.3.6 Inventory Monitoring and Control
      7. 11.3.7 Materials Codification
      8. 11.3.8 Computerization
      9. 11.3.9 Source Development (Vendor Development)
      10. 11.3.10 Disposal
    4. 11.4 Inventory Management
      1. 11.4.1 Inventory-Related Cost
      2. 11.4.2 Functions of Inventory
      3. 11.4.3 Inventory Policies
      4. 11.4.4 Selective Inventory Control
      5. 11.4.5 Inventory Models
    5. Solved Examples
    6. References
    7. Review Questions
  22. Chapter 12. Project Cost and Value Management
    1. 12.1 Project Cost Management
      1. 12.1.1 Resources Planning Schedules
      2. 12.1.2 Cost Planning
      3. 12.1.3 Cost Budgeting
      4. 12.1.4 Cost Control
    2. 12.2 Collection of Cost-Related Information
      1. 12.2.1 Labour Cost
      2. 12.2.2 Material Cost
      3. 12.2.3 Plant and Equipment Cost
      4. 12.2.4 Subcontractor Cost
      5. 12.2.5 Overhead Cost
    3. 12.3 Cost Codes
    4. 12.4 Cost Statement
    5. 12.5 Value Management in Construction
    6. 12.6 Steps in the Application of Value Engineering
    7. 12.7 Description of the Case
    8. 12.8 Value-Engineering Application in the Case Project
      1. 12.8.1 Foundation Design
      2. 12.8.2 Flooring System
      3. 12.8.3 Precast vs In-Situ Construction
      4. 12.8.4 Discussion of Results
    9. References
    10. Review Questions
  23. Chapter 13. Construction Quality Management
    1. 13.1 Introduction
    2. 13.2 Construction Quality
      1. 13.2.1 Definition of Quality
      2. 13.2.2 Evolution of Quality
    3. 13.3 Inspection, Quality Control and Quality Assurance in Projects
      1. 13.3.1 Inspection
      2. 13.3.2 Quality Control (QC)
      3. 13.3.3 Quality Assurance (QA)
    4. 13.4 Total Quality Management
    5. 13.5 Quality Gurus and Their Teachings
      1. 13.5.1 Deming
      2. 13.5.2 Juran
      3. 13.5.3 Philip Crosby
    6. 13.6 Cost of Quality
    7. 13.7 Iso Standards
      1. 13.7.1 Benefits of ISO 9000
      2. 13.7.2 Principles of Quality Management Systems
      3. 13.7.3 ISO 9001–2000 Family of Standards
    8. 13.8 Conquas—Construction Quality Assessment System
    9. 13.9 Audit
    10. 13.10 Construction Productivity
      1. 13.10.1 Typical Causes of Low Labour Productivity
    11. References
    12. Review Questions
  24. Chapter 14. Risk and Insurance in Construction
    1. 14.1 Introduction
    2. 14.2 Risk
    3. 14.3 Risk Identification Process
      1. 14.3.1 Preliminary Checklist
      2. 14.3.2 Risk Events Consequences Scenario
      3. 14.3.3 Risk Mapping
      4. 14.3.4 Risk Classification
      5. 14.3.5 Risk Category Summary Sheet
    4. 14.4 Risk Analysis and Evaluation Process
      1. 14.4.1 Data Collection
      2. 14.4.2 Modelling Uncertainty
      3. 14.4.3 Evaluation of Potential Impact of Risk
    5. 14.5 Response Management Process (Risk Treatment Strategies)
      1. 14.5.1 Risk Avoidance
      2. 14.5.2 Loss Reduction and Risk Prevention
      3. 14.5.3 Risk Retention and Assumption
      4. 14.5.4 Risk Transfer (Non-Insurance or Contractual Transfer)
      5. 14.5.5 Insurance
    6. 14.6 Insurance in Construction Industry
      1. 14.6.1 Fundamental Principles of Insurance
      2. 14.6.2 Insurance Policies for a Typical Construction Organization
      3. 14.6.3 Project Insurance
      4. 14.6.4 Marine-Cum-Erection Insurance
      5. 14.6.5 Contractor’s All-Risk Insurance (CAR Insurance)
      6. 14.6.6 Marine/Transit Insurance
      7. 14.6.7 Fire Policy
      8. 14.6.8 Plant and Machinery Insurance
      9. 14.6.9 Liquidity Damages Insurance
      10. 14.6.10 Professional Indemnity Policy
    7. 14.7 Common Examples of Business and Project Risk
    8. 14.8 Risks Faced by Indian Construction Companies Assessing International Projects
      1. 14.8.1 Risks in International Construction
    9. References
    10. Review Questions
  25. Chapter 15. Construction Safety Management
    1. 15.1 Introduction
    2. 15.2 Evolution of Safety
    3. 15.3 Accident Causation Theories
    4. 15.4 Foundation of a Major Injury
      1. 15.4.1 Unsafe Conditions
      2. 15.4.2 Unsafe Acts
    5. 15.5 Health and Safety Act and Regulations
      1. 15.5.1 Building and Other Construction Workers (Regulation of Employment and Condition of Services) Act 1996
      2. 15.5.2 Building and Other Construction Workers (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service) Central Rules, 1998
