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CompTIA® A+® Training Kit (Exam 220-801 and Exam 220-802)

Book Description

Ace your preparation for the CompTIA A+ Exams 220-801 and 220-802 with this 2-in-1 Training Kit from Microsoft Press. Work at your own pace through a series of lessons and practical exercises, and then assess your computing technology skills with the online practice test—featuring multiple, customizable testing options to meet your specific needs.

Your Training Kit includes:

  • In-depth coverage of all 10 CompTIA domains in Exams 220-801 and 220-802

  • Instructive case studies to enhance your performance on the job

  • Online practice tests to help you assess your exam readiness

  • The entire Training Kit in searchable eBook format

  • Assess your skills with practice tests. You can work through hundreds of questions using multiple testing modes to meet your specific learning needs. You get detailed explanations for right and wrong answers—including a customized learning path that describes how and where to focus your studies.

    For customers who purchase an ebook version of this title, instructions for downloading the CD files can be found in the ebook.

    Table of Contents

    1. CompTIA® A+® Training Kit (Exam 220-801 and Exam 220-802)
    2. Dedication
    3. A Note Regarding Supplemental Files
    4. Introduction
      1. About the Exams
      2. Prerequisites
      3. Performance Based Testing
      4. Objective Changes
      5. Study Tips
      6. System Requirements
        1. Hardware Requirements for Virtualization
        2. Software Requirements
      7. Using the Companion CD
        1. How to Install the Practice Tests
        2. How to Use the Practice Tests
        3. How to Uninstall the Practice Tests
      8. Acknowledgments
      9. Support & Feedback
      10. Errata & Book Support
      11. We Want to Hear from You
      12. Stay in Touch
      13. Preparing for the Exam
    5. 1. Introduction to Computers
      1. Computing Basics
      2. Numbering Systems
        1. Binary
        2. Hexadecimal
        3. Bits vs. Bytes
        4. Kilo, Mega, Giga, and Tera
      3. Cases and Cooling
        1. Motherboards
        2. Case Fans
          1. Common Problems with Fans
          2. Replacing a Fan
        3. Cleaning Cases
        4. Notification Switch for Security
      4. Power Supplies
        1. AC vs. DC
        2. Wattage Power Ratings
        3. Rails
        4. Power Supply Connections
        5. Cable Keying
        6. ATX vs. Micro-ATX Power Supplies
        7. Replacing a Power Supply
        8. Protecting Systems from Power Problems
          1. Surge Suppressors
          2. Battery Backup
      5. Safety Issues
        1. Electrical Safety
        2. Equipment and Self-Grounding
        3. ESD
        4. MSDS
        5. Compliance with Regulations
        6. Fire Safety
        7. Lifting
      6. Tools
        1. Screwdrivers
        2. Extension Magnet
        3. Compressed Air and Compressors
        4. Computer Vacuum
        5. Multimeter
        6. Power Supply Tester
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Chapter Review
      9. Answers
    6. 2. Understanding Motherboards and BIOS
      1. Motherboards
        1. Identifying Motherboard Components
        2. Sizes
        3. Busses
        4. Bus Speeds
        5. Expansion Slots
          1. PCI
          2. AGP
          3. PCI-X
          4. PCIe
          5. MiniPCI
          6. CNR
        6. CPU Chipsets
          1. North Bridge and South Bridge
          2. Combining North Bridge onto the CPU
        7. Jumpers
        8. Front Panel Connectors
        9. Viewing an Actual Motherboard
      2. BIOS
        1. BIOS vs. CMOS
        2. BIOS Vendors
        3. Accessing the BIOS Application
        4. BIOS Component Information
        5. BIOS Configuration
          1. Time and Date
          2. Boot Sequence
          3. Enabling and Disabling Devices
          4. Virtualization Support
          5. Clock Speeds
          6. Security
        6. POST and Other Diagnostics
        7. POST Cards
        8. Monitoring
        9. Flashing the BIOS
        10. UEFI
      3. Troubleshooting
      4. Chapter Summary
      5. Chapter Review
      6. Answers
    7. 3. Understanding RAM and CPUs
      1. RAM
        1. Double Data Rate SDRAM
        2. DIMMs and SODIMMs
        3. Single Channel, Dual Channel, and Triple Channel
          1. Single Channel vs. Dual Channel
          2. Triple Channel
        4. Single Sided vs. Double Sided
        5. RAM Compatibility and Speed
          1. Speeds
