You are previewing Complex Systems and Systems of Systems Engineering.
O'Reilly logo
Complex Systems and Systems of Systems Engineering

Book Description

With the growing maturity of information and communication technologies, systems have been interconnected within growing networks, yielding new services through a combination of the system functionalities. This leads to an increasing complexity that has to be managed in order to take advantage of these system integrations. This book provides key answers as to how such systems of systems can be engineered and how their complexity can be mastered.

After reviewing some definitions on systems of systems engineering, the book focuses on concrete applications and offers a survey of the activities and techniques that allow engineering of complex systems and systems of systems. Case studies, ranging from emergency situations such as Hurricane Katrina and its crisis management or a generic scenario of a major traffic accident and its emergency response, to the establishment of a scientific basis in the Antarctic region illustrate key factors of success and traps to avoid in order to cope with such situations.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Author Biographies
  5. Introduction
  6. PART 1: ENGINEERING LARGE-SCALE COMPLEX SYSTEMS AND EMERGENCY SITUATION MANAGEMENT
    1. Chapter 1: Engineering Large-scale Complex Systems
      1. 1.1. Introduction
      2. 1.2. The notion of service in large complex systems
      3. 1.3. Architecture: a key concept
      4. 1.4. Towards resilient systems
        1. 1.4.1. Resilience: definitions
        2. 1.4.2. Resilience versus dependability
        3. 1.4.3. Engineering resilience
          1. 1.4.3.1 Engineering resilience during system use
          2. 1.4.3.2 Engineering resilience in the system design phase
          3. 1.4.3.3 Conclusion
      5. 1.5. Development of relationships between participants
      6. 1.6. Complexity: plurality of viewpoints for systems engineering
      7. 1.7. The maintenance and logistics of systems of systems
      8. 1.8. Perspectives and lines of enquiry
        1. 1.8.1. Contextual elements
        2. 1.8.2. Factors of influence
        3. 1.8.3. Trends, issues and challenges in systems engineering
          1. 1.8.3.1. Issue 1: very large heterogeneous systems
          2. 1.8.3.2. Issue 2: very large autonomous systems
          3. 1.