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Computer and Communication Networks, Second Edition

Book Description

Computer and Communication Networks, Second Edition, explains the modern technologies of networking and communications, preparing you to analyze and simulate complex networks, and to design cost-effective networks for emerging requirements. Offering uniquely balanced coverage of basic and advanced topics, it teaches through case studies, realistic examples and exercises, and intuitive illustrations.

Nader F. Mir establishes a solid foundation in basic networking concepts; TCP/IP schemes; wireless and LTE networks; Internet applications, such as Web and e-mail; and network security. Then, he delves into both network analysis and advanced networking protocols, VoIP, cloud-based multimedia networking, SDN, and virtualized networks.

In this new edition, Mir provides updated, practical, scenario-based information that many networking books lack, offering a uniquely effective blend of theory and implementation. Drawing on extensive field experience, he presents many contemporary applications and covers key topics that other texts overlook, including P2P and voice/video networking, SDN, information-centric networking, and modern router/switch design.

Students, researchers, and networking professionals will find up-to-date, thorough coverage of

  • Packet switching

  • Internet protocols (including IPv6)

  • Networking devices

  • Links and link interfaces

  • LANs, WANs, and Internetworking

  • Multicast routing, and protocols

  • Wide area wireless networks and LTE

  • Transport and end-to-end protocols

  • Network applications and management

  • Network security

  • Network queues and delay analysis

  • Advanced router/switch architecture

  • QoS and scheduling

  • Tunneling, VPNs, and MPLS

  • All-optical networks, WDM, and GMPLS

  • Cloud computing and network virtualization

  • Software defined networking (SDN)

  • VoIP signaling

  • Media exchange and voice/video compression

  • Distributed/cloud-based multimedia networks

  • Mobile ad hoc networks

  • Wireless sensor networks

  • Key features include

  • More than three hundred fifty figures that simplify complex topics

  • Numerous algorithms that summarize key networking protocols and equations

  • Up-to-date case studies illuminating concepts and theory

  • Approximately four hundred exercises and examples honed over Mir’s twenty years of teaching networking