          2. Compatibility within Banks
          3. Shopping for RAM
        6. Parity and ECC
        7. Rambus and RDRAM
      2. CPUs
        1. 32-bit vs. 64-bit
        2. CPU Cores
        3. Hyper-Threading
        4. CPU Cache
          1. CPU Cache Types
          2. CPU Cache Size
        5. Speeds
        6. Virtualization Support
        7. Integrated GPU
        8. CPU Versions
        9. CPU Socket Types
          1. Zero Insertion Force
          2. PGA vs. LGA
          3. Intel CPU Sockets
          4. AMD CPU Sockets
          5. Comparing Names
        10. Cooling
          1. Heat Sinks, Fans, and Thermal Paste
          2. Liquid Cooling
      3. Troubleshooting
        1. Common Symptoms
        2. Tools
          1. Windows Memory Diagnostics
          2. CPU-Z
      4. Chapter Summary
      5. Chapter Review
      6. Answers
    8. 4. Comparing Storage Devices
      1. Hard Drives
        1. Hard Drive Characteristics
        2. Hard Drive Speeds
      2. IDE/EIDE/PATA Drives
        1. PATA Speeds
        2. PATA Connectors and Cables
        3. Master and Slave Configuration
        4. Cable Select
        5. PATA Power
      3. SATA
        1. Serial to Parallel to Serial
        2. SATA Generations
        3. SATA and SSD
        4. SATA Data Connectors and Cables
        5. SATA Power Connectors and Cables
        6. Hot-Swappable
      4. SCSI
        1. SCSI Interfaces
        2. SCSI IDs
        3. Daisy-Chaining and Termination
        4. Serial Attached SCSI
      5. External Connections Types
        1. USB
        2. FireWire
        3. eSATA
        4. eSATAp
        5. Ethernet
        6. External Enclosures
      6. Solid State Drives
      7. Optical Discs and Drives
        1. Combo Drives and Burners
        2. Speeds
        3. Installing Optical Drives
        4. Removing Discs Without Power
      8. Tape Drives
      9. Floppy Drives
        1. Recovering Data
        2. Floppy Connections
      10. RAID
        1. RAID-0
        2. RAID-1
        3. RAID-5
        4. RAID 10
        5. RAID and Backups
        6. Calculating Usable Storage Space in RAID
        7. RAID Summary
      11. Common Symptoms
        1. Loud Clicking Noise
        2. Read/Write Failure
        3. Slow Performance
        4. Failure to Boot or Operating System Not Found
        5. RAID Not Found
        6. RAID Stops Working
        7. BSOD
      12. Chapter Summary
      13. Chapter Review
      14. Answers
    9. 5. Exploring Peripherals and Expansion Cards
      1. Peripherals and Device Drivers
        1. Device Drivers
        2. Install Device Drivers before Installing Device
        3. Plug and Play
      2. USB
        1. USB 1.1 and 2.0 Connections
        2. USB 3.0 Connections
        3. USB Controller
        4. USB Cable Lengths
        5. Dirty Bit
      3. FireWire
        1. FireWire Cables and Connections
        2. FireWire S1600 and S3200
      4. Miscellaneous Connections
        1. PS/2
        2. Mini-DIN
        3. Parallel
        4. Serial
      5. Sound
        1. Common Sound Systems
        2. Connecting Sound Systems
      6. Input Devices
        1. Keyboard
        2. Mice
        3. Microphone
        4. Scanners and Digitizers
        5. Barcode Reader
        6. KVM
        7. Biometric Devices
        8. Joysticks
        9. Game Pads
      7. Multimedia Devices
        1. Digital Cameras
        2. Camcorder
        3. Webcam
        4. MIDI-Enabled Devices
      8. Expansion Cards
        1. Expansion Card Types
        2. Checklist
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Chapter Review
      11. Answers
    10. 6. Exploring Video and Display Devices
      1. Display Devices
        1. Common Terms
        2. CRT
        3. LCD
          1. LCD Backlights
          2. LCD Refresh Rate and Native Resolution
        4. LED
        5. Plasma
        6. Projector
        7. OLED
        8. Using Multiple Displays
        9. Common Resolutions
        10. Configuring the Resolution
        11. Touch Screens
        12. Privacy and Anti-Glare Filters
      2. Interfaces, Connections, and Cables
        1. Analog vs. Digital
        2. VGA
        3. DVI
        4. HDMI
        5. Comparing VGA and HDMI
        6. Adapters
        7. Other Connections
          1. DisplayPort
          2. Composite and RCA
          3. RGB
          4. Component
          5. S-Video
        8. Video Interface Summary
      3. Video Cards and Drivers
        1. Video Memory
        2. Drivers
        3. Video Card Ports
      4. Safety Concerns
        1. Working with CRTs
        2. Disposal of CRTs
        3. Cleaning Supplies
