In this chapter, we discuss the application of CS in the task of positioning. It is easy to imagine that there are many applications of geographical positioning. For example, in a battlefield, it is very important to know the location of a soldier or a tank. In cellular networks, the location of the mobile user can be used for Emergency-911 services. For goods and item tracking, it is of key importance to track their locations. The precision of positions also ranges from subcentimeters (e.g., robotic surgery) to tens of meters (e.g., bus information).
Several classifications of positioning technologies are given below :