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Computational Linguistics

Book Description

In a globalized society, effective communication is critical, and study of language from a mathematical perspective can shed light on new ways in which to express meaning across cultures and nations. Computational Linguistics: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications explores language by dissecting the phonemic aspects of various communication systems in order to identify similarities and pitfalls in the expression of meaning. With applications in a variety of areas, from psycholinguistics and cognitive science to computer science and artificial intelligence, this multivolume reference work will be of use to researchers, professionals, and educators on the cutting edge of language acquisition and communication science.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Editorial Advisory Board and List of Reviewers
    1. Editor-in-Chief
    2. Associate Editors
    3. Editorial Advisory Board
  5. Preface
  6. Section 1: Fundamental Concepts and Theories
    1. Chapter 1: MLW and Bilingualism
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. EARLY BILINGUALISM AND ITS CONSEQUENCES
      4. THE LINGUISTIC REASONING MODEL USED
      5. CASE STUDIES
      6. IMPLICATIONS, DERIVATIONS AND APPLICATIONS
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ENDNOTES
      9. APPENDIX A: CONSTRUCTION OF E
      10. APPENDIX B: MLW AND CONSTRUCTION OF E
    2. Chapter 2: E-Learning Tools Applied in Teaching English at the University Level
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. CONTENT DESIGN AND THE HUMAN FACTOR IN ONLINE LANGUAGE COURSES
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 3: Writing from and with Community Knowledge
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORETICAL FRAMINGS
      4. METHODS
      5. FINDINGS: REPRESENTATIONS OF COMMUNITY LANDMARKS AND LANGUAGE PRACTICES
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    4. Chapter 4: Error or Strength?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. FINDINGS
      6. IMPLICATIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. APPENDIX
    5. Chapter 5: Teachers' Experience as Foreign Language Online Learners
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. APPENDIX
    6. Chapter 6: Producing Pathways to Proficient Pronunciation with Learner-Designed Pronunciation Stations
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. ORGANIZATION BACKGROUND
      3. SETTING THE STAGE
      4. CASE DESCRIPTION
      5. METHODOLOGY
      6. CHALLENGES
      7. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. LIMITATIONS AND CONSTRAINTS OF THE STUDY
      9. CONCLUSION AND ONGOING RESEARCH
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY WORDS AND DEFINITIONS
      12. APPENDIX 1: LEARNER-DESIGNED PRONUNCIATION STATION SURVEY
      13. APPENDIX 2: CREATING PRONUNCIATION STATIONS
    7. Chapter 7: Leadership and the Function of Discourse on International Political Economy
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE CONCEPT OF LEADERSHIP, ITS HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT AND TYPES
      4. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SEMIOTICS, LANGUAGE AND DISCOURSE
      5. THE FUNCTION OF LANGUAGE USE AND COMMUNICATIVE SKILLS ON LEADERSHIP
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 8: Linguistic Certainty in Managerial Announcements
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PRIOR LITERATURE RELATING LINGUISTIC UNCERTAINTY TO ECONOMIC RISK
      4. RELATIONS BETWEEN LINGUISTIC UNCERTAINTY IN MANAGEMENT FORECASTS AND MEASURES OF ECONOMIC RISK
      5. DIRECTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      10. ENDNOTES
    9. Chapter 9: Multilingual Summarization Approaches
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MAJOR MULTILINGUAL SUMMARIZATION APPROACHES
      4. SOME EXISTING MULTILINGUAL SUMMARIZERS
      5. MULTILINGUAL SUMMARIZATION TASK AT DUC AND TAC
      6. SUMMARY EVALUATION
      7. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      11. ENDNOTES
    10. Chapter 10: Multiword Expressions in NLP
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. DEFINITIONS
      4. 3. MWE CLASSES
      5. 4. PROBLEMS AND POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS
      6. 5. SOME MWE ENCODINGS AND RESOURCES
      7. 6. MWE AUTOMATIC DETECTION
      8. 7. MORE DETAIL ON VERB NOUN CONSTRUCTION AS A SPECIAL CASE OF MWE
      9. 8. EXPERIMENTS ON DETECTION OF LEXICAL FUNCTIONS IN VERB NOUN COMBINATIONS
      10. 8. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
    11. Chapter 11: Computational Intelligence Using Type-2 Fuzzy Logic Framework
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. BACKGROUND
      4. 3. TYPE-2 FUZZY SYSTEMS
      5. 4. HYBRID TYPE-2 FUZZY LOGIC SYSTEM
      6. 5. AN EVALUATION OF MULTIPLE ATTRIBUTES DECISION MAKING BASED ON RANKING VALUES OF STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN ORAL PRESENTATION USING INTERVAL TYPE-2 FUZZY APPROACH
      7. 6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. 7. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      12. APPENDIX: EXTERNAL LINKS
    12. Chapter 12: Demystifying Domain Specific Languages
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. 1. WHAT IS A DSL?
