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Comprehensive Intellectual Capital Management: Step-By-Step

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Praise for Comprehensive Intellectual Capital Management

"The 'Comprehensive Intellectual Capital Management' (CICM) approach Ms. Al-Ali has developed is truly groundbreaking in that it effectively addresses one of the most significant challenges in the intellectual capital management (ICM) arena today: the ability to directly link ICM to bottom line business value. The integration of innovation processes with knowledge management (KM) and intellectual asset management (IAM), combined with a robust portfolio management discipline are the most critical and unique components of the CICM approach. Additionally, the fact that CICM can be customized to fit the strategic direction, operational structure, and culture of a company is also a very appealing aspect of this bottom line—based approach. This book speaks to every person in the ICM chain, the inventor, market manager, patent attorney, finance manager, IA manager, research manager, business manager, production manager, and most importantly, the CFO."

–David Near, Director of Business Excellence, Polyurethanes Business

The Dow Chemical Company

"This is a seminal work in that vast wilderness where law merges with business. It should be dog-eared and underlined with notes in the margin by any lawyer or business leader who cares about how intellectual capital is valued and how it should be managed to maximize growth and profit. This is the critical knowledge for the next decade and beyond."

–John D. Hutson, Dean & President, Franklin Pierce Law Center

"Management and reporting of Intellectual Capital has become one of the most important issues facing business and society in the knowledge economy. Much work has been done around the world trying to develop general acceptable solutions. Nermien Al-Ali presents in her book a unique and very inspirational contribution to the search for ways of better managing and reporting Intellectual Capital."

–Jan V.K. Hoffmeister, Vice President, Intellectual Capital Management

Skandia Insurance Company

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. About the Author
  3. Foreword
  4. Preface
  5. I. Intellectual Capital Management
    1. 1. Intellectual Capital Management and the Knowledge Economy
      1. 1.1. INTRODUCTION
      2. 1.2. INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL AND BUSINESS VALUE—THE HIDDEN RESOURCE
      3. 1.3. THE KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY—THE MAIN CULPRIT
        1. 1.3.1. Business Processes and the Fast Lane of Innovation—Join It or Pull Off the Highway
        2. 1.3.2. Employees—The Knowledge Processors
        3. 1.3.3. The Knowledge-Thirsty Customers
      4. 1.4. DOES A NEW ECONOMY REQUIRE A NEW BUSINESS MANAGEMENT APPROACH?
      5. 1.5. IC-ENABLED DYNAMICS AND TRANSFORMATION OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT: THE MANAGEMENT OF MINDS
      6. 1.6. IC-ENABLED DYNAMICS AND TRANSFORMATION OF ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN
        1. 1.6.1. The Democratic Organization—Fewer Layers and More Ambassadors
      7. 1.7. IC-ENABLED DYNAMICS AND TRANSFORMATION OF BUSINESS GROWTH STRATEGIES
        1. 1.7.1. Diversify into the Business of Service: The High-Growth Sector
        2. 1.7.2. Growth Through Mergers, Acquisitions, and Strategic Alliances: To Merge or Not to Merge
        3. 1.7.3. Growth and the Start-Up Business Model: The Idea Incubators
      8. 1.8. THE REQUIRED COMPETENCIES IN THE KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY: TOWARD STRATEGIC INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL MANAGEMENT
        1. 1.8.1. Knowledge Management—Increasing Your Organizational IQ
        2. 1.8.2. Innovation Management—Systematize Your Collective Thinking
        3. 1.8.3. Intellectual Property Management—Protect or Lose
        4. 1.8.4. Organizational Culture—The Main Enabler
        5. 1.8.5. Comprehensive Management of Intellectual Capital—Orchestrate Your Music
      9. 1.9. NOTES
    2. 2. The Intellectual Capital Model
      1. 2.1. WHAT'S IN A NAME?—DEFINING THE TERMS
      2. 2.2. FRAMES OF REFERENCE—THE IC MODEL AND THE THREE CIRCLES
      3. 2.3. VALUE CREATION—THE COMING OF THE PYRAMIDS
      4. 2.4. SKANDIA'S NAVIGATOR AND THE HUMAN FOCUS
      5. 2.5. THE CORE COMPETENCY PRINCIPLE AND VALUE CREATION
      6. 2.6. THE IC MODEL, CORE COMPETENCIES MODEL, AND MANAGEMENT
        1. 2.6.1. Learning from IBM, 3M, Xerox, Apple, Lucent, and Intel
        2. 2.6.2. Recognition—The First Step in Managing IC
      7. 2.7. MEASURING INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL
      8. 2.8. IC MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS—WHAT THEY HAVE IN COMMON
      9. 2.9. IC MEASUREMENT MODELS—AN OVERVIEW
        1. 2.9.1. The Balanced Scorecard
          1. 2.9.1.1. Financial Perspective.
