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Computational Intelligence: Synergies of Fuzzy Logic, Neural Networks and Evolutionary Computing by Hojjat Adeli, Nazmul Siddique

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4

Neural Networks

4.1 Introduction

The study of the human brain is hundreds of years old. Advances in brain research promise an initial understanding of the mechanism of cognitive process in the brain. This shows that the brain stores information as patterns. Some of these patterns are very complicated, for example the ability to recognize individual faces from different angles. This process of storing information as patterns, utilizing those patterns, and then solving problems encompasses a new field in computing, which does not utilize traditional programming. This involves the creation of massively parallel networks and the training of those networks to solve specific tasks.

The exact workings of the human brain are still a mystery. Yet, some aspects of this amazing processor are known. In particular, the most basic element of the human brain is a specific type of cell, which provides us with our abilities to remember, think and apply previous experiences to our every action. These cells, all approximately 100 billion of them, are known as neurons. Each of these neurons can connect with up to 200, 000 other neurons, although 1, 000 to 10, 000 is typical. The individual neurons convey information via a host of electrochemical pathways. Together, these neurons and their connections form a process which is not binary, not stable and not synchronous. This building block of the human brain has a few general capabilities. Basically, a biological neuron receives inputs from other ...

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