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Computer Crime, Investigation, and the Law

Book Description

One can hardly open a newspaper or read news online without seeing another story about a computer-related crime. We are awash in identity theft, online child predators, and even cyber espionage. It seems overwhelming. And people in many different professions find themselves involved with computer-crime investigations. Obviously, law-enforcement officers are involved, but so are network administrators, technical-support personnel, and attorneys.

If any aspect of your work brings you into contact with computer crime, Computer Crime, Investigation, and the Law is for you. It begins with a broad introduction to the field of computer crime, discussing the history of computer crime, basic criminal techniques, and the relevant laws. Next, the book walks you through the essentials of computer forensics. Litigation is also explored, such as depositions, expert reports, trials, and even how one can select an appropriate expert witness. Lastly, the book introduces you to the specific techniques that hackers use and even shows you some of the tricks they use to infiltrate computer systems to help you defend against such attacks. This section of the book also includes a discussion of communication techniques used by computer criminals, with an overview of encryption, stenography, and hacker slang language. Computer Crime, Investigation, and the Law is your gateway into the world of investigating computer crimes.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
    1. Dedication
  2. Acknowledgments
  3. About the Authors
  4. Introduction
  5. 1. Computer Crime
    1. 1. Introduction to Computer Crime
      1. Introduction
      2. Identity Theft
        1. Phishing
        2. Hacking or Spyware
          1. Hacking
          2. Spyware
        3. Unauthorized Access of Data
        4. Discarded Information
      3. Cyber Stalking/Harassment
        1. Real Cyber-Stalking Cases
      4. Unauthorized Access to Computer Systems or Data
      5. Fraud
        1. Investment Offers
        2. Auction Fraud
        3. Check/Money-Order Fraud
        4. Data Piracy
      6. Non-Access Computer Crimes
      7. Cybercrime Meets the Real World
      8. Hate Groups, Gangs, and the Internet
      9. Conclusion
      10. Endnotes
    2. 2. A History of Computer Crime in America
      1. Introduction
      2. The “Prehistory” of Computer Crime
      3. The Early Days
      4. The 1990s
      5. The 21st Century
      6. Modern Attacks
        1. Privilege Escalation
        2. Malware
          1. Viruses
          2. Worms
          3. Spyware
          4. The Trojan Horse
          5. Logic Bomb
          6. Rootkit
        3. Phishing
        4. Social Engineering
        5. Session Hijacking
        6. Password Cracking
        7. Denial of Service
      7. Issues
      8. Conclusion
      9. Endnotes
    3. 3. United States Computer Laws Part I
      1. Introduction
      2. The Ribicoff Bill
      3. The Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986
        1. Amendments to the Legislation
        2. Related Cases
        3. The Actual Law
      4. The Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986
        1. Related Cases
        2. The Actual Law
      5. The Communications Decency Act of 1996
        1. Related Cases
        2. The Actual Law
      6. No Electronic Theft Act of 1997
        1. Related Cases
        2. The Actual Law
      7. Digital Millennium Copyright Act
        1. Related Cases
      8. Children’s Internet Protection Act
        1. The Actual Law
      9. CAN-SPAM Act of 2003
        1. Related Cases
        2. The Actual Law
      10. Identity Theft Enforcement and Restitution Act of 2008
        1. The Actual Law
      11. Conclusion
      12. Endnotes
    4. 4. United States Computer Laws Part II
      1. Introduction
      2. Cyber-Stalking Laws
        1. California Cyber-Stalking Law
        2. Texas Cyber-Stalking Law
        3. Utah Cyber-Stalking Laws
        4. Louisiana Cyber-Stalking Laws
        5. Miscellaneous States
      3. Identity-Theft Laws