          2. 2.9.1.2. Customer Perspective.
          3. 2.9.1.3. Internal Business Process (IBP) Perspective.
          4. 2.9.1.4. Learning and Growth Perspective.
          5. 2.9.1.5. Is It Only a Control Panel of Measures?
        2. 2.9.2. The Intangible Asset Monitor—IC Measurement Is Not a Science But a Language
          1. 2.9.2.1. External Structure.
          2. 2.9.2.2. Internal Structure.
          3. 2.9.2.3. Competency.
          4. 2.9.2.4. Talking IC?
        3. 2.9.3. The Navigator—Do Not Plan, Navigate
      10. 2.10. THE VALUE OF IC MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS—WHERE DOES ALL THIS LEAVE US?
      11. 2.11. NOTES
    3. 3. Intellectual Capital Reporting
      1. 3.1. THE LIMITATION OF FINANCIAL REPORTING
      2. 3.2. ANALYZING IC REPORTING INITIATIVES—THE TWO APPROACHES
        1. 3.2.1. The First Approach—IC Reporting in Financial Statements
          1. 3.2.1.1. Acquired Intangible Assets.
          2. 3.2.1.2. Internally Developed Intangible Assets.
        2. 3.2.2. The Second Approach—Separate IC Reporting Models
      3. 3.3. THE U.S. EXPERIENCE
        1. 3.3.1. Science and Technology Indicators
        2. 3.3.2. New Economy Index
        3. 3.3.3. CHI Research
        4. 3.3.4. The Knowledge Scorecard
      4. 3.4. THE EUROPEAN EXPERIENCE
        1. 3.4.1. Swedish Companies
        2. 3.4.2. Danish IC Statements
      5. 3.5. THE CANADIAN EXPERIENCE
        1. 3.5.1. Total Value Creation (TVC) Method
      6. 3.6. GLOBAL INITIATIVES
        1. 3.6.1. The Global Reporting Initiative (GRI)
        2. 3.6.2. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
      7. 3.7. SUGGESTIONS FOR DEVELOPING A UNIVERSAL IC REPORTING MODEL (UICR)
      8. 3.8. NOTES
    4. 4. The Comprehensive Intellectual Capital Management (CICM) Approach
      1. 4.1. THE STAGES OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT AND THE CICM APPROACH
        1. 4.1.1. The First Stage: Managing IC as Raw Knowledge Resources
        2. 4.1.2. The Second Stage: Managing IC as Innovation Resources
        3. 4.1.3. The Third Stage: Managing IC as Intellectual Property
      2. 4.2. THE CICM MODEL—NOT ANOTHER SET OF CIRCLES
        1. 4.2.1. New Management Approach
        2. 4.2.2. Making Sense—Overcoming Business Skepticism
        3. 4.2.3. Synchronization and the Role of IC Strategy
        4. 4.2.4. Unlocking the Mystery of Value Creation and Maximization
        5. 4.2.5. Setting Objectives—Taking ICM to the Operational Level
      3. 4.3. NOTES
  6. II. The Three Stages of Intellectual Capital Management
    1. 5. The Knowledge Management Stage and Organizational IQ
      1. 5.1. ORGANIZATIONAL MEMORY LOSS AND BRAIN DRAIN
      2. 5.2. WHAT IS KNOWLEDGE? KNOWLEDGE IS TO KNOW!