      5. Troubleshooting Video and Display Issues
        1. Dxdiag
        2. VGA Mode
        3. No Image on Screen
        4. Dim Image
        5. Flickering Image
        6. Discoloration (Degaussing)
        7. Overheat Shutdown
        8. Dead Pixels
        9. Artifacts and Distorted Images
        10. Color Patterns Incorrect
        11. BSOD
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Chapter Review
      8. Answers
    11. 7. Exploring Printers
      1. Printing Basics
        1. Terminology
        2. Paper
        3. Common Maintenance Tools
      2. Laser Printers
        1. Laser Components
        2. Laser Imaging Process
          1. Processing
          2. Charging
          3. Exposing
          4. Developing
          5. Transferring
          6. Fusing
          7. Cleaning
          8. What Comes First?
          9. Color Laser Printers
        3. Laser Printer Maintenance
          1. Safety
          2. Replacing Toner
          3. Applying Maintenance Kit
          4. Cleaning
          5. Calibration
          6. Laser Component Replacement
      3. Inkjet Printers
        1. Inkjet Ink Cartridges
        2. Refilling Inkjet Cartridges
        3. Inkjet Printing Process
          1. Thermal (or Bubble Jet) Printing
          2. Piezoelectric Printing
        4. Inkjet Print Heads
        5. Inkjet Calibration
        6. Inkjet Printer Maintenance
      4. Impact Printers
        1. Creating Characters with a Dot Matrix
        2. Near-Letter Quality
        3. Impact Printer Maintenance
      5. Thermal Printers
      6. Installing and Configuring Printers
        1. Device Drivers
        2. Required Permissions
        3. Wired Connections
        4. Wireless Connections
        5. Printer Sharing
        6. Adding a Network Printer
        7. Print Management
        8. Printer Webpages
        9. Print Spooler
      7. Troubleshooting Printers
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Chapter Review
      10. Answers
    12. 8. Working with Laptops
      1. Common Laptop Features
        1. Special Function Keys
          1. Dual Displays
          2. Wireless (On/Off)
          3. Volume Settings
          4. Screen Brightness
          5. Bluetooth (On/Off)
          6. Keyboard Backlight
          7. Lock and F-Lock Keys
          8. Num Lock Indicator
          9. Default Usage of Fn Key
        2. Troubleshooting Keyboard Issues
          1. Num Lock Indicator Lights
          2. Sticking Keys
        3. Docking Station vs. Port Replicator
        4. Hardware Profiles
        5. Locks
      2. Laptop Displays
        1. Display Types
          1. Backlight
          2. Inverter
          3. LCD
          4. LED
          5. OLED
          6. Plasma
        2. Wi-Fi Antenna
        3. Troubleshooting Display Issues
          1. No Display
          2. Dim Display
          3. Flickering Display
          4. Cannot Display to External Monitor
          5. Ghost Cursor
      3. Installing and Configuring Laptop Hardware
        1. Disassembling Processes
          1. Turn System Off
          2. Document and Label Cable and Screw Locations
          3. Organize Parts
          4. Refer to Manufacturer Documentation
          5. Use Appropriate Hand Tools
        2. Hardware and Device Replacement
          1. Plastics
          2. Battery
          3. Hard Drive (2.5 vs. 3.5)
          4. Flash
          5. Memory
          6. Optical Drive
          7. Mini-PCIe
          8. Wireless Card
          9. Keyboard
          10. Touchpad
          11. Speaker
          12. Screen
          13. DC Jack
          14. System
          15. CPU
        3. Expansion Options
          1. PCMCIA
          2. ExpressCards
      4. Conserving Power
        1. ACPI
        2. Sleep/Suspend/Standby (G1 S3)
        3. Hibernate (G1 S4)
        4. Hybrid Sleep
        5. Power Options
        6. Power Plans
        7. Troubleshooting Power Issues
          1. No Power
          2. Battery Not Charging
          3. Stay Cool
      5. Troubleshooting Connectivity Issues
        1. Intermittent Wireless
        2. No Wireless Connectivity
        3. No Bluetooth Connectivity
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Chapter Review
      8. Answers
    13. 9. Understanding Mobile Devices
      1. Tablets vs. Laptops
        1. Accelerometers and Gyroscopes
        2. GPS
        3. Geotracking
        4. Screen Calibration
      2. Comparing Operating Systems
        1. Open Source vs. Closed Source
        2. iOS
        3. Android
        4. Windows
        5. Application Sources
      3. Connectivity
        1. RF (Wireless)
