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Computer Synthesized Speech Technologies: Tools for Aiding Impairment

Book Description

Computer Synthesized Speech Technologies: Tools for Aiding Impairment provides information to current and future practitioners that will allow them to better assist speech disabled individuals who wish to utilize CSS technology. Just as important as the practitioner's knowledge of the latest advances in speech technology, so, too, is the practitioner's understanding of how specific client needs affect the use of CSS, how cognitive factors related to comprehension of CSS affect its use, and how social factors related to perceptions of the CSS user affect their interaction with others. This cutting edge book addresses those topics pertinent to understanding the myriad of concerns involved with the implementation of CSS so that CSS technologies may continue to evolve and improve for speech impaired individuals.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Editorial Advisory Board
  3. Preface
    1. OVERALL MISSION/OBJECTIVE OF THE BOOK
      1. Section 1: CSS Technology and History
      2. Section 2: Emerging Technologies
      3. Section 3: Specific Applications
      4. Section 4: Social Factors
      5. Section 5: Case Studies
    2. OVERVIEW OF INDIVIDUAL CHAPTERS
    3. WHO WILL THIS BOOK BENEFIT?
    4. CONCLUSION
  4. Acknowledgment
  5. 1. Overview: Important Issues for Researchers and Practitioners Using Computer Synthesized Speech as an Assistive Aid
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. THE TECHNOLOGY
    4. THE ISSuES
      1. Intelligibility and Naturalness
      2. Different Needs for Different people
      3. Social Aspects
    5. THE FUTURE
    6. REFERENCES
  6. 1. Overview of Computer Synthesized Speech
    1. 2. From Wood to Bits to Silicon Chips: A History of Developments in Computer Synthesized Speech
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. INDIVIDUAL INNOVATION
      4. INDUSTRIAL INNOVATION: THE ROAD TO COMPUTER SYNTHESIZED SPEECH
        1. Bell Telephone Laboratories
        2. Haskins Laboratories
      5. ASSISTIVE AND EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY
      6. IBM
        1. Kurzweil
        2. Lernout & Hauspie
        3. Texas Instruments
        4. Apple Inc.
        5. Microsoft Corporation
          1. MS Windows Operating Systems
          2. MS Office Products
          3. MS Internet Explorer
        6. Third-party Software Companies
          1. Nuance Communications, Inc.
      7. A NOTE ON NEUROPROSTHETICS AND SPEECH IMPAIRMENT APPLICATIONS
      8. ROBOTICS
      9. COMPOSITION RESEARCH
      10. THE ARTS
      11. COMPUTER SYNTHESIZED SPEECH ON FILM
      12. RESEARCH DIRECTIONS AND APPLICATIONS
      13. CONCLUSION
      14. REFERENCES
      15. ADDITIONAL READING
    2. A. APPENDIX
    3. 3. Digital Speech Technology: An Overview
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MANY FACETS OF SPEECH TECHNOLOGY