        1. 5.2.1. The Information/Knowledge Interface—Two Sides of a Coin or Two Levels of Consciousness
        2. 5.2.2. The Individual/Organizational Knowledge Interface—One for All and All for One
      3. 5.3. KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT—A MEANS TO AN END
      4. 5.4. STRATEGIZING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT: VISION AND THE ROLE OF LEADERSHIP
        1. 5.4.1. Knowledge Audit and Gap Analysis
        2. 5.4.2. Knowledge Strategies
      5. 5.5. OPERATIONALIZING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
        1. 5.5.1. Augmenting the Organizational Structure—Communities of Practice and the Freedom to Associate
        2. 5.5.2. Culture, Job Design, and Recruitment Policy
          1. 5.5.2.1. Job Design and Awards—It's All Part of the Job.
          2. 5.5.2.2. Culture and Recruitment Policy.
        3. 5.5.3. The Knowledge Base and IT Infrastructure
          1. 5.5.3.1. Content Management and the Knowledge Base.
          2. 5.5.3.2. IT and Other Enablers.
          3. 5.5.3.3. Nontechnological Enablers.
      6. 5.6. STORYTELLING OR ANECDOTE MANAGEMENT—AN ANCIENT ART REVIVED
      7. 5.7. CONCLUSION
      8. 5.8. NOTES
    2. 6. The U.S. Navy Knowledge Management System: A Case in Point
      1. 6.1. BACKGROUND
      2. 6.2. THE STRATEGIC LEVEL: HOW THE NAVY'S CIO CONVINCED COMMANDERS THAT KM IS A WAR STRATEGY
        1. 6.2.1. Gap Analysis: Knowing What We Know and What We Need to Know
      3. 6.3. OPERATIONALIZING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT: THE ROUGH PLAN
        1. 6.3.1. Structural Changes—CoPs
        2. 6.3.2. Culture—Not a Question of Sharing But of Security
        3. 6.3.3. Infrastructure, IT, and the Knowledge Base: The Interrelationship
        4. 6.3.4. Knowledge Management Tools
      4. 6.4. SYSTEMS THINKING: THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ORGANIZATIONAL ACTION AND INACTION
      5. 6.5. PERFORMANCE MEASURES: THE USE OF LIMITS TO FOCUS ATTENTION
        1. 6.5.1. It Is Not How You Measure But What—Of Limits and Guiding Principles
          1. 6.5.1.1. The First Guiding Principle: What to Measure.
          2. 6.5.1.2. The Second Guiding Principle: Not All Measures Are the Same.
          3. 6.5.1.3. The Third Guiding Principle: The Life Cycle of an Initiative.
      6. 6.6. CONCLUSION
      7. 6.7. NOTES
    3. 7. The Innovation Management Stage
      1. 7.1. EDISON'S STYLE OF INNOVATION MANAGEMENT
      2. 7.2. THE INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL CONCEPT AND NETWORK-BASED INNOVATION
      3. 7.3. STRATEGIZING INNOVATION MANAGEMENT
        1. 7.3.1. Innovation Strategies and Competitive Positioning
        2. 7.3.2. Innovation Portfolio Mix and Risk Management
      4. 7.4. OPERATIONALIZING INNOVATION MANAGEMENT
        1. 7.4.1. Structural Changes—Loosen It Up or, in Jack Welch's Words: "Shake It, Shake It, Break It"
          1. 7.4.1.1. Cross-Functional Teams and Competence Centers.