        2. Cellular
        3. Mobile Hotspot
        4. Bluetooth
        5. Infrared
      4. Email Configuration
        1. Configuring Settings
        2. Email Port Settings
      5. Using Mobile Devices
        1. Synchronizing Data
        2. Installing Synchronization Applications
        3. Connection Types for Synchronization
      6. Securing Mobile Devices
        1. Passcode Locks
        2. Failed Logon Attempts Restrictions
        3. Remote Wipe
        4. Locator Applications
        5. Remote Backup Applications
        6. Antivirus Software
        7. Patching/Operating System Updates
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Chapter Review
      9. Answers
    14. 10. Working with Customers
      1. Interacting with Customers
        1. Communication and Professionalism
          1. Use Proper Language
          2. Maintain a Positive Attitude
          3. Listen and Don’t Interrupt Customers
          4. Communicate Status
          5. Dealing with Difficult Customers or Situations
          6. Be Culturally Sensitive
          7. Respect Customer Materials
          8. Be Professional
        2. Responding to Prohibited Content/Activity
          1. First Response
          2. Protecting Evidence and Chain of Custody
      2. Troubleshooting Theory
        1. Identify the Problem
        2. Establish a Theory of Probable Cause
        3. Test the Theory to Determine Cause
        4. Establish a Plan of Action and Implement It
        5. Verify Full System Functionality
        6. Document Findings, Actions, and Outcomes
      3. Identifying Customer Needs
        1. Standard Thick Client
        2. Thin Client
        3. Gaming PC
        4. Virtualization Workstation
          1. Understanding Virtualization
          2. Hypervisor
          3. Purpose
          4. Hardware Requirements
        5. Home Theater PC
        6. Home Server PC
        7. Graphic/CAD/CAM Design Workstation
        8. Audio/Video Editing Workstation
        9. Environmental Impacts
      4. Chapter Summary
      5. Chapter Review
      6. Answers
    15. 11. Introducing Windows Operating Systems
      1. An Overview of Windows Operating Systems
        1. Comparing 32-Bit and 64-Bit Capabilities
          1. x86 vs. x64
          2. Increased Memory
          3. Missing RAM
      2. Windows 7 Editions
        1. Windows 7 System Requirements
        2. Windows 7 System Limits
      3. Windows XP Editions
        1. Windows XP 64-Bit
        2. Windows XP System Requirements
        3. Windows XP System Limits
      4. Windows Vista Editions
        1. Windows Vista System Requirements
        2. Windows Vista System Limits
      5. Windows Features
        1. Common Features
        2. Windows 7 Features
        3. Windows Vista Features
        4. Windows Aero
        5. User Account Control
          1. Understanding the Risk Without UAC
          2. Account Separation with UAC
        6. Windows XP Mode
        7. Start Bar Layout
        8. Windows Sidebar and Gadgets
        9. Compatibility Mode
      6. Examining Directory Structures in Windows
        1. Windows Explorer
        2. Common File Locations
        3. Boot vs. System Partition
        4. Profile Locations
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Chapter Review
      9. Answers
    16. 12. Installing and Updating Windows Operating Systems
      1. Installing and Upgrading Windows
        1. Clean Install
        2. Dual-Boot System
        3. Upgrade
        4. File Systems
      2. Methods of Installation
        1. Installation Media—CD or DVD
        2. Remote Network Installation
        3. Image Deployment
          1. PXE Clients
          2. Installing from a USB
        4. Sysprep
        5. Unattended Installation with Answer Files
        6. Recovery Disc or Factory Recovery Partition
      3. Upgrade Paths to Windows 7
        1. Windows Anytime Upgrade
        2. Repair Installation
        3. Windows 7 Upgrade Advisor
        4. Compatibility Tools
      4. Installing Windows 7
        1. Selecting Time/Date/Region/Language Settings
        2. Choosing the Install Method
        3. Drive Options
        4. System Reserved Partition
        5. Performing a Clean Install
        6. Activation
      5. Upgrading Windows Vista
      6. Migrating User Data
        1. Windows Easy Transfer
        2. User State Migration Tool
        3. File And Settings Transfer Wizard
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Chapter Review
      9. Answers
    17. 13. Using Windows Operating Systems
      1. Windows Basics
        1. Mouse Actions
        2. Windows Actions
