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Computers as Components, 3rd Edition by Marilyn Wolf

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3.2 Programming Input and Output

The basic techniques for I/O programming can be understood relatively independent of the instruction set. In this section, we cover the basics of I/O programming and place them in the contexts of the ARM, C55x, and PIC16F. We begin by discussing the basic characteristics of I/O devices so that we can understand the requirements they place on programs that communicate with them.

3.2.1 Input and Output Devices

Input and output devices usually have some analog or nonelectronic component—for instance, a disk drive has a rotating disk and analog read/write electronics. But the digital logic in the device that is most closely connected to the CPU very strongly resembles the logic you would expect in any computer system. ...

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