          2. 7.4.1.2. Alliances Portfolio—Who's Who.
          3. 7.4.1.3. The Central Unit—To Set the Rules.
        2. 7.4.2. A Culture for Innovation—Liberate the Innovative Spirit
      5. 7.5. ENABLING SYSTEMS, PRACTICES, AND TOOLS: THE ART OF INNOVATING
        1. 7.5.1. Human Capital—Idea Banks
        2. 7.5.2. Customer Capital—The Malleable Innovation Resource
          1. 7.5.2.1. Value-Chain Management—Where to Fit Customer Feedback.
          2. 7.5.2.2. The Lead User Method—The Quest for Breakthrough Innovation.
          3. 7.5.2.3. Structural Capital.
        3. 7.5.3. Competitive Intelligence
        4. 7.5.4. Technology Management and Patent Intelligence
      6. 7.6. CONCLUSION
      7. 7.7. NOTES
    4. 8. The Intellectual Property Management Stage
      1. 8.1. AN IP ECONOMY
      2. 8.2. THE BIRTH OF IPM AND ITS MANY SHADES
      3. 8.3. IPM AND THE IC CONCEPT—THE JOB OF EVERYONE AGAIN
      4. 8.4. STRATEGIZING IPM
        1. 8.4.1. The IP Audit and Portfolio Creation—Not a Legal IP Audit
        2. 8.4.2. IP Strategies Defining the Focus of IPM
      5. 8.5. A BLUEPRINT FOR COMPETITIVE IP STRATEGIES—OF WAR
        1. 8.5.1. Patent Strategies—Of Technological Wars
        2. 8.5.2. Trademark/Branding Strategies—Of Wars Over Consumers' Hearts
        3. 8.5.3. Copyright Strategies—Of Soft Wars and the Next Hit
      6. 8.6. VALUE TRANSFERENCE STRATEGIES
      7. 8.7. BLUEPRINT FOR COMMERCIALIZATION STRATEGIES—OF PEACE
      8. 8.8. OPERATIONALIZING IPM—WITH ALL DUE RESPECT TO THE LEGAL DEPARTMENT
        1. 8.8.1. Structural Changes—Of Strategic Focus and Synergy Teams
          1. 8.8.1.1. The IP Strategy Unit—IP and the Business Plan.
          2. 8.8.1.2. IP Synergy Teams or Licensing Units.
        2. 8.8.2. Cultural Changes
          1. 8.8.2.1. The IP Literacy Guide.
          2. 8.8.2.2. Detection Program—Of Competitive Intelligence and Reverse Engineering.
          3. 8.8.2.3. Clearance Procedures—Treading Around Dangerous Waters.
        3. 8.8.3. Enabling Tools and Practices—IP Valuation
      9. 8.9. CONCLUSION
      10. 8.10. NOTES
    5. 9. The Pioneers of Intellectual Capital Management—Skandia and Dow Chemical
      1. 9.1. SKANDIA: THE LEADER OF THE IC REVOLUTION
      2. 9.2. THE BUSINESS MODEL AND THE IC REVOLUTION—CARENDI AND THE FIRST TORCH
      3. 9.3. PASSING THE TORCH TO EDVINSSON AND HIS TEAM
      4. 9.4. ENLIGHTENING THE MASSES—THE NAVIGATOR AND THE NEW VISION
      5. 9.5. SKANDIA'S ICM MODEL—MORE THAN A NAVIGATOR
        1. 9.5.1. The Knowledge Management Stage
          1. 9.5.1.1. Structure—Communities of Practice or Knowledge Cafés.
          2. 9.5.1.2. The Right Culture from Day One.
          3. 9.5.1.3. The Knowledge Base and IT Architecture—Navigate with the Dolphins.
        2. 9.5.2. The Innovation Management Stage
          1. 9.5.2.1. Structure—Competence Centers, Alliances, and Central Unit.