      5. 2. TYPES OF DSLs
      6. 3. DSL DEVELOPMENT TOOLS
      7. 4. INDUSTRY STANDARDS
      8. 5. DSL DEVELOPMENT PROCESS
      9. 6. SUMMARY
      10. REFERENCES
    13. Chapter 13: Semantics-Driven DSL Design
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE SEMANTICS-DRIVEN DESIGN PROCESS
      5. COMPOSITIONALITY AND LANGUAGE OPERATORS
      6. RELATED WORK
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      12. ENDNOTES
    14. Chapter 14: A Domain-Specific Language for High-Level Parallelization
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH-LEVEL PARALLELIZATION LANGUAGE
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  7. Section 2: Development and Design Methodologies
    1. Chapter 15: Formal Semantics for Metamodel-Based Domain Specific Languages
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. DSL CASE STUDY: PETRI NETS
      5. SEMANTIC FRAMEWORK FOR METAMODEL-BASED DSLS
      6. FORMAL ANALYSIS OF DSL SEMANTICS
      7. ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS OF THE ASM-BASED SEMANTIC APPROACH
      8. COMPARISON BETWEEN METAMODEL-BASED AND GRAMMAR-BASED DSLS
      9. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 16: Ontology-Supported Design of Domain-Specific Languages
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. PROBLEM FOUNDATION
      3. A GENERIC LANGUAGE FOR MODELING COMPLEX EVENTS
      4. CONTEXT SPECIFIC LANGUAGE-EXTENSIONS USING ONTOLOGIES
      5. IMPLEMENTATION AND ALTERNATIVES
      6. RELATED WORK
      7. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 17: Design Patterns and Design Principles for Internal Domain-Specific Languages
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND AND RELATED WORK
      4. DESIGN PRINCIPLES
      5. PATTERN STRUCTURE AND OVERVIEW
      6. FOUNDATION PATTERNS
      7. NOTATION PATTERNS
      8. EXPRESSION PATTERNS
      9. SUPPORT PATTERNS
      10. ABSTRACTION PATTERNS
      11. PATTERN UTILIZATION
      12. PATTERN LANGUAGE
      13. CONCLUSION
      14. REFERENCES
      15. ADDITIONAL READING
      16. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      17. ENDNOTES
    4. Chapter 18: A New Clustering Method with Fuzzy Approach Based on Takagi-Sugeno Model in Queuing Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. FUZZY QUEUING SYSTEM WITH INFINITE CAPACITY
      4. PROPOSED MODEL BASED ON FIRST-ORDER TSK FUZZY MODEL IN QUEUING SYSTEMS
      5. CASE STUDY
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    5. Chapter 19: An Exploration about Krashen's Input Hypothesis in the Computer Network Environment
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. COMPUTER AND NETWORK TECHNOLOGY APPLIED IN INPUT HYPOTHESIS
      4. 3. IMPLICATIONS ON COLLEGE ENGLISH TEACHING IN NON-ENGLISH SPEAKING COUNTRIES
      5. 4. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
    6. Chapter 20: From Existential Graphs to Conceptual Graphs
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. LANGUAGES AND DIAGRAMS FOR LOGIC
      3. 2. SEMANTIC NETWORKS
      4. 3. REASONING WITH GRAPHS
      5. 4. PEIRCE’S RULES OF INFERENCE
      6. 5. EXTENSIONS TO COMMON LOGIC
      7. 6. MAPPING LANGUAGE TO LOGIC
      8. 7. A MOVING PICTURE OF THOUGHT
      9. REFERENCES
    7. Chapter 21: Linguistic Multi-Attribute Decision Making with a Prioritization Relationship
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. 2-TUPLE LINGUISTIC REPRESENTATION MODEL AND TOWA OPERATORS
      4. 3. PTOWA OPERATOR FOR LINGUISTIC AGGREGATION WITH ATTRIBUTES OF PRIORITIZATION RELATIONSHIP
      5. 4. CONCLUDING REMARKS