      4. BACKGROUND
        1. Digitized Speech
          1. Analog-to-Digital Conversion
          2. Speech Coding
            1. Waveform Coding
            2. Parametric Coding
      5. TTS SYNTHESIS
        1. Text processing
        2. Phonetic Transcription
        3. Speech Synthesis
          1. Formant Synthesis
          2. Concatenative Synthesis
          3. Specifying Prosody
        4. Generating Speech
          1. Formant-Synthesized Speech Output
          2. LPC-Synthesized Speech Output
          3. Waveform-Synthesized Speech Output
      6. DIGITIZED OR SYNTHESIZED SPEECH?
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
    4. B. APPENDIX
  7. 2. Emerging Technologies
    1. 4. Humanizing Vox Artificialis: The Role of Speech Synthesis in Augmentative and Alternative Communication
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SYNTHETIC SPEECH AND AAC TECHNOLOGIES: SPEECH GENERATING DEVICES
      4. AAC STAKEHOLDERS
        1. Device users
        2. Scientists and Clinicians
        3. Manufacturers
      5. HISTORY OF SPEECH SYNTHESIS IN AAC
      6. FRAMEWORKS FOR EVALUATING THE AUGMENTED VOICE
        1. Connor's Idea of Voice as Gesture
        2. Jakobson's Verbal Functions
        3. Portnuff's Hierarchy of Needs
      7. SPEECH SYNTHESIS RESEARCH
        1. Intelligibility Studies
        2. Sentence and discourse Comprehension
      8. SPEECH SYNTHESIS RESEARCH IN SOCIAL INTERACTION
        1. Recent developments
          1. Visual Scenes Display
          2. Utterance-Based Systems
        2. Making a More Functional SGD for Social Interaction
      9. SPEECH SYNTHESIS PERSPECTIVES ON EMOTION AND IDENTITY
        1. My Voice
          1. Recent Advances in Personalized and Emotive Voices
          2. ModelTalker
          3. Loquendo Text-to-Speech
          4. Augmented Speakers as Professional Presenters
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      12. REFERENCES
      13. ENDNOTES
    2. 5. Advances in Computer Speech Synthesis and Implications for Assistive Technology
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. APPLICABILITY FOR ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY
        1. Intelligibility
        2. Naturalness
        3. Technical Constraints
      5. PERSONAL VOICES FOR ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY
      6. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTES
    3. 6. Building Personalized Synthetic Voices for Individuals with Dysarthria Using the HTS Toolkit
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Why is a personalized Speech Synthesizer Necessary?
        2. Current personalization Techniques
          1. Pre-Recorded Output
          2. Voice Banking
        3. Concatenative Synthesis
        4. Parametric Synthesis
        5. Procedure Requirements
        6. HMM-Based Speech Synthesis
          1. Introduction
          2. Feature Vectors
          3. Hidden Markov Models
          4. Training
          5. Adaptation
          6. Synthesis
        7. Using HTS with Dysarthric Speech
          1. Data Selection
          2. Spectral Information: Energy, Spectral Features, Global Variance for Spectral Information
          3. Excitation Parameters: Log F0, Voicing Decisions, Aperiodicity, Global Variance for Log F0 and Aperiodicity
          4. Duration Information: State Duration Probability Densities, Overall Duration Control
      4. EVALUATION
        1. Method
          1. Participants
          2. Data Collection
          3. Building Voices
          4. Evaluation Design
            1. Stimuli
        2. Procedure
        3. Results
        4. Discussion
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. SOUND FILES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. 7. Speech Technologies for Augmented Communication
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CHARACTERIZING SPEECH PRODUCTION
      4. CAPTURING SPEECH
      5. MAPPING SIGNALS
        1. Direct Statistical Mapping
          1. Characterizing Input Signals
          2. Characterizing Output Signals
        2. Mapping via Phoneme Recognition
      6. APPLICATIONS
        1. Communication Enhancement
        2. Aids to Communication for Speech impaired people
        3. Language Training
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
  8. 3. Specific Applications
    1. 8. CSS and Children: Research Results and Future Directions
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. INTELLIGIBILITY OF SYNTHESIZED SPEECH
        1. Factors that Influence Speech Intelligibility
          1. Context
          2. Speech Rate
        2. Listener Variables that Influence Intelligibility
          1. Age
          2. Listener's Native Language
          3. Experience with Synthesized Speech
        3. Environmental Variables that Influence Intelligibility
          1. Background Noise
      5. LISTENER COMPREHENSION OF SYNTHESIZED SPEECH
      6. INTELLIGIBILITY OF DIGITIZED SPEECH
      7. CHILDREN'S ATTITUDES TOWARD AND PREFERENCES FOR CSS
      8. THE ROLE OF SPEECH OUTPUT FOR CHILDREN