        1. Alabama Consumer Identity Protection Act
        2. Florida Criminal Use of Personal Identification Information
        3. Idaho Identity-Theft Laws
        4. New York Identity-Theft Laws
        5. Maryland Identity-Theft Laws
      4. Child-Pornography Laws
        1. Arkansas Legislation
        2. Illinois Laws
        3. California Laws
        4. Connecticut Laws
        5. Delaware Laws
        6. Oregon Laws
        7. Sexting
      5. Hacking Laws
        1. Maine Laws
        2. Montana Laws
        3. North Carolina Laws
        4. Rhode Island Laws
      6. State Spyware Laws
        1. Arizona Laws
        2. Texas Laws
      7. Conclusion
      8. Endnotes
    5. 5. Techniques and Resources for Computer Crime
      1. Introduction
      2. Identity-Theft Techniques
        1. Non-Specific Identity Theft
          1. Phishing
          2. Spyware
            1. Delivering Spyware to the Target
            2. Legal Uses of Spyware
            3. Obtaining Spyware Software
          3. Non-Computer
        2. Specific Target Identity Theft
      3. Fraud Techniques
        1. Auction Frauds
          1. Shill Bidding
          2. Bid Shielding
          3. Bid Siphoning
        2. Investment Offers
          1. Common Investment Fraud Schemes
          2. Investment Advice
      4. Hacking Techniques
        1. Footprinting
        2. Password Cracking
          1. Brute-Force Attack
          2. Dictionary Attack
        3. Web-Site Hacking
          1. SQL Injection
          2. Cross-Site Scripting
        4. Session Hijacking
        5. Man-in-the-Middle Attack
        6. Tools of the Trade
          1. Sniffers
          2. Password Crackers
      5. Conclusion
      6. Endnotes
    6. 6. Organized Crime and Cyber Terrorism
      1. Introduction
      2. Organized Crime on the Internet
        1. Traditional Crime Augmented with Computer Systems
        2. Computer Crimes Executed by Organized Groups
      3. Cyber Terrorism
        1. Economic Attacks
        2. Information Warfare
        3. Cyber Espionage
      4. Conclusion
      5. Endnotes
  6. 2. Computer Forensics
    1. 7. Observing, Collecting, Documenting, and Storing Electronic Evidence
      1. Introduction
      2. Federal Guidelines
        1. FBI Forensics Guidelines
        2. Seizing Without a Warrant
      3. Basic Forensics
      4. Securing the Scene
      5. Remove Individuals Involved
      6. Document Everything
      7. Conclusion
      8. Endnotes
    2. 8. Collecting Evidence from Hardware
      1. Introduction
      2. Forensic Tools
        1. AccessData Forensic Toolkit
        2. E-fense Helix
        3. ILook
        4. EnCase
          1. Preliminary Activities
          2. Working with EnCase
      3. Computer Acquisitions
      4. Conclusion
      5. Endnotes
    3. 9. Collecting Evidence from the Operating System
      1. Introduction
      2. Finding Evidence in Browsers, Chat Logs, and Other Applications
        1. Finding Evidence in the Browser
        2. Finding Evidence in Chat Logs
      3. Finding Evidence in System Logs
        1. Windows Logs
        2. Linux Logs
      4. Recovering Deleted Files
        1. Recovering Files from Windows
          1. UndeletePlus
          2. DiskDigger
        2. Recovering Files from Unix/Linux
      5. Other Forensic Tools
        1. The Sleuth Kit
        2. Disk Investigator
        3. Computer Online Forensic Evidence Extractor
      6. Important Locations to Check
        1. Checking in Windows
        2. Checking in Linux
      7. Operating-System Utilities
      8. Conclusion
    4. 10. Collecting Evidence from Other Sources
      1. Introduction
      2. Tracing IP Addresses
      3. Gathering E-mail Evidence
      4. Gathering Evidence from Routers
      5. Gathering Evidence from a Cell Phone
      6. Gathering Evidence from Firewalls
      7. Gathering Evidence from Intrusion-Detection Systems
      8. Conclusion
  7. 3. Litigation
    1. 11. Experts and Expert Reports
      1. Introduction
      2. Selecting an Expert
        1. Clean Background Check
        2. Well Trained
          1. Academic Training and Programs
        3. Academic Credibility