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
    8. Chapter 22: Intelligent Business Decision-Making in Global Organizations via Fuzzy Reasoning Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE HUMAN MIND
      4. THINKING STAGES
      5. APPROXIMATE REASONING
      6. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS
      7. CRISP UNCERTAINTY MODELING
      8. FUZZY UNCERTAINTY MODELING
      9. FUZZY RULE BASE TECHNIQUE
      10. BUSINESS AND CULTURE
      11. UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE (UA) IN CULTURES
      12. POWER DISTANCE (PD)
      13. LONG-TERM (LT) ORIENTATION
      14. INDIVIDUALISM/COLLECTIVISM (IC)
      15. MASCULINITY/FEMININITY (M-F)
      16. FUZZY MODEL PRINCIPLES
      17. BUSINESS MODEL
      18. INTERNAL FACTORS: EXPERIENCE
      19. EXTERNAL FACTORS: SOCIO-CULTURAL CONDITIONS
      20. VARIOUS HYPOTHESES
      21. BASIC DATA AND FUZZY MEMBERSHIP FUNCTIONS
      22. CONCLUSION
      23. REFERENCES
      24. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 23: Language Independent Summarization Approaches
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. TOWARDS LANGUAGE-INDEPENDENT SUMMARIZATION
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. EVALUATION
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      12. ENDNOTES
    10. Chapter 24: Laying the Ground for Online English as a Second or Foreign Language (ESL/EFL) Composition Courses and University Internationalization
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. ORGANIZATION BACKGROUND
      3. SETTING THE STAGE: THE PARTNERSHIP
      4. CASE DESCRIPTION
      5. BACKGROUND
      6. CURRENT CHALLENGES FACING THE ORGANIZATION
      7. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      11. APPENDIX: HOLISTIC RATING CRITERIA FOR DIAGNOSTIC ESSAY
    11. Chapter 25: Two Distinct Sequence Learning Mechanisms for Syntax Acquisition and Word Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SEQUENCE LEARNING AND LANGUAGE
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    12. Chapter 26: Using Social Network-Mediated Bridging Activities to Develop Socio-Pragmatic Awareness in Elementary Korean
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SOCIAL NETWORKING IN L2 TEACHING
      4. BRIDGING ACTIVITIES AND LANGUAGE AWARENESS
      5. KOREAN HONORIFICS
      6. CONTEXT AND PARTICIPANTS
      7. ACTIVITY DESIGN
      8. FINDINGS
      9. LIMITATIONS AND IMPLICATIONS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ENDNOTES
      13. APPENDIX
    13. Chapter 27: About the Use of the DMs in CLIL Classes
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. STATE OF THE ART OF THE CLIL IN EUROPE (2005-2010)
      4. CLIL IN MIH PARTNER COUNTRIES
      5. CLIL PROS AND CONS
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ENDNOTES
    14. Chapter 28: Advanced Question-Answering and Discourse Semantics
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ADVANCED QUESTION-ANSWERING
      4. DISCOURSE SEMANTICS FOR ANSWERING QUESTIONS
      5. 5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS AND CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  8. Section 3: Tools and Technologies
    1. Chapter 29: Second Language Learners' Spoken Discourse
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND: AUTOMATIC SPEECH RECOGNITION (ASR)
      4. STATE-OF-THE-ART IN ASR-BASED COMPUTER ASSISTED LANGUAGE LEARNING (CALL) RESEARCH AND APPLICATIONS
      5. PRACTICE AND CORRECTIVE FEEDBACK IN L2 SPOKEN DISCOURSE: THE CONTRIBUTION OF ASR TECHNOLOGY
      6. ASR TECHNOLOGY AND ERROR DETECTION IN L2 PRONUNCIATION