          2. 9.5.2.2. Innovation Culture and Idea Generation.
        3. 9.5.3. The Intellectual Property Management Stage
          1. 9.5.3.1. Skandia's IP Portfolio of Software Programs and Knowledge Recipes.
          2. 9.5.3.2. IP and Core Competitive Advantage—The Prototype.
          3. 9.5.3.3. Leveraging IP Internally—Sharing and the Technology Center.
          4. 9.5.3.4. Leveraging IP across Partnerships—Commercialization.
      6. 9.6. CONCLUSIONS ON SKANDIA
      7. 9.7. DOW CHEMICAL: THE LEAP INTO ICM
        1. 9.7.1. Petrash's IAM—Paving the Way
      8. 9.8. NEAR AND THE LEAP INTO ICM
      9. 9.9. DOW'S ICM MODEL
        1. 9.9.1. The Knowledge Management Stage
          1. 9.9.1.1. Structure—Communities of Practice and IAM Teams.
          2. 9.9.1.2. A Culture of E-Learning.
          3. 9.9.1.3. The Knowledge Base and IT.
        2. 9.9.2. The Innovation Management (IM) Stage
          1. 9.9.2.1. Structure—Labs as Competence Centers.
          2. 9.9.2.2. The 42 Plus Alliances Portfolio.
          3. 9.9.2.3. Innovation Culture and a Central Idea Bank.
        3. 9.9.3. The Intellectual Property (Asset) Management Stage
          1. 9.9.3.1. Structure—IAM Teams and the Tech Center.
          2. 9.9.3.2. Culture—Patent Talk Equals Patent Friendly.
          3. 9.9.3.3. Leveraging IP Internally and Externally—A Patent Investment Plan.
      10. 9.10. CONCLUSIONS ON DOW
      11. 9.11. NOTES
  7. III. Step-by-Step Guide to the CICM Model
    1. 10. First Get Your Act Together
      1. 10.1. THE BUSINESS MODEL OF THE KNOWLEDGE ORGANIZATION
      2. 10.2. VISION AND ORGANIZATIONAL SOUL SEARCHING
        1. 10.2.1. What Is a Vision?
        2. 10.2.2. Find Your People
        3. 10.2.3. Connect with the Outside World
        4. 10.2.4. Transform the Organization
      3. 10.3. CULTURE—THE MAIN ENABLER
        1. 10.3.1. Knowledge Sharing or Idle Socialization
        2. 10.3.2. Failure or Success—A Matter of Perspective
        3. 10.3.3. Cultural Change—Uncovering the Implicit Values
      4. 10.4. NOTES
    2. 11. Implementing Knowledge Management under the CICM Model
      1. 11.1. BACKGROUND
      2. 11.2. MANAGEMENT OBJECTIVES
      3. 11.3. PROCESSES
      4. 11.4. STEP-BY-STEP GUIDE
        1. 11.4.1. Process 1: Formulation of Knowledge-Based (or IC) Vision
          1. 11.4.1.1. Step 1: Leadership Formulation.
          2. 11.4.1.2. Step 2: Alignment with the Vision of Key People.
          3. 11.4.1.3. Step 3: Communicate to All Levels.
        2. 11.4.2. Process 2: Cultural Audit and Transformation
          1. 11.4.2.1. Step 1: Audit of Cultural Values.
          2. 11.4.2.2. Step 2: Effect Cultural Change on Executive and Departmental Levels.
          3. 11.4.2.3. Step 3: Cultural Change Across the Whole Organization.
        3. 11.4.3. Process 3: Knowledge Audits
          1. 11.4.3.1. Step 1: Stocktaking of Knowledge Resources.
          2. 11.4.3.2. Step 2: Analyzing Audit Findings.
          3. 11.4.3.3. Step 3: Mapping Knowledge Resources.
          4. 11.4.3.4. Step 4: Mapping Internal and External Knowledge Flows.