          1. Certifications
            1. Security+
            2. CIW Security Analyst
            3. MCSE Security Specialization
            4. CISSP
            5. Certified Ethical Hacker
            6. Forensic Certifications
        4. Experience
        5. No Conflicts of Interest
      3. Personality Issues in an Expert
      4. Hiring and Paying Experts
      5. Volunteer Experts
      6. Expert Reports
      7. Conclusion
    2. 12. Depositions and Trials
      1. Introduction
      2. Depositions
        1. What Is a Deposition?
        2. Rule 30
        3. Rule 31
        4. What to Do, What Not to Do
      3. Trials
        1. The Daubert Decision and Trials
        2. Use of Depositions at Trials
      4. Case Studies
        1. Expert Performs Well
        2. Expert Makes Major Mistake
        3. Expert Not Fully Qualified
      5. Conclusion
      6. Endnotes
    3. 13. Civil Matters Relating to Computer Crime
      1. Introduction
      2. Civil Law Related to Computer Crime
        1. The Main Categories of Civil Law
          1. Contract Law
          2. Tort Law
          3. Property Law
      3. What Court?
      4. The Process
        1. Pretrial
        2. Motions
        3. Trial
        4. Post Trial
      5. Real Cases
        1. U.S. v. AOL
        2. eBay v. Bidder’s Edge, Inc.
        3. International Airport Centers, L.L.C. v. Citrin
      6. Conclusion
      7. Endnotes
  8. 4. Computer Crime and Individuals
    1. 14. Protecting Children on the Internet
      1. Introduction
      2. The Problem
        1. How Online Predators Operate
      3. Solutions for Parents
        1. How to Know if Your Child Is Already in Danger
      4. Solutions for Law Enforcement
      5. Conclusion
      6. Endnotes
    2. 15. How to Protect Your Identity on the Internet
      1. Introduction
      2. What You Can Do
        1. Phishing
          1. Phishing E-mails
          2. Phishing Web Sites
        2. Spyware
        3. Gathering Personal Data
        4. General Countermeasures
        5. What to Do If You Become a Victim
      3. Law Enforcement and Identity Theft
      4. Conclusion
      5. Endnotes
    3. 16. Harassment and Stalking Via the Computer
      1. Introduction
      2. What Is Cyber Stalking and Harassment?
      3. Why Cyber Stalkers Do It
      4. Real-World Cases
        1. England’s Most Obsessive Stalker
        2. 70-Year-Old Man Stalks 16-Year-Old Girl Online
      5. Protecting Yourself
      6. Guidelines for Law Enforcement
      7. Conclusion
      8. Endnotes
  9. 5. Techniques
    1. 17. Hacker Techniques
      1. Introduction
      2. The Pre-Attack Phase
        1. The Passive Search
        2. The Active Scan
          1. Angry IP
          2. NSAuditor
          3. Microsoft Baseline Security Analyzer
          4. Enumeration
          5. Manual Scanning
      3. The Attack Phase
        1. Physical Access Attacks
          1. OphCrack
          2. Cain and Abel
            1. Retrieve Login Accounts
            2. Get Other Passwords
            3. Get a Wireless Key
        2. Remote Access Attacks
      4. Countermeasures
      5. Conclusion
    2. 18. How Cyber Criminals Communicate
      1. Introduction
      2. Encryption
        1. History of Encryption
          1. Caesar Cipher
          2. Multi-Alphabet Substitution
          3. Binary Operations
        2. Modern Encryption Methods
          1. Data Encryption Standard
          2. RSA
          3. Others
        3. How Criminals Use Encryption
      3. Steganography
      4. Leet
      5. Meeting
        1. Online Discussions
      6. Conclusion
      7. Endnotes
  10. A. Introduction to Computer Networks
    1. Introduction
    2. Network Basics
    3. The Physical Connection
    4. The Hub
      1. The Switch
      2. The Router
    5. The Data Packets
      1. IP Addresses
    6. Basic Network Utilities
      1. IPConfig
      2. ping and tracert
    7. Network Security Measures
  11. B. Glossary
    1. A
    2. B
    3. C
    4. D
    5. E
    6. F
    7. G–H
    8. I
    9. K–L
    10. M
    11. N
    12. P
    13. R
    14. S
    15. T
    16. U
    17. V
    18. W
    19. Z