        3. Libraries
      2. Task Manager
        1. Starting Task Manager
          1. Applications
          2. Processes
          3. Services
          4. Performance
          5. Networking
          6. Users
      3. Microsoft Management Console
      4. Control Panel
        1. Views
        2. Applets
        3. Common Applets
          1. Folder Options
            1. Understanding Extensions
            2. Showing Hidden Files and Folders and Extensions
            3. Showing Hidden files and Extensions on Windows Vista and Windows 7
            4. Showing Hidden files and Extensions on Windows XP
          2. Internet Options
            1. General Tab
            2. Security Tab
            3. Privacy Tab
            4. Content Tab
            5. Connections Tab
            6. Programs Tab
            7. Advanced Tab
          3. Default Programs
        4. Applets Unique to Windows XP
        5. Applets Unique to Windows Vista
        6. Applets Unique to Windows 7
        7. Other Applets
      5. Administrative Tools
        1. Computer Management
        2. Task Scheduler
        3. Performance
        4. Services
        5. Component Services
        6. Data Sources
        7. Other Administrative Tools
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Chapter Review
      8. Answers
    18. 14. Using the Command Prompt
      1. Starting the Command Prompt
        1. Access Denied Errors
        2. Starting with Administrative Privileges
        3. Command Prompt vs. Cmd
      2. Understanding Paths
        1. Default Paths
        2. Commands, Programs, and Batch Files
        3. Understanding Extensions
      3. Command Prompt Basics
        1. Case Sensitivity
        2. Understanding Switches
        3. Getting Help
        4. Using Quotes with Spaces
        5. Beware of Typos
        6. Recalling Commands
        7. Copying and Pasting
        8. Saving the Output in a Text File
        9. Understanding Variables
        10. Using Wildcards
      4. File Commands
        1. Attrib
        2. Dir
        3. Md
        4. CD
        5. Changing Drives
        6. Rd
        7. Del
        8. Copy
        9. Xcopy
        10. Robocopy
        11. Sfc
        12. Using Notepad to Create a Batch File
      5. Operating System Commands
      6. Disk Commands
      7. Networking Commands
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Chapter Review
      10. Answers
    19. 15. Configuring Windows Operating Systems
      1. Using System Configuration
        1. General
        2. Boot
        3. Services
        4. Startup
        5. Tools
      2. Using the System Applet
        1. Remote Settings
        2. System Protection and System Restore
        3. Shadow Copy (Previous Versions)
        4. Advanced System Settings
      3. Understanding Paging
        1. Paging Overview
        2. 64-KB Pages
        3. Excessive Paging
        4. Performance (Virtual Memory) Settings
      4. Working with Device Manager
        1. Starting the Device Manager
        2. Viewing Device Manager
        3. Updating Drivers
        4. Disabling and Uninstalling
        5. Rolling Back Drivers
        6. Signed Drivers
        7. Sigverif
      5. Windows Update
        1. Service Packs
        2. Automatically Installing Updates
        3. Patch Management
      6. Backup Capabilities
        1. Windows XP
        2. Windows Vista
        3. Windows 7
      7. Program Compatibility
      8. Modifying Documents Location
      9. ReadyBoost
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Chapter Review
      12. Answers
    20. 16. Understanding Disks and File Systems
      1. Understanding Disks, Partitions and Volumes
        1. MBR Partitions
        2. GPT Partitions
        3. Recovery Partition
        4. Basic Disks vs. Dynamic Disks
          1. Dynamic Disks and RAID
          2. Striped Volumes (RAID-0)
          3. Mirrored Volumes (RAID-1)
          4. Spanned Volumes
      2. File Systems
        1. Understanding Clusters
          1. Fragmentation
          2. Bad Sectors
        2. FAT16 and FAT32
        3. NTFS
        4. CDFS
      3. Disk Management Tools
        1. Disk Management
          1. Identifying Disk Status
          2. Disk Management on All Windows-Based Systems
          3. Disk Management on Windows Vista and Windows 7
          4. Initializing a Disk
          5. Formatting a Volume or Array
          6. Shrink a Volume
          7. Extend a Volume
          8. Mount a Volume
          9. Converting to Dynamic
          10. Dynamic Disk Actions
        2. Diskpart
        3. Chkdsk and Check Disk