        4. 11.4.4. Process 4: Strategizing Knowledge Management
          1. 11.4.4.1. Step 1: Identify Knowledge Strategies to Fill Gaps.
          2. 11.4.4.2. Step 2: Understand the Various Variables That Knowledge Strategies Address.
          3. 11.4.4.3. Step 3: Assess Need for Innovation versus Replication in Critical Business Processes.
        5. 11.4.5. Process 5: Communities of Practice
          1. 11.4.5.1. Step 1: Define the CoPs/Knowledge Strategy.
          2. 11.4.5.2. Step 2: Form a CoP Council at the Central or Business Unit Level.
          3. 11.4.5.3. Step 3: Assess the Case for Forming a Certain CoP.
          4. 11.4.5.4. Step 4: Launching the CoP.
        6. 11.4.6. Process 6: Best Practices
          1. 11.4.6.1. Step 1: Submission of Best Practices to the Review Committee.
          2. 11.4.6.2. Step 2: Assessment, Approval, and Dissemination.
          3. 11.4.6.3. Step 3: Local Assessment, Application, and Reporting.
        7. 11.4.7. Process 7: Knowledge Base and IT Architecture
          1. 11.4.7.1. Step 1: Design the Architecture.
          2. 11.4.7.2. Step 2: Design the Knowledge Centers.
          3. 11.4.7.3. Step 3: The Development of Taxonomies for the Knowledge Base.
          4. 11.4.7.4. Step 4: The Choice of Enabling Technological Tools.
      5. 11.5. CONCLUSION
      6. 11.6. NOTES
    3. 12. Implementing Innovation Management Under the CICM Model
      1. 12.1. BACKGROUND
      2. 12.2. MANAGEMENT OBJECTIVES
      3. 12.3. PROCESSES
      4. 12.4. STEP-BY-STEP GUIDE
        1. 12.4.1. Process 1: Getting Started and Gap Analysis
          1. 12.4.1.1. Step 1: Discovering the Innovation Portfolio.
          2. 12.4.1.2. Step 2: Examining the Idea Generation Process and Culture.
          3. 12.4.1.3. Step 3: Determine Where to Start.
        2. 12.4.2. Process 2: Deciding on Innovation Strategies
          1. 12.4.2.1. Step 1: The Innovation Strategy.
          2. 12.4.2.2. Step 2: Competitive Intelligence.
        3. 12.4.3. Process 3: Innovation Portfolio Mix
          1. 12.4.3.1. Step 1: Create a Classification.
          2. 12.4.3.2. Step 2: Diversify the Portfolio Mix.
          3. 12.4.3.3. Step 3: Allocate Resources.
          4. 12.4.3.4. Step 4: Identify the NPD Stages and Gates.
        4. 12.4.4. Process 4: Structural Changes for IM
          1. 12.4.4.1. Step 1: Developing Competence Centers.
          2. 12.4.4.2. Step 2: Create and Manage an Alliance Portfolio.
          3. 12.4.4.3. Step 3: Tap Internal and External Resources to Form Project Teams.
        5. 12.4.5. Process 5: Employee Implementation of Ideas and the Right Culture
          1. 12.4.5.1. Step 1: Encouraging Idea Submissions and Implementation.
        6. 12.4.6. Process 6: Idea Banks and Employee Innovation
          1. 12.4.6.1. Step 1: Idea Submission and Building the Database
          2. 12.4.6.2. Step 2: Assessment.
          3. 12.4.6.3. Step 3: Prepare Idea Reports.
        7. 12.4.7. Process 7: Implementing the Lead User Method for Breakthrough Innovation
          1. 12.4.7.1. Step 1: Project Planning.
          2. 12.4.7.2. Step 2: Finding Lead Users.
          3. 12.4.7.3. Step 3: Concept Generation and Development.