      7. ASR TECHNOLOGY AND ERROR DETECTION IN L2 SYNTAX AND MORPHOLOGY
      8. ASR TECHNOLOGY AND CORRECTIVE FEEDBACK ON L2 SPOKEN DISCOURSE
      9. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      10. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. REFERENCES
      13. ADDITIONAL READING
      14. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 30: Building Awareness of Language Structures with Visual-Syntactic Text Formatting
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. BUILDING AWARENESS OF LANGUAGE STRUCTURES WITH VISUAL-SYNTACTIC TEXT FORMATTING
      3. LEARNING TO WRITE
      4. VISUAL-SYNTACTIC TEXT FORMATTING IN LITERACY CLASSROOM
      5. GENERAL DISCUSSION
      6. THE FUTURE: RESEARCHERS AND TEACHERS
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 31: Inviting Citizen Designers to Design Digital Interface for the Democratization of Web Online Environments
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTERFACE RE/DESIGN BY CITIZEN DESIGNERS AND DEMOCRATIZATION OF WEB ONLINE ENVIRONMENTS: AN INTRODUCTION
      3. WRITING CLASSROOMS AS CROSS-CULTURAL CONTACT ZONE: AN INTRODUCTION
      4. CURRENT DESIGN OF ONLINE ENVIRONMENTS
      5. DEVELOPING A CRITICAL PERSPECTIVE TO CURRENT INTERFACE DESIGN
      6. INTERFACE RE/DESIGN AND ITS CONTRIBUTION TO PERIPHERY WRITING STUDENTS
      7. USABILITY TESTS AND THEIR RESULTS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 32: Integrating Technology-Enhanced Student Self-Regulated Tasks into University Chinese Language Course
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. METHOD
      5. TASK DESIGN
      6. RESULTS
      7. IMPLICATIONS
      8. LIMITATIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
    5. Chapter 33: The Opinions and Attitudes of the Foreign Language Learners and Teachers Related to the Traditional and Digital Games
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND LITERATURE IN RELATION TO GAMES IN FL/SL LEARNING/TEACHING
      4. ISSUES OF TEACHERS-STUDENTS, MALE-FEMALE, AND AGE DIFFERENCES
      5. METHOD
      6. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      7. PEDAGOGICAL IMPLICATIONS AND SUGGESTION FOR FURTHER RESEARCH
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. APPENDIX A: SURVEY
      11. APPENDIX B: INTERVIEW
    6. Chapter 34: The Use of VLE for Monitoring Independent Language Learning in Large Cohort Provision
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. RESULTS AND ANALYSIS
      6. FUTURE DIRECTIONS FOR OUR PROJECT AND FUTURE RESEARCH
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTES
      10. APPENDIX
    7. Chapter 35: A Customizable Language Learning Support System Using Ontology-Driven Engine
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. ONTOLOGIES BASIS
      4. 3. A PERSONALIZED LEARNING SUPPORT SYSTEM
      5. 4. EXPERIMENT AND RESULTS
      6. 5. CONCLUSION AND FURTURE WORK
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
    8. Chapter 36: LingoBee Mobile App
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. LINGOBEE MOBILE APP AND REPOSITORY
      5. RESULTS
      6. RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. SUMMARY AND FUTURE WORK
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 37: Learning Languages via Social Networking Sites
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE STUDY
      4. RESULTS
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    10. Chapter 38: A Proposal to Study of Cross Language Information Retrieval (CLIR) System Users' Information Seeking Behavior