        4. Convert
        5. Disk Defragmenter and Defrag
        6. Disk Cleanup
        7. Fdisk
      4. Shares
        1. Administrative Shares
        2. Local Shares
        3. Offline Files
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Chapter Review
      7. Answers
    21. 17. Troubleshooting Windows Operating Systems
      1. Understanding the Boot Process
        1. Power On Self-Test (POST)
        2. Look For Master Boot Record and Boot Sector
        3. Load System Boot Files on Windows XP
        4. Load Boot Manager on Windows Vista and Windows 7
      2. Understanding the Registry
        1. Starting the Registry Editor
        2. Hives, Keys, and Values
        3. Back Up the Registry
      3. Advanced Boot Options
        1. Safe Modes
        2. Enable Boot Logging
        3. Enable Low-Resolution Video
        4. Last Known Good Configuration
          1. Control Sets in the Registry
          2. Using Last Known Good Configuration
        5. Disable Driver Signature Enforcement
        6. Disable Automatic Restart on System Failure
        7. Other Advanced Boot Options
        8. Repair Your Computer
        9. Recovery Console and Windows RE Command Prompt
          1. Install the Recovery Console in Windows XP
          2. Using the Recovery Console on Windows XP
          3. Bootrec Commands on Windows Vista and Windows 7
        10. Msconfig and Advanced Boot Options
        11. Startup and Recovery Options
          1. Startup Options and the Boot.ini File
          2. Startup Options and Boot Configuration Data
      4. Windows Troubleshooting Tools
        1. Event Viewer
          1. Starting Event Viewer
          2. Viewing Events in Event Viewer
          3. Log Properties
        2. Recovery Images
        3. File Recovery Software
        4. Automated System Recovery
        5. Emergency Repair Disk
        6. System Repair Disc
        7. Troubleshooting Applet
      5. Common Symptoms and Their Solutions
        1. BSOD
        2. Failure to Boot
          1. Fix Boot Sector and MBR on Windows XP
          2. Fix Boot Sector and MBR on Windows Vista and Windows 7
          3. Rebuild BCD in Windows Vista and Windows 7
        3. Improper Shutdown
        4. Spontaneous Shutdown or Restart
        5. Device Fails to Start
        6. Missing DLL Message
          1. Registering a DLL with Regsvr32
          2. Beware of Malware
        7. Service Fails to Start
        8. Compatibility Error
        9. Slow System Performance
        10. Boots to Safe Mode
        11. File Fails to Open
        12. Missing NTLDR and Missing Boot.ini
          1. Manually Copy System Files in Windows XP
          2. Rebuild Boot.ini File in Windows XP
        13. Boot Sector and MBR Errors
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Chapter Review
      8. Answers
    22. 18. Introducing Networking Components
      1. Types of Networks
        1. Local Area Network
        2. Wide Area Network
        3. Personal Area Network
        4. Metropolitan Area Network
        5. Virtual Private Network
      2. Identifying Basic Network Hardware
        1. Network Interface Card
        2. Hub
        3. Switch
        4. Router
        5. Bridge
        6. Modem
        7. Network Attached Storage (NAS)
        8. VoIP Phones
        9. Link, Activity, and Speed Lights
      3. Comparing Workgroups and Domains
        1. Workgroup
        2. Domain
        3. Joining a Workgroup or a Domain
      4. Connecting to the Internet
        1. Cable and Fiber Broadband Connections
        2. Phone Connections
          1. Dial-up
          2. ISDN
          3. DSL
          4. Cellular
        3. WiMAX
        4. Satellite
      5. Standards Organizations
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Chapter Review
      8. Answers
    23. 19. Exploring Cables and Connectivity
      1. Introducing Ethernet
      2. Safety and Environmental Issues
        1. Cable Management and Trip Hazards
        2. PVC vs. Plenum-Safe Jackets
        3. Understanding Interference and Crosstalk
          1. EMI
          2. RFI
          3. Crosstalk
      3. Comparing Half-Duplex and Full-Duplex
      4. Common Network Cables and Connectors
        1. Ethernet Twisted-Pair
          1. RJ-45 vs. RJ-11
          2. UTP vs. STP
          3. Comparing Categories
          4. T568A vs. T568B
          5. Crossover Cable
          6. Wire Strippers and Wire Crimper
          7. Punchdown Tool
        2. Fiber Optic Cable
        3. Coaxial Cable
      5. Speeds and Specifications
        1. Ethernet Speeds
        2. Fast Ethernet
        3. Gigabit Ethernet