    6. 15.6 Cost of Accidents
    7. 15.7 Roles of Safety Personnel
    8. 15.8 Causes of Accidents
    9. 15.9 Principles of Safety
    10. 15.10 Safety and Health Management System
      1. 15.10.1 Safety Policy and Organization
      2. 15.10.2 Safety Budget
      3. 15.10.3 Safety Organization
      4. 15.10.4 Education and Training
      5. 15.10.5 Safety Plan
      6. 15.10.6 Safety Manual
      7. 15.10.7 Safety Committee
      8. 15.10.8 Incentive Programmes
      9. 15.10.9 Accident Reporting, Investigation and Record Keeping
      10. 15.10.10 Incident Investigation and Analysis
      11. 15.10.11 Accident Statistics and Indices
      12. 15.10.12 Safety Inspection
      13. 15.10.13 Safety Audit
      14. 15.10.14 Workers’ Health and First-Aid Facilities
    11. 15.11 Research Results in Safety Management
    12. References
    13. Review Questions
  26. Chapter 16. Project Monitoring and Control System
    1. 16.1 Introduction
    2. 16.2 Updating
      1. 16.2.1 Updating Using Bar Chart
      2. 16.2.2 Updating Using PERT/CPM
      3. 16.2.3 Updating Using Precedence Network
    3. 16.3 Project Control
    4. 16.4 Schedule/Time/Progress Control
      1. 16.4.1 Monthly Progress Report
      2. 16.4.2 Measuring Progress at Site
      3. 16.4.3 Typical Reports to Aid the Progress Review
    5. 16.5 Cost Control
      1. 16.5.1 Profit/Loss at the Completion of Contract
      2. 16.5.2 Stage-Wise Completion of Cost
      3. 16.5.3 Standard Costing
      4. 16.5.4 S-Curve
      5. 16.5.5 Unit Costing
    6. 16.6 Control of Schedule, Cost and Technical Performance—Earned Value Method
      1. 16.6.1 Terminologies of Earned Value Method
    7. 16.7 Illustrations of Cost Control System
    8. 16.8 Management Information System
    9. References
    10. Review Questions
  27. Chapter 17. Construction Claims, Disputes, and Project Closure
    1. 17.1 Claim
      1. 17.1.1 Sources of Claims
      2. 17.1.2 Claim Management
      3. 17.1.3 Some Guidelines to Prepare the Claims
    2. 17.2 Dispute
      1. 17.2.1 Causes of Disputes
      2. 17.2.2 Dispute Avoidance vs Dispute Resolution
      3. 17.2.3 Mechanisms of Dispute Resolution
      4. 17.2.4 Causes Leading to Arbitration
      5. 17.2.5 Advantages of ADR Over Legal Proceedings in a Court
      6. 17.2.6 Some Dos and Don’ts to Avoid Dispute
    3. 17.3 Correspondence
    4. 17.4 Project Closure
      1. 17.4.1 Construction Closure
      2. 17.4.2 Financial Closure
      3. 17.4.3 Contract Closure
      4. 17.4.4 Project Manager’s Closure
      5. 17.4.5 Lessons Learned from the Project
    5. References
    6. Review Questions
  28. Chapter 18. Computer Applications in Scheduling, Resource Levelling, Monitoring, and Reporting
    1. 18.1 Introduction
    2. 18.2 Popular Project Management Software
      1. 18.2.1 Primavera
      2. 18.2.2 Milestone Professional
      3. 18.2.3 ‘Candy’—Construction Project Modelling and Project Control
      4. 18.2.4 AMS Realtime Projects
      5. 18.2.5 Project KickStart
      6. 18.2.6 MS Project
    3. 18.3 Functions of Project Management Software
      1. 18.3.1 Scheduling Function
      2. 18.3.2 Resource Management Function
      3. 18.3.3 Tracking or Monitoring Function
      4. 18.3.4 Reporting Function
      5. 18.3.5 Additional Functions
    4. 18.4 Illustration of MS Project
      1. 18.4.1 Definitions of Some Terminologies
      2. 18.4.2 Working with MS Project
    5. 18.5 Illustration of Primavera
      1. 18.5.1 Adding a New Project
      2. 18.5.2 Preparing Schedule
      3. 18.5.3 Resource Levelling
      4. 18.5.4 Tracking the Project
      5. 18.5.5 Reporting
      6. 18.5.6 Some Additional Features
    6. References
    7. Review Questions
  29. Chapter 19. Factors Behind the Success of a Construction Project
    1. 19.1 General
    2. 19.2 Project Performance Measurement
    3. 19.3 Criteria for Project Performance Evaluation
    4. 19.4 Project Performance Attributes
      1. 19.4.1 Success Attributes/Factors
      2. 19.4.2 Failure Attributes
    5. 19.5 Effect of Other Elements on Project Performance
    6. 19.6 The Theory of 3CS and the Iron Triangle
    7. References
    8. Review Questions
  30. Notes
    1. Chapter 4
    2. Chapter 8
    3. Chapter 12
    4. Chapter 15
    5. Chapter 16
  31. Answers to the Objective Questions
  32. Appendices
  33. Acknowledgements
  34. Copyright