      9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS AND CONCLUSION
      10. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      11. REFERENCES
    2. 9. Systematic Review of Speech Generating Devices for Aphasia
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHODS
        1. Inclusion Criteria
        2. Search Methods
        3. Data Extraction
          1. Data Extraction for Single-Subject Experimental Designs
          2. Data Extraction for Group Designs
      4. RESULTS
        1. Single-Subject Experimental Designs
          1. Participant Characteristics
          2. Intervention
          3. Design
          4. Measures
          5. Outcomes
        2. Group Designs
          1. Participant Characteristics
          2. Intervention
          3. Design
          4. Measures
          5. Outcomes
        3. Appraisal of Evidence for Single-Subject Experimental Designs and Group Designs
      5. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
      6. DIRECTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ENDNOTE
    3. 10. Are Speech-Generating Devices Viable AAC Options for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DEFINING AND DESCRIBING INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY
      4. DEFINING AND DESCRIBING AAC
      5. USE OF SPEECH-GENERATING DEVICES IN AAC INTERVENTIONS FOR ADULTS WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES
      6. METHOD
        1. Search Strategies
        2. Inclusion and Exclusion Criterion
        3. Data Extraction
      7. RESULTS
        1. Participants
        2. Settings
        3. Types of SGDs
        4. Target Skills
        5. Intervention procedures
        6. Study Designs
        7. Follow-up
        8. Reliability of Data
        9. Outcomes
        10. Certainty of Evidence
      8. DISCUSSION
      9. REFERENCES
    4. 11. Synthetic Speech Perception in Individuals with Intellectual and Communicative Disabilities
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PERCEPTION OF SYNTHETIC SPEECH BY PERSONS WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES
        1. Single Words
        2. Sentences
        3. Discourse
        4. Practice Effects
        5. Discussion
      4. PERCEPTION OF SYNTHETIC SPEECH BY INDIVIDUALS WITH HEARING IMPAIRMENT
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. PERCEPTION OF SYNTHETIC SPEECH BY INDIVIDUALS WITH SPECIFIC LANGUAGE IMPAIRMENT
      7. EFFECTS OF SPEECH OUTPUT ON ACQUISITION OF GRAPHIC SYMBOLS
      8. DISCUSSION
      9. DIRECTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
      10. REFERENCES
    5. 12. The Use of Synthetic Speech in Language Learning Tools: Review and a Case Study
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Computer Synthesized Speech in Call Tools
        2. Recorded Audio
        3. Text-to-Speech Devices
        4. Talking Heads
      4. AN EXPERIENCE OF CSS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF CASLT TOOLS
      5. A CASE STUDY ON THE USE OF CSS IN CALL TOOLS
        1. Results of the Experimental Study
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  9. 4. Social Factors
    1. 13. Attitudes toward Computer Synthesized Speech
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ATTITUDES TOWARD SPEECH DISABILITY
      4. ATTITUDES TOWARD AAC USERS
      5. ATTITUDES TOWARD SPEAKING COMPUTERS
      6. ATTITUDES TOWARD CSS USERS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. AUTHOR NOTE
      9. REFERENCES
    2. 14. Stereotypes of People with Physical Disabilities and Speech Impairments as Detected by Partially Structured Attitude Measures
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. STEREOTYPES OF DISABLED PERSONS
      4. PARTIALLY STRUCTURED ATTITUDE MEASURES AS MEASURES OF IMPLICIT ATTITUDES
      5. THE PRESENT STUDIES
        1. Study 1
        2. Study 2
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
  10. 5. Case Studies
    1. 15. A Tale of Transitions: The Challenges of Integrating Speech Synthesis in Aided Communication
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Aided Communication in a Multi-Modal Context
        2. Simple and Complex Electronic Aided Communication
        3. Aided Communication Competence
      4. CARA
        1. Changing Language System
        2. Learning to Operate the Electronic Device
        3. Changes in perceptions and Interaction patterns
        4. Intervention Needs
        5. Further Development
      5. NIALL
        1. Niall's use of Manual and Electronic Communication Aids
        2. The Challenges of the New Device
        3. Situational Variation
        4. Awareness of Grammatical Construction
        5. Support and Intervention
      6. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      10. ENDNOTE
    2. 16. Tossed in the Deep End: Now What?!
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE FOUR RULES FOR TREATMENT
      5. THE FOUR RULES FOR SUCCESSFUL CARRYOVER AND HOME USAGE
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ENDNOTE
  11. Compilation of References
  12. About the Contributors