        4. 10-Gigabit Ethernet
      6. Topologies
        1. Star
        2. Bus
        3. Ring
        4. Mesh
        5. Hybrid
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Chapter Review
      9. Answers
    24. 20. Understanding Protocols
      1. Introducing Network Protocols
        1. TCP/IP
        2. Connectivity Protocols
          1. TCP
          2. UDP
      2. Introducing Ports
        1. Port Ranges
        2. Ports and Firewalls
      3. Exploring Network Protocols
        1. Encryption Protocols
        2. Email Protocols
        3. Web Browser Protocols
        4. File Transfer Protocols
          1. FTP, TFTP, and SFTP
          2. SMB
        5. Name Resolution Protocols
          1. DNS
          2. Client-Side DNS
          3. WINS
        6. Remote Connectivity Protocols
          1. RDP
          2. Telnet
        7. SNMP
        8. LDAP
      4. Summarizing Well-Known Ports
        1. Sending an HTTP Query Using Ports
        2. A Web Server Response Using Ports
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Chapter Review
      7. Answers
    25. 21. Comparing IPv4 and IPv6
      1. Examining IPv4 Addresses
        1. Dotted Decimal Format
        2. Two Parts of an IP Address
          1. The Subnet Mask and the Network ID
          2. Host ID
        3. Network ID Challenge
        4. Network IDs in a Network
        5. Classful IP Addresses
        6. Loopback Addresses
        7. CIDR Notation
        8. Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicast Addressing
      2. TCP/IP Addressing in a Network
        1. Default Gateway
        2. Public vs. Private IPs
        3. NAT
      3. Static vs. Dynamic IP Addresses
        1. Using DHCP for Dynamic IP Addresses
          1. APIPA Addresses
          2. Reserving IP Addresses
        2. Manually Assigning Static IP Addresses
          1. Accessing the NIC in Windows
          2. Assigning Static or Dynamic Addresses in Windows
          3. Assigning Alternate IP Addresses in Windows
          4. Manipulating NIC Properties
      4. Examining IPv6 Addresses
        1. Omitting IPv6 Leading Zeros
        2. IPv6 Zero Compression
        3. IPv6 Prefixes
        4. Peaceful Coexistence with IPv4
        5. IPv6 Loopback Address
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Chapter Review
      7. Answers
    26. 22. Network Security Devices
      1. Securing a Network
        1. Threats and Attacks
        2. Understanding Firewalls
          1. Exceptions
          2. Packet-Filter Exceptions
          3. Other Exceptions
        3. Understanding DMZs
        4. Port Forwarding
          1. Configuring Port Forwarding
          2. Port Forwarding and IP Addresses
          3. Port Forwarding and SSH
        5. Port Triggering
        6. Using Proxy Servers
          1. Proxy Server Benefits
          2. Proxy Exceptions
          3. Configuring Proxy Settings
          4. Enforcing Proxy Server Use
        7. Basic QoS
      2. Windows Firewall
        1. Home vs. Work vs. Public Network Settings
          1. Network Discovery
          2. Network Locations
        2. Configuring Windows Firewall on Windows XP
        3. Configuring Windows Firewall on Windows Vista and Windows 7
          1. Enable/Disable Windows Firewall
          2. Enable Remote Desktop
        4. Windows Firewall with Advanced Security
      3. Other Security Tools
        1. Security Center
        2. Action Center
        3. Netsh
        4. Appliances
          1. Network Security Appliance
          2. Internet Security Services
          3. Internet Appliance
      4. Chapter Summary
      5. Chapter Review
      6. Answers
    27. 23. Exploring Wireless Networking
      1. Wireless Components
        1. Wireless Access Point
        2. Wireless Router
        3. Wireless Device
        4. Infrastructure Mode vs. Ad-Hoc Mode
        5. Wi-Fi and Wi-Fi Alliance
      2. Wireless Standards
        1. Antenna and Access Point Placement
        2. Channels
        3. Radio Power Levels
      3. Wireless Security
        1. Encryption Types
        2. Personal Mode
        3. Enterprise Mode
        4. MAC Filtering
        5. Wi-Fi Protected Setup
      4. SSID
        1. Understanding SSID Broadcast
        2. Enabling or Disabling SSID Broadcast
        3. Renaming the SSID
      5. Configuring Wireless Network
        1. Changing Default User Names and Passwords
        2. Configuring Wireless Settings on Windows 7
        3. Configuring DHCP
        4. Troubleshooting Wireless Connections
          1. Common Symptoms
          2. Wireless Locator