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. THEORY
      5. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
      6. METHODOLOGY
      7. DISCUSSION
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      12. ENDNOTES
    11. Chapter 39: LinkedVis an Information Visualisation Toolkit for RDF Data
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORK
      4. DESIGN
      5. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
      6. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ENDNOTES
    12. Chapter 40: Comparison between Internal and External DSLs via RubyTL and Gra2MoL
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RUBYTL: AN INTERNAL DSL FOR MODEL-TO-MODEL TRANSFORMATION
      4. COMPARISON OF RUBYTL AND GRA2MOL
      5. RELATED WORK
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    13. Chapter 41: Tools for the Automatic Generation of Ontology Documentation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TOOLS FOR THE DOCUMENTATION AND NAVIGATION OF ONTOLOGIES
      4. TESTS
      5. USABILITY ANALYSIS
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ENDNOTES
    14. Chapter 42: Software Language Engineering with XMF and XModeler
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SOFTWARE LANGUAGE ENGINEERING WITH XMF
      4. CASE STUDY
      5. TOOL ENGINEERING WITH XMODELER
      6. RESEARCH DIRECTIONS IN SOFTWARE LANGUAGE ENGINEERING
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      11. ENDNOTES
    15. Chapter 43: Statistical Machine Translation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. WORD ALIGNMENT AND WORD-BASED SMT
      4. 3. PHRASE-BASED SMT
      5. 4. INCORPORATING LINGUISTIC INFORMATION IN SMT MODELS
      6. 5. TREE-BASED SMT
      7. 6. DISCRIMINATIVE TRAINING FOR SMT
      8. 7. EVALUATION
      9. 8. STATE OF THE ART AND FURTHER RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. ENDNOTES
  9. Section 4: Utilization and Application
    1. Chapter 44: Parsing Bangla Grammar Using Context Free Grammar
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. RELATED WORKS
      5. PARSING BANGLA SENTENCES WITH CONTEXT FREE GRAMMAR
      6. SOLUTION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF DESIGNED BANGLA PARSER
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 45: Technology-Mediated Tasks in English for Specific Purposes (ESP)
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. APPROACH
      4. DESIGN
      5. PROCEDURE
      6. EVALUATION
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    3. Chapter 46: The French Digital Kitchen
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND: TASK-BASED LANGUAGE TEACHING
      4. DESIGNING THE FRENCH DIGITAL KITCHEN
      5. DESIGN PRINCIPLES
      6. RESEARCHING LEARNER USE OF THE KITCHEN
      7. FINDINGS: ILLUSTRATION OF THE TASK CYCLE: PRE-TASK, DURING-TASK AND POST-TASK
      8. DISCUSSION
      9. FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS
      10. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      11. REFERENCES
      12. APPENDIX: INTERACTIONAL TRANSCRIPTS
    4. Chapter 47: Classifying Consumer Comparison Opinions to Uncover Product Strengths and Weaknesses
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORK
      4. PROBLEM DESCRIPTION AND BASIC PROCESS
      5. COMPARISON RELATION RECOGNITION AND CATEGORIZATION
      6. EMPIRICAL EVALUATION
      7. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
    5. Chapter 48: Digital Narratives and the Genealogy of a Hybrid Genre
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. YOU’VE GOT… BLOG!