  • Table of Contents

    1. About This eBook
    2. Title Page
    3. Copyright Page
    4. Dedication Page
    5. Contents
    6. Preface
      1. Objectives
      2. Organization of This Book
      3. Exercises and Computer Simulation Projects
      4. Appendixes
      5. Instructions and Instructor Supplements
      6. Acknowledgments
      7. How to Contact the Author
    7. About the Author
    8. Part I: Fundamental Concepts
      1. Chapter 1. Packet-Switched Networks
        1. 1.1 Basic Definitions in Networks
          1. 1.1.1 Packet Switching Versus Circuit Switching
          2. 1.1.2 Data, Packets, and Frames
          3. 1.1.3 The Internet and ISPs
          4. 1.1.4 Classification of ISPs
        2. 1.2 Types of Packet-Switched Networks
          1. 1.2.1 Connectionless Networks
          2. 1.2.2 Connection-Oriented Networks
        3. 1.3 Packet Size and Optimizations
        4. 1.4 Foundation of Networking Protocols
          1. 1.4.1 Five-Layer TCP/IP Protocol Model
          2. 1.4.2 Seven-Layer OSI Model
        5. 1.5 Addressing Scheme in the Internet
          1. 1.5.1 IP Addressing Scheme
          2. 1.5.2 Subnet Addressing and Masking
          3. 1.5.3 Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR)
        6. 1.6 Equal-Sized Packets Model
        7. 1.7 Summary
        8. 1.8 Exercises
        9. 1.9 Computer Simulation Project
      2. Chapter 2. Overview of Networking Devices
        1. 2.1 Network Interface Cards (NICs)
        2. 2.2 Switching and Routing Devices
          1. 2.2.1 Layer 1 Devices
          2. 2.2.2 Layer 2 Devices
          3. 2.2.3 Layer 3 Devices
        3. 2.3 Wireless Switching and Routing Devices
          1. 2.3.1 Wireless Access Points and Base Stations
          2. 2.3.2 Wireless Routers and Switches
          3. 2.3.3 Antennas in Wireless Devices
        4. 2.4 Modems
          1. 2.4.1 Basic Modulation: ASK, FSK, and PSK
          2. 2.4.2 Practical Modulation: 4-QAM and QPSK
          3. 2.4.3 Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) Modems
          4. 2.4.4 Cable Modems
        5. 2.5 Multiplexers
          1. 2.5.1 Frequency-Division Multiplexing (FDM)
          2. 2.5.2 Time-Division Multiplexing
        6. 2.6 Summary
        7. 2.7 Exercises
        8. 2.8 Computer Simulation Project
      3. Chapter 3. Data Links and Link Interfaces
        1. 3.1 Data Links
          1. 3.1.1 Data Link Types
        2. 3.2 Link Encoder
        3. 3.3 Error Detection and Correction on Links
          1. 3.3.1 Error Detection Methods
          2. 3.3.2 Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) Algorithm
        4. 3.4 Flow Control on Links
          1. 3.4.1 Stop-and-Wait Flow Control
          2. 3.4.2 Sliding-Window Flow Control
        5. 3.5 Link Access by Multiple Users
          1. 3.5.1 Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA)
        6. 3.6 Wireless Channel Access by Multiple Users
          1. 3.6.1 Frequency-Division Multiple Access
          2. 3.6.2 Time-Division Multiple Access
          3. 3.6.3 Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiple Access
          4. 3.6.4 Single-Carrier Frequency-Division Multiple Access
          5. 3.6.5 Code-Division Multiple Access
          6. 3.6.6 Other Multiple-Access Methods
        7. 3.7 Link Aggregation
          1. 3.7.1 Link Aggregation Applications
          2. 3.7.2 Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP)
        8. 3.8 Summary
        9. 3.9 Exercises
        10. 3.10 Computer Simulation Project
      4. Chapter 4. Local Area Networks and Networks of LANs
        1. 4.1 LANs and Basic Topologies
        2. 4.2 LAN Protocols
          1. 4.2.1 Logical-Link Control (LLC)
          2. 4.2.2 Media Access Control (MAC)
        3. 4.3 Networks of LANs