        8. 12.4.8. Process 8: Technology Management Methods
          1. 12.4.8.1. Step 1: Uncover Competition's Past Patenting Trends and Anticipate Future Moves.
          2. 12.4.8.2. Step 2: Assess Strengths and Weaknesses of Competition's Technological Position.
          3. 12.4.8.3. Step 3: Decide on Projects in the Innovation Portfolio.
      5. 12.5. NOTES
    4. 13. Implementing Intellectual Property Management under the CICM Model
      1. 13.1. BACKGROUND
      2. 13.2. MANAGEMENT OBJECTIVES
      3. 13.3. PROCESSES
      4. 13.4. STEP-BY-STEP GUIDE
        1. 13.4.1. Process 1: IP Audit and Portfolio Creation
          1. 13.4.1.1. Step 1: The Audit.
          2. 13.4.1.2. Step 2: Create the IP Portfolio.
        2. 13.4.2. Process 2: Choosing Competitive IP Strategies
          1. 13.4.2.1. Step 1: Define the Competitive Purpose.
          2. 13.4.2.2. Step 2: Combine between Short- and Long-Term Competitive IP Strategies.
          3. 13.4.2.3. Step 3: Value Transference Strategies.
        3. 13.4.3. Process 3: Choosing Commercialization IP Strategies
        4. 13.4.4. Process 4: Building the IP Portfolio: IP Strategy Units
        5. 13.4.5. Process 5: Leveraging the IP Portfolio: IP Synergy Teams
        6. 13.4.6. Process 6: Making IPM the Job of Everyone: The IP Program
          1. 13.4.6.1. Step 1: The IP Literacy Guide.
          2. 13.4.6.2. Step 2: The Detection Program.
          3. 13.4.6.3. Step 3: The Clearance Program.
        7. 13.4.7. Process 7: Designing Valuation and Assessment Tools
          1. 13.4.7.1. Assessment and Qualitative Measures.
          2. 13.4.7.2. Valuation and Quantitative Measures.
      5. 13.5. NOTES
    5. 14. IC Strategy and Customizing the CICM Model
      1. 14.1. CUSTOMIZING CICM—THE MAIN THREE VARIABLES
        1. 14.1.1. The Industry Variable: Identify the Value Drivers
        2. 14.1.2. The Strategy Variable: Identify the Source of Competitive Advantage
        3. 14.1.3. The Organization's Situation Variable: Do Not Start from Scratch
      2. 14.2. NOTES
  8. A. Mini Master's of Business Administration (MBA)
    1. A.1. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT
    2. A.2. MARKETING STRATEGY
    3. A.3. ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
    4. A.4. NOTES
  9. B. Mini Master's in Intellectual Property (MIP)
    1. B.1. HAVING WORKING IP KNOWLEDGE FOR ICM
    2. B.2. PATENTS
      1. B.2.1. Acquisition and Scope of Protection
      2. B.2.2. International Treaties and Protection in Other Countries
      3. B.2.3. Implications for Legal Management
      4. B.2.4. Infringement, Enforcement, and Litigation—What to Do When You Suspect Your Patent Is Being Infringed
    3. B.3. TRADE SECRETS
      1. B.3.1. Acquisition and Scope of Protection
      2. B.3.2. Implications for Legal Management
      3. B.3.3. Infringement, Enforcement, and Litigation
    4. B.4. TRADEMARKS
      1. B.4.1. Acquisitions and Scope of Protection
      2. B.4.2. International Treaties and Protection in Other Countries
      3. B.4.3. Implications for Legal Management
      4. B.4.4. Infringement, Enforcement, and Litigation
    5. B.5. COPYRIGHTS
      1. B.5.1. Acquisition and Scope of Protection
      2. B.5.2. International Treaties and Protection in Other Countries
      3. B.5.3. Implications for Legal Management
      4. B.5.4. Infringement, Enforcement, and Litigation
      5. B.5.5. A Summary
    6. B.6. NOTES