      3. A SHORT HISTORY OF BLOGS
      4. BLOG TAXONOMIES
      5. BLOG LINGUISTICS
      6. BLOGS AND GENRE ANALYSIS
      7. RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
      8. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
      9. DATA COLLECTION
      10. DATA ANALYSIS
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. REFERENCES
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 49: Designing for Computational Expression
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
      5. ROBOBUILDER
      6. METHODS
      7. DESIGN FEATURES
      8. DISCUSSION
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      12. ENDNOTES
    7. Chapter 50: A Formal Semantics of Kermeta
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MOTIVATION
      4. BACKGROUND
      5. STRUCTURAL LANGUAGE
      6. ACTION LANGUAGE
      7. PERSPECTIVES AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      13. ENDNOTES
      14. APPENDIX
    8. Chapter 51: Multi-Objective Genetic and Fuzzy Approaches in Rule Mining Problem of Knowledge Discovery in Databases
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MULTI-OBJECTIVE OPTIMIZATION PROBLEM
      4. RULE MINING PROBLEM OF KDD
      5. MULTI-OBJECTIVE GENETIC ALGORITHMS
      6. MULTI-OBJECTIVE GENETIC FUZZY RULE MINING
      7. APPLICATION AREAS OF MULTI-OBJECTIVE FUZZY-GENETIC APPROACHES
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTION
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 52: A Semantic Approach to LinkedIn Profiles
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LINGUISTIC THEORIES
      4. THE LINKEDIN CASE: A SEMANTIC APPROACH
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 53: Corpus Linguistics
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. REFERENCES
    11. Chapter 54: Content and Language Integrated Learning in Higher Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. SETTING THE STAGE
      4. CASE DESCRIPTION
      5. CURRENT CHALLENGES FACING THE ORGANIZATION
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      10. ENDNOTES
    12. Chapter 55: Telling Tales with Talking Texts
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. A SOCIOCOGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE OF LANGUAGE AND LITERACY
      4. WHAT WE KNOW ABOUT DIGITAL STORYTELLING
      5. EXPLORING THE IMPACT OF DIGITAL STORYTELLING
      6. THE DIGITAL STORYTELLER
      7. THE DIGITAL STORYTELLER’S PROCESS
      8. WRITING THE NEXT CHAPTER
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    13. Chapter 56: Game On! Teaching Foreign Language Online
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. ORGANIZATION BACKGROUND
      3. SETTING THE STAGE
      4. CASE DESCRIPTION
      5. CURRENT CHALLENGES FACING THE ORGANIZATION
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. EPILOGUE
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    14. Chapter 57: Representing Music as Work in Progress
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MUSIC REPRESENTATION WITH FORMAL GRAMMARS
      4. GRAMMAR RULES
      5. MUSIC SURFACE
      6. LEXICAL MAP
      7. THE GRAPHEME REPRESENTATION
      8. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS
      9. REFERENCES
  10. Section 5: Organizational and Social Implications
    1. Chapter 58: An Investigation of the Relationship of Motivation, Attitudes and Environment
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
    2. Chapter 59: Re/Designing Online Platforms by Citizen Designers and its Contribution to the Digital Writing and Research
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. CROSS-CULTURAL CONTACT ZONE SITUATION IN ONLINE PLATFORMS
      3. INTERFACE AND ITS DESIGN
      4. CROSS-CULTURAL COLLABORATION IN THE CROSS-CULTURAL DIGITAL CONTACT ZONE
      5. STUDENT AGENCY AND INVENTION IN CURRENT BLACKBOARD AND OTHER WEB TECHNOLOGIES DESIGNS
      6. EMPIRICAL STUDY TO ASSESS THE CURRENT DESIGN OF ONLINE ENVIRONMENTS
      7. INTERFACE DESIGN AND ITS CONTRIBUTION TO STUDENT AGENCY AND INVENTION
      8. STUDENT AGENCY AND INVENTION THROUGH DESIGN ACTIVITIES
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 60: Corporate Linguistic Rights through the Prism of Company Linguistic Identity Capital
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY
      4. LINGUISTIC RIGHTS
      5. LEGISLATION OF CORPORATE LINGUISTIC RIGHTS