          1. 4.3.1 LAN Networking with Layer 1 Devices
          2. 4.3.2 LAN Networking with Layer 2 Devices
          3. 4.3.3 Networking with Layer 2 and 3 Devices
        4. 4.4 MAC/IP Address Conversion Protocols
          1. 4.4.1 Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
          2. 4.4.2 Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP)
        5. 4.5 Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP)
        6. 4.6 Virtual LANs (VLANs)
          1. 4.6.1 VLAN Switches
          2. 4.6.2 VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) and IEEE 802.1Q
        7. 4.7 Wireless LANs
          1. 4.7.1 Infrared LANs
          2. 4.7.2 Spread-Spectrum LANs
          3. 4.7.3 Narrowband RF LANs
          4. 4.7.4 Home RF and Bluetooth LANs
        8. 4.8 IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN Standard
          1. 4.8.1 IEEE 802.11 Physical Layer
          2. 4.8.2 802.11 MAC Layer
          3. 4.8.3 WiFi Networks
        9. 4.9 Case Study: DOCSIS, a Cable TV Protocol
        10. 4.10 Summary
        11. 4.11 Exercises
        12. 4.12 Computer Simulation Project
      5. Chapter 5. Wide-Area Routing and Internetworking
        1. 5.1 IP Packets and Basic Routing Policies
          1. 5.1.1 Packet Fragmentation and Reassembly
          2. 5.1.2 Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
          3. 5.1.3 Obtaining and Assigning IP Addresses
          4. 5.1.4 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
          5. 5.1.5 Network Address Translation (NAT)
          6. 5.1.6 Universal Plug and Play (UPnP)
        2. 5.2 Path Selection Algorithms
          1. 5.2.1 Dijkstra’s Algorithm
          2. 5.2.2 Bellman-Ford Algorithm
          3. 5.2.3 Packet Flooding Algorithm
          4. 5.2.4 Deflection Routing Algorithm
        3. 5.3 Intradomain Routing Protocols
          1. 5.3.1 Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Protocol
          2. 5.3.2 Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
        4. 5.4 Interdomain Routing Protocols
          1. 5.4.1 Autonomous System (AS)
          2. 5.4.2 Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)
        5. 5.5 Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6)
          1. 5.5.1 IPv6 Addressing Format
          2. 5.5.2 Extension Header
          3. 5.5.3 Packet Fragmentation
          4. 5.5.4 Other Features of IPv6
        6. 5.6 Congestion Control at the Network Layer
          1. 5.6.1 Unidirectional Congestion Control
          2. 5.6.2 Bidirectional Congestion Control
          3. 5.6.3 Random Early Detection (RED)
          4. 5.6.4 A Quick Estimation of Link Blocking
          5. 5.6.5 Lee’s Serial and Parallel Connection Rules
        7. 5.7 Summary
        8. 5.8 Exercises
        9. 5.9 Computer Simulation Project
      6. Chapter 6. Multicast Routing and Protocols
        1. 6.1 Basic Definitions and Techniques
          1. 6.1.1 IP Multicast Addresses
          2. 6.1.2 Basic Multicast Tree Algorithms
          3. 6.1.3 Classification of Multicast Protocols
        2. 6.2 Local and Membership Multicast Protocols
          1. 6.2.1 Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP)
        3. 6.3 Intradomain Multicast Protocols
          1. 6.3.1 Multicast Backbone (MBone)
          2. 6.3.2 Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol (DVMRP)
          3. 6.3.3 Multicast OSPF (MOSPF) Protocol
          4. 6.3.4 Protocol-Independent Multicast (PIM)
          5. 6.3.5 Core-Based Trees (CBT) Protocol
        4. 6.4 Interdomain Multicast Protocols
          1. 6.4.1 Multiprotocol BGP (MBGP)
          2. 6.4.2 Multicast Source Discovery Protocol (MSDP)
          3. 6.4.3 Border Gateway Multicast Protocol (BGMP)
        5. 6.5 Summary