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Chapter Review
      8. Answers
    28. 24. Connecting and Troubleshooting a Network
      1. Install and Configure a SOHO Network
        1. Devices
        2. Cables
        3. Protocols
        4. VoIP
        5. Securing a SOHO Wired Network
      2. Establish Networking Connections
        1. Wired
        2. Wireless
        3. Dial-Up Connections
        4. WWAN (Cellular)
        5. VPN
      3. Homegroups and Network Places
        1. Accessing My Network Places and Network
        2. Understanding Homegroups
          1. Creating a Homegroup
          2. Joining a Homegroup
          3. Viewing Homegroup Resources
          4. Mapping Drives
      4. Command Prompt Tools
        1. Ping
        2. Ipconfig
        3. Client-Side DNS and Ipconfig
        4. Tracert
        5. Nslookup
        6. Netstat
        7. Nbtstat
        8. Arp
        9. Net
      5. Hardware Tools
        1. Cable Tester
        2. Loop Back Plugs
        3. Toner Probe
      6. Troubleshooting Network Problems
        1. Cannot Communicate on the Network
        2. Cannot Get out of Network
        3. Remember the Lights
        4. Use Windows Network Diagnostics
        5. Common Symptoms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Chapter Review
      9. Answers
    29. 25. Understanding IT Security
      1. Prevention
        1. User Education
        2. Principle of Least Privilege
        3. Authentication
        4. Something You Know
          1. Elements of Strong Passwords
          2. Using Passphrases
        5. Something You Have
          1. Badges and Smart Cards
          2. RFID Badges and Physical Security
          3. Key Fobs and RSA Tokens
        6. Something You Are
        7. Single Sign-On
        8. Requiring Password with the Screen Saver
        9. Local Security Policy
          1. Requiring Strong Passwords
          2. Group Policy and Local Security Policy
      2. Users and Groups
        1. User Accounts
          1. Default User Accounts
          2. Standard User vs. Administrator
          3. UAC and Access Tokens in Windows Vista and Windows 7
          4. User Accounts Applet
          5. Changing Default User Names
        2. Understanding Groups
          1. Default Groups
          2. Using Local Users and Groups
      3. Understanding Permissions
        1. NTFS Permissions
          1. Combining NTFS Permissions
          2. Allow vs. Deny
          3. Permission Inheritance and Permission Propagation
          4. Effect on Permissions When Copying and Moving Files
          5. File Attributes
        2. Share Permissions
        3. Combining NTFS and Share Permissions
      4. Understanding Encryption
        1. Encrypting Files with EFS
        2. Offline Files Encryption
        3. BitLocker Drive Encryption
      5. Destruction and Disposal of Data and Media
        1. Hard Drive Sanitization
          1. Deleting Files
          2. Overwrite and Drive Wipe Tools
          3. Low-Level Format vs. Standard Format
        2. Physical Destruction
          1. Shredder
          2. Degaussing Tool (Magnet and Electromagnetic)
          3. Drilling, Sanding, and Grinding
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Chapter Review
      8. Answers
    30. 26. Recognizing Malware and Other Threats
      1. Exploring Malware
        1. Botnets
        2. Virus
        3. Worm
        4. Trojan Horse
        5. Rogueware
        6. Rootkits
        7. Spyware
        8. Spam and Malware
        9. Phishing
      2. Digital Security
        1. Antivirus Software
          1. AV Definitions and Updates
          2. Antivirus Actions
          3. Antivirus Protection
          4. Microsoft Security Essentials
          5. Other AV Software
          6. Automatically Starting AV Software
        2. Antispyware
        3. Keeping Systems Up to Date
        4. Disabling Autorun
      3. Symptoms of an Infection
      4. Removing Malware
        1. Delete Temporary Files
        2. Using Safe Mode
        3. Using Preinstallation Environments
        4. Using Recovery Console and Windows RE
        5. System Restore
        6. Best Practices for Malware Removal
      5. Recognizing Other Security Threats
        1. Social Engineering
        2. Physical Security
          1. Tailgating
          2. Securing or Shredding Physical Documents
          3. Shoulder Surfing and Privacy Filters
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Chapter Review
      8. Answers
    31. Glossary
    32. A. About the Author
      1. Contact the Author
    33. Index
    34. About the Author
    35. Copyright