      6. COMPANY LINGUISTIC IDENTITY CAPITAL
      7. COMPANY IDENTITY
      8. COMPANY LINGUISTIC IDENTITY
      9. COMPANY LINGUISTIC IDENTITY CAPITAL
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      12. REFERENCES
    4. Chapter 61: Building Collaborations between University Pre-Service Student-Teachers and English Language Students through a Socially Mediated Network
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. EXPERIENCES IN CREATING, COLLABORATING, AND CONTINUING A SOCIALLY MEDIATED NETWORK BASED ON COMPUTER SUPPORTED COOPERATIVE LEARNING (CSCL)
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 62: Transnational Preservice Teachers' Literate Lives and Writing Pedagogy in a Digital Era
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
      6. IMPLICATIONS AND CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ENDNOTES
    6. Chapter 63: Effective Teaching Practices for Academic Literacy Development of Young Immigrant Learners
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. PROBLEMS
      5. METHODS
      6. RESULTS
      7. EFFECTIVE PEDAGOGICAL STRATEGIES FOR MEETING THE ACADEMIC LITERACY NEEDS OF YOUNG IMMIGRANT LEARNERS
      8. DISCUSSION AND PEDAGOGICAL IMPLICATIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 64: Multimodality in Action
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SEMIOTIC POTENTIALS: MEDIATIONAL TOOLS AND MEDIATED ACTION IN CONSTRUCTION OF MULTIMODAL TEXTS
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. PORTRAITS OF PRACTICE: LOOKING AT ACTIVITY SYSTEMS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      9. APPENDIX
    8. Chapter 65: They Can't Fix What They Can't Hear
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. ORGANIZATION BACKGROUND
      3. SETTING THE STAGE
      4. CASE DESCRIPTION
      5. CHALLENGES AND SOLUTIONS
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      8. APPENDIX
    9. Chapter 66: How Experiences with Words Supply All the Tools in the Toddler's Word-Learning Toolbox
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. WHAT ARE THE LEARNING MECHANISMS REQUIRED FOR THE EXPERIENCE-DRIVEN APPROACH?
      4. ROUTE 1: ATTENTION TO RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN NEW WORDS AND THEIR REFERENTS
      5. ROUTE 2: ATTENTION TO RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN CUES, KNOWN WORDS, AND THEIR REFERENTS
      6. ROUTE 3: ATTENTION TO HOW KNOWN WORDS ARE USED
      7. PREDICTIONS OF THE EXPERIENCE-DRIVEN MODEL OF THE EVOLUTION OF WORD-LEARNING STRATEGIES
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      11. ENDNOTES
    10. Chapter 67: Effects of a Technology-Enriched, Task-Based Language Teaching Curriculum on Chinese Elementary Students' Achievement in English as a Foreign Language
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. METHODS
      5. THE INTERVENTION: THE TALENT-ENGLISH CURRICULUM
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. APPENDIX
    11. Chapter 68: Language Processing in the Human Brain of Literate and Illiterate Subjects
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    12. Chapter 69: Abstraction of Computer Language Patterns
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MOTIVATION
      4. BACKGROUND
      5. PROBLEM STATEMENT
      6. COMPUTER LANGUAGE PATTERNS
      7. EXAMPLE-DRIVEN DSL NOTATION SPECIFICATION
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      13. ENDNOTES
    13. Chapter 70: Towards a Bio-Inspired Theoretical Linguistics to Model Man-Machine Communication
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BIOLOGICAL MODELS IN NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING
      4. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY IN NLP VIA DNA COMPUTING
      5. BIOLOGICAL MEMBRANES IN NLP VIA MEMBRANE COMPUTING
      6. BEHAVIOUR OF CELL POPULATIONS IN NLP VIA NEPS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
  11. Section 6: Emerging Trends
    1. Chapter 71: Towards Dynamic Semantics for Synthesizing Interpreted DSMLs
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. DYNAMIC SEMANTICS FOR SYNTHESIZING I-DSML MODEL INSTANCES
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      10. ENDNOTES
    2. Chapter 72: A Generic Approach for the Semantic Annotation of Conceptual Models Using a Service-Oriented Architecture
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. FOUNDATIONS