        6. 6.6 Exercises
        7. 6.7 Computer Simulation Project
      7. Chapter 7. Wireless Wide Area Networks and LTE Technology
        1. 7.1 Infrastructure of Wireless Networks
        2. 7.2 Cellular Networks
          1. 7.2.1 Cellular Network Devices and Operation
          2. 7.2.2 Handoff
        3. 7.3 Mobile IP Management in Cellular Networks
          1. 7.3.1 Home Agents and Foreign Agents
          2. 7.3.2 Agent Discovery Phase
          3. 7.3.3 Registration
          4. 7.3.4 Mobile IP Routing
          5. 7.3.5 Generations of Cellular Networks
        4. 7.4 Long-Term Evolution (LTE) Technology
          1. 7.4.1 LTE Networking Devices
          2. 7.4.2 Call Establishment in LTE Cells
          3. 7.4.3 Handoff in LTE
          4. 7.4.4 Downlink and Uplink Schemes in LTE
          5. 7.4.5 Frequency Reuse
        5. 7.5 Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) with LTE
          1. 7.5.1 Applications of Mesh Networks
          2. 7.5.2 Physical and MAC Layers of WMNs
        6. 7.6 Characterization of Wireless Channels
          1. 7.6.1 Capacity Limits of Wireless Channels
          2. 7.6.2 Channel Coding
          3. 7.6.3 Flat-Fading Countermeasures
          4. 7.6.4 Intersymbol Interference Countermeasures
        7. 7.7 Summary
        8. 7.8 Exercises
        9. 7.9 Computer Simulation Project
      8. Chapter 8. Transport and End-to-End Protocols
        1. 8.1 Overview of the Transport Layer
          1. 8.1.1 Interaction of Transport Layer and Adjacent Layers
          2. 8.1.2 Transport Layer Protocols
        2. 8.2 User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
          1. 8.2.1 UDP Segments
          2. 8.2.2 Applications of UDP
        3. 8.3 Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
          1. 8.3.1 TCP Segment
          2. 8.3.2 A TCP Connection
          3. 8.3.3 Window-Based Transmission and Sliding Window in TCP
          4. 8.3.4 Applications of TCP
        4. 8.4 Mobile Transport Protocols
          1. 8.4.1 UDP for Mobility
          2. 8.4.2 TCP for Mobility
        5. 8.5 TCP Congestion Control
          1. 8.5.1 Additive Increase, Multiplicative Decrease Control
          2. 8.5.2 Slow-Start Method
          3. 8.5.3 Fast Retransmit and Fast Recovery Methods
        6. 8.6 Summary
        7. 8.7 Exercises
        8. 8.8 Computer Simulation Project
      9. Chapter 9. Basic Network Applications and Management
        1. 9.1 Overview of the Application Layer
          1. 9.1.1 Client/Server Model
          2. 9.1.2 Graphical User Interface (GUI)
        2. 9.2 Domain Name System (DNS)
          1. 9.2.1 Domain Name Space
          2. 9.2.2 Name/Address Mapping
          3. 9.2.3 DNS Message Format
        3. 9.3 Electronic Mail (E-Mail)
          1. 9.3.1 Basic E-Mail Structure and Definitions
          2. 9.3.2 Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
          3. 9.3.3 Post Office Protocol, Version 3 (POP3)
          4. 9.3.4 Internet Mail Access Protocol (IMAP)
        4. 9.4 World Wide Web (WWW)
          1. 9.4.1 Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
          2. 9.4.2 Web Caching (Proxy Server)
          3. 9.4.3 Webmail
        5. 9.5 Remote Login Protocols
          1. 9.5.1 TELNET Protocol
          2. 9.5.2 Secure Shell (SSH) Protocol
        6. 9.6 File Transfer and FTP
          1. 9.6.1 File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
          2. 9.6.2 Secure Copy Protocol (SCP)
        7. 9.7 Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Networking
          1. 9.7.1 P2P File Sharing Protocols
          2. 9.7.2 P2P Database Sharing Protocols
          3. 9.7.3 Estimation of Peer Connection Efficiency
        8. 9.8 Network Management
          1. 9.8.1 Elements of Network Management
          2. 9.8.2 Structure of Management Information (SMI)
          3. 9.8.3 Management Information Base (MIB)
          4. 9.8.4 Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
        9. 9.9 Summary
        10. 9.10 Exercises
        11. 9.11 Computer Simulation Projects
      10. Chapter 10. Network Security
        1. 10.1 Overview of Network Security
          1. 10.1.1 Elements of Network Security
          2. 10.1.2 Classification of Network Attacks
        2. 10.2 Security Methods
        3. 10.3 Symmetric-Key Cryptography
          1. 10.3.1 Data Encryption Standard (DES)
          2. 10.3.2 Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)
        4. 10.4 Public-Key Cryptography
          1. 10.4.1 RSA Algorithm
          2. 10.4.2 Diffie-Hellman Key-Exchange Protocol
        5. 10.5 Authentication
          1. 10.5.1 Hash Function
          2. 10.5.2 Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA)
        6. 10.6 Digital Signatures
        7. 10.7 Security of IP and Wireless Networks
          1. 10.7.1 IP Security and IPsec
          2. 10.7.2 Security of Wireless Networks and IEEE 802.11
        8. 10.8 Firewalls and Packet Filtering
          1. 10.8.1 Packet Filtering
          2. 10.8.2 Proxy Server
        9. 10.9 Summary
        10. 10.10 Exercises
        11. 10.11 Computer Simulation Project
    9. Part II: Advanced Concepts
      1. Chapter 11. Network Queues and Delay Analysis
        1. 11.1 Little’s Theorem
        2. 11.2 Birth-and-Death Process
        3. 11.3 Queueing Disciplines
        4. 11.4 Markovian FIFO Queueing Systems
          1. 11.4.1 M/M/1 Queueing Systems
          2. 11.4.2 Systems with Limited Queueing Space: M/M/ 1/b
          3. 11.4.3 M/M/a Queueing Systems
          4. 11.4.4 Models for Delay-Sensitive Traffic: M/M/a/a
          5. 11.4.5 M/M/∞ Queueing Systems
        5. 11.5 Non-Markovian and Self-Similar Models
          1. 11.5.1 Pollaczek-Khinchin Formula and M/G/ 1
          2. 11.5.2 M/D/ 1 Models
          3. 11.5.3 Self-Similarity and Batch-Arrival Models
        6. 11.6 Networks of Queues
          1. 11.6.1 Burke’s Theorem
          2. 11.6.2 Jackson’s Theorem
        7. 11.7 Summary
        8. 11.8 Exercises
        9. 11.9 Computer Simulation Project
      2. Chapter 12. Advanced Router and Switch Architectures
        1. 12.1 Overview of Router Architecture
        2. 12.2 Input Port Processor (IPP)
          1. 12.2.1 Packet Parser
          2. 12.2.2 Packet Partitioner
          3. 12.2.3 Input Buffer
          4. 12.2.4 Routing Table (IPv4 and IPv6)
          5. 12.2.5 Multicast Scheduler
          6. 12.2.6 Forwarding Table and Packet Encapsulator
        3. 12.3 Output Port Processor (OPP)
          1. 12.3.1 Output Buffer
          2. 12.3.2 Reassembler and Resequencer
          3. 12.3.3 Error Control
        4. 12.4 Central Controller
          1. 12.4.1 Contention Resolution Unit
          2. 12.4.2 Congestion Controller
        5. 12.5 Switch Fabric
          1. 12.5.1 Complexity of Switch Fabrics
          2. 12.5.2 Crossbar Switch Fabrics
          3. 12.5.3 Clos Switch Fabrics
          4. 12.5.4 Concentration and Expansion Switch Fabrics
          5. 12.5.5 Shared-Memory Switch Fabrics
          6. 12.5.6 Performance Improvement in Switch Fabrics
        6. 12.6 Multicasting Packets in Routers
          1. 12.6.1 Tree-Based Multicast Algorithm
          2. 12.6.2 Packet Recirculation Multicast Algorithm
        7. 12.7 Summary
        8. 12.8 Exercises
        9. 12.9 Computer Simulation Project
      3. Chapter 13. Quality of Service and Scheduling in Routers
        1. 13.1 Overview of Quality of Service (QoS)
        2. 13.2 Integrated Services QoS
          1. 13.2.1 Traffic Shaping
          2. 13.2.2 Admission Control
          3. 13.2.3 Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP)
        3. 13.3 Differentiated Services QoS
          1. 13.3.1 Per-Hop Behavior (PHB)
        4. 13.4 Resource Allocation
          1. 13.4.1 Management of Resources
          2. 13.4.2 Classification of Resource-Allocation Schemes
          3. 13.4.3 Fairness in Resource Allocation
        5. 13.5 Packet Scheduling
          1. 13.5.1 First-In, First-Out Scheduler
          2. 13.5.2 Priority Queueing Scheduler
          3. 13.5.3 Fair Queueing Scheduler
          4. 13.5.4 Weighted Fair Queueing Scheduler
          5. 13.5.5 Deficit Round-Robin Scheduler
          6. 13.5.6 Earliest Deadline First Scheduler
        6. 13.6 Summary
        7. 13.7 Exercises
        8. 13.8 Computer Simulation Project
      4. Chapter 14. Tunneling, VPNs, and MPLS Networks
        1. 14.1 Tunneling
          1. 14.1.1 Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)
          2. 14.1.2 IPv6 Tunneling and Dual-Stack Lite
        2. 14.2 Virtual Private Networks (VPNs)
          1. 14.2.1 Remote-Access VPN
          2. 14.2.2 Site-to-Site VPN
          3. 14.2.3 Security in VPNs
        3. 14.3 Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS)
          1. 14.3.1 Labels and Label Switch Routers (LSRs)
          2. 14.3.2 Label Binding and Switching
          3. 14.3.3 Routing in MPLS Domains
          4. 14.3.4 MPLS Packet Format
          5. 14.3.5 Multi-Tunnel Routing
          6. 14.3.6 Traffic Engineering
          7. 14.3.7 MPLS-Based VPNs
        4. 14.4 Summary
        5. 14.5 Exercises
        6. 14.6 Computer Simulation Project
      5. Chapter 15. All-Optical Networks, WDM, and GMPLS
        1. 15.1 Overview of Optical Networks
          1. 15.1.1 Fiber Optic Links
          2. 15.1.2 SONET/SDH Standards
          3. 15.1.3 Generalized MPLS (GMPLS) Protocol
          4. 15.1.4 Passive Optical Networks (PONs)
        2. 15.2 Basic Optical Networking Devices
          1. 15.2.1 Tunable Lasers
          2. 15.2.2 Optical Buffers or Delay Elements
          3. 15.2.3 Optical Amplifiers
          4. 15.2.4 Optical Filters
          5. 15.2.5 Wavelength-Division Multiplexer (WDM)
          6. 15.2.6 Optical Switches
        3. 15.3 Large-Scale Optical Switches
          1. 15.3.1 Crossbar Optical Switches
          2. 15.3.2 Spanke-Beneš Optical Switch
        4. 15.4 Structure of Optical Cross Connects (OXCs)
          1. 15.4.1 Structure of Wavelength Routing Nodes
        5. 15.5 Routing in All-Optical Networks
          1. 15.5.1 Wavelength Routing Versus Broadcasting
          2. 15.5.2 Blocking Estimation over Lightpaths
        6. 15.6 Wavelength Allocation in Networks
          1. 15.6.1 Wavelength Allocation Without Dependency
          2. 15.6.2 Wavelength Allocation with Dependency
        7. 15.7 Case Study: An All-Optical Switch
          1. 15.7.1 Self-Routing in SSN
          2. 15.7.2 Wavelength Assignment in SSN
        8. 15.8 Summary
        9. 15.9 Exercises
        10. 15.10 Computer Simulation Project
      6. Chapter 16. Cloud Computing and Network Virtualization
        1. 16.1 Cloud Computing and Data Centers
          1. 16.1.1 Platforms and APIs
          2. 16.1.2 Cloud Computing Service Models
          3. 16.1.3 Data Centers
          4. 16.1.4 Virtualization in Data Centers
        2. 16.2 Data Center Networks (DCNs)
          1. 16.2.1 Load Balancer
          2. 16.2.2 Traffic Engineering
          3. 16.2.3 DCN Architectures
          4. 16.2.4 Multicast Methods
        3. 16.3 Network Virtualization
          1. 16.3.1 Network Virtualization Components
        4. 16.4 Overlay Networks
        5. 16.5 Summary
        6. 16.6 Exercises
        7. 16.7 Computer Simulation Projects
      7. Chapter 17. Software-Defined Networking (SDN) and Beyond
        1. 17.1 Software-Defined Networking (SDN)
          1. 17.1.1 Separation of Control and Data Planes
          2. 17.1.2 Programmability of the Control Plane
          3. 17.1.3 Standardization of Application Programming Interfaces (APIs)
        2. 17.2 SDN-Based Network Model
          1. 17.2.1 Control Plane
          2. 17.2.2 Data Plane Interface (OpenFlow Protocol)
        3. 17.3 Small-Size SDN Architectures
          1. 17.3.1 Scalability of SDN
          2. 17.3.2 Multicasting in SDN-Based Networks
        4. 17.4 SDN Architectures for Clouds
          1. 17.4.1 Software-Defined Compute and Storage
          2. 17.4.2 Application Delivery in Data Centers by SDN
        5. 17.5 Network Functions Virtualization (NFV)
          1. 17.5.1 Abstract Model of NFV
          2. 17.5.2 Distributed NFV-Based Networks
          3. 17.5.3 Virtualized Services
        6. 17.6 Information-Centric Networking (ICN)
          1. 17.6.1 Named Objects
          2. 17.6.2 ICN Routing and Network Management
          3. 17.6.3 ICN Security
        7. 17.7 Network Emulators for Advanced Networks
          1. 17.7.1 Mininet
        8. 17.8 Summary
        9. 17.9 Exercises
        10. 17.10 Computer Simulation Projects
      8. Chapter 18. Voice over IP (VoIP) Signaling
        1. 18.1 Public Switched Telephone Networks (PSTN)
          1. 18.1.1 SS7 Network
          2. 18.1.2 Circuit-Switched Networks
        2. 18.2 Overview of Voice over IP (VoIP)
        3. 18.3 H.323 Protocol
          1. 18.3.1 Main Components of H.323 Protocol
          2. 18.3.2 H.323 Protocol Organization
          3. 18.3.3 RAS Signaling
          4. 18.3.4 Call Signaling
          5. 18.3.5 Control Signaling
          6. 18.3.6 Conference Calling with H.323 Protocol
        4. 18.4 Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)
          1. 18.4.1 Main Components of SIP
          2. 18.4.2 SIP Messages
          3. 18.4.3 SIP Protocol Organization
          4. 18.4.4 Registration Process
          5. 18.4.5 Call Establishment
          6. 18.4.6 Features and Extensions
        5. 18.5 Softswitch Methods and MGCP
        6. 18.6 VoIP and Multimedia Internetworking
          1. 18.6.1 SIP to H.323 Internetworking
          2. 18.6.2 SIP to PSTN Internetworking
          3. 18.6.3 Wireless Cellular Multimedia Internetworking
        7. 18.7 Summary
        8. 18.8 Exercises
        9. 18.9 Computer Simulation Projects
      9. Chapter 19. Media Exchange and Voice/Video Compression
        1. 19.1 Overview of Data Compression
        2. 19.2 Digital Voice and Compression
          1. 19.2.1 Sampling
          2. 19.2.2 Quantization and Encoding
        3. 19.3 Still Images and JPEG Compression
          1. 19.3.1 Raw-Image Sampling and DCT
          2. 19.3.2 Quantization
          3. 19.3.3 Encoding
        4. 19.4 Moving Images and MPEG Compression
          1. 19.4.1 MP3 and Streaming Audio
        5. 19.5 Compression Methods with Loss
          1. 19.5.1 Basics of Information Theory
          2. 19.5.2 Entropy of Information
          3. 19.5.3 Shannon’s Coding Theorem
          4. 19.5.4 Compression Ratio and Code Efficiency
        6. 19.6 Compression Methods without Loss
          1. 19.6.1 Run-Length Encoding
          2. 19.6.2 Huffman Encoding
          3. 19.6.3 Lempel-Ziv Encoding
        7. 19.7 Scanned Document Compression
        8. 19.8 Summary
        9. 19.9 Exercises
        10. 19.10 Computer Simulation Project
      10. Chapter 20. Distributed and Cloud-Based Multimedia Networking
        1. 20.1 Real-Time Media Exchange Protocols
          1. 20.1.1 Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP)
          2. 20.1.2 Analysis of Jitter in RTP Traffic
          3. 20.1.3 Real-Time Transport Control Protocol (RTCP)
          4. 20.1.4 Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP)
          5. 20.1.5 Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP)
          6. 20.1.6 HTTP-Based Streaming
        2. 20.2 Distributed Multimedia Networking
          1. 20.2.1 Content Distribution (Delivery) Networks (CDNs)
          2. 20.2.2 IP Television (IPTV) and VoD
          3. 20.2.3 Online Gaming
        3. 20.3 Cloud-Based Multimedia Networking
          1. 20.3.1 Distributed Media Mini-Clouds
          2. 20.3.2 Cloud-Based Interactive Voice Response (IVR)
        4. 20.4 Self-Similarity and Non-Markovian Streaming
          1. 20.4.1 Self-Similarity with Batch Arrival Models
        5. 20.5 Summary
        6. 20.6 Exercises
        7. 20.7 Computer Simulation Project
      11. Chapter 21. Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks
        1. 21.1 Overview of Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks
        2. 21.2 Routing in Ad-Hoc Networks
          1. 21.2.1 Classification of Routing Protocols
        3. 21.3 Routing Protocols for Ad-Hoc Networks
          1. 21.3.1 Destination-Sequenced Distance-Vector (DSDV) Protocol
          2. 21.3.2 Cluster-Head Gateway Switch Routing (CGSR) Protocol
          3. 21.3.3 Wireless Routing Protocol (WRP)
          4. 21.3.4 Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) Protocol
          5. 21.3.5 Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA)
          6. 21.3.6 Associativity-Based Routing (ABR) Protocol
          7. 21.3.7 Ad-Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Protocol
        4. 21.4 Security of Ad-Hoc Networks
          1. 21.4.1 Types of Attacks
          2. 21.4.2 Criteria for a Secure Routing Protocol
        5. 21.5 Summary
        6. 21.6 Exercises
        7. 21.7 Computer Simulation Projects
      12. Chapter 22. Wireless Sensor Networks
        1. 22.1 Sensor Networks and Protocol Structures
          1. 22.1.1 Clustering in Sensor Networks
          2. 22.1.2 Protocol Stack
          3. 22.1.3 Sensor Node Structure
        2. 22.2 Communication Energy Model
        3. 22.3 Clustering Protocols
          1. 22.3.1 Classification of Clustering Protocols
          2. 22.3.2 LEACH Clustering Protocol
          3. 22.3.3 DEEP Clustering Protocol
          4. 22.3.4 Reclustering
        4. 22.4 Routing Protocols
          1. 22.4.1 Intracluster Routing Protocols
          2. 22.4.2 Intercluster Routing Protocols
        5. 22.5 Other Related Technologies
          1. 22.5.1 ZigBee Technology and IEEE 802.15.4
        6. 22.6 Case Study: Simulation of a Sensor Network
          1. 22.6.1 Cluster-Head Constellation and Distribution of Load
          2. 22.6.2 Optimum Percentage of Cluster Heads
        7. 22.7 Summary
        8. 22.8 Exercises
        9. 22.9 Computer Simulation Projects
    10. Appendix A. Glossary of Acronyms
    11. Appendix B. RFCs
    12. Appendix C. Probabilities and Stochastic Processes
      1. C.1 Probability Theory
        1. C.1.1 Bernoulli and Binomial Sequential Laws
        2. C.1.2 Counting and Sampling Methods
      2. C.2 Random Variables
        1. C.2.1 Basic Functions
        2. C.2.2 Conditional Functions
        3. C.2.3 Popular Random Variables
        4. C.2.4 Expected Value and Variance
        5. C.2.5 A Function of a Random Variable
      3. C.3 Multiple Random Variables
        1. C.3.1 Basic Functions of Two Random Variables
        2. C.3.2 Two Independent Random Variables
      4. C.4 Stochastic (Random) Processes
        1. C.4.1 IID Random Process
        2. C.4.2 Brownian Motion Random Process
      5. C.5 Theory of Markov Chains
        1. C.5.1 Continuous-Time Markov Chains
    13. Appendix D. Erlang-B Blocking Probability Table
    14. Index
    15. Code Snippets