      4. SEMANTIC ANNOTATION ARCHITECTURE
      5. IMPLEMENTATION USING ADOXX AND PROTÉGÉ
      6. CONCLUSION AND OUTLOOK
      7. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTES
    3. Chapter 73: Kansei Evaluation of Product Recommendation Based on a Partial Comparison Process
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. A PARTIAL COMPARISON BASED EVALUATION PROCESS
      4. AGGREGATION MODEL BASED ON ONTOLOGICAL STRUCTURE
      5. A RECOMMENDATION SYSTEM FOR JAPANESE TRADITIONAL CRAFTS WITH USING PARTIAL COMPARISON DATA
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ENDNOTES
    4. Chapter 74: Data Hiding for Text and Binary Files
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TEXT DATA HIDING METHODS
      4. BINARY DATA HIDING METHODS
      5. SUMMARY
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 75: Semantic Role Labeling Approach for Evaluation of Text Coherence
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. CONTEXTUAL PATTERN IDENTIFICATION
      4. 3. COHERENCE EVALUATION ALGORITHM
      5. 4. CASE STUDY
      6. 5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      7. 6. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    6. Chapter 76: Dependency Parsing in Bangla
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. PANINIAN GRAMMAR
      4. 3. THE PARSING APPROACH
      5. 4. EVALUATION
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. APPENDIX: DEPENDENCY TAG-SET
    7. Chapter 77: Integrating Chinese Community into Canadian Society
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. SETTING THE STAGE
      4. CASE DESCRIPTION
      5. DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. CURRENT CHALLENGES
      7. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 78: A Preliminary Study of Neuro-Linguistic Programming in Nonprofit Organizations
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE CONTEMPORARY NONPROFIT CHALLENGE
      4. NEURO-LINGUISTIC PROGRAMMING (NLP)
      5. THE THEORETICAL ROOTS OF NLP-BASED LEARNING FOR KNOWLEDGE CREATION
      6. METHOD
      7. MAIN FINDINGS
      8. LIMITATIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 79: Technology and Second Language Writing
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. FRAMEWORKS FOR TECHNOLOGY AND SECOND LANGUAGE WRITING
      4. RESEARCH OVERVIEW
      5. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
    10. Chapter 80: “Evaluator”
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. STATE OF THE ART
      4. “EVALUATOR”: MODULES AND STRUCTURE
      5. “EVALUATOR”: LEXICAL, SYNTACTIC, AND SEMANTIC LEVELS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. Chapter 81: Words that Fascinate the Listener
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. EVALUATION DATABASE
      4. AUTOMATIC CLASSIFICATION EXPERIMENTS
      5. FEATURE RELEVANCE
      6. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
      7. REFERENCES
    12. Chapter 82: Ontology-Based Multimodal Language Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. A MODEL FOR ONTOLOGY BASED LANGUAGE LEARNING
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    13. Chapter 83: Usage-Based Instruction
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. SETTING THE STAGE: INSTRUCTIONAL CONTEXT
      4. CASE DESCRIPTION
      5. IN SEARCH OF INSTRUCTIONAL EFFICIENCY: COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE IN SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION
      6. USAGE-BASED INSTRUCTION: DESCRIPTION OF THE APPROACH
      7. INSTRUCTIONAL SEQUENCE
      8. SOME PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF THE PILOT STUDY
      9. CURRENT CHALLENGES FACING THE ORGANIZATION
      10. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      11. REFERENCES
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    14. Chapter 84: Learning Words by Imitating
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORK
      4. SETUP
      5. EXPERIMENTS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
    15. Chapter 85: Learning Words from Experience
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. WHAT VARIES IN CHILDREN’S LEXICAL DEVELOPMENT?
      4. HOW DOES INPUT SHAPE INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN CHILDREN’S LEXICAL DEVELOPMENT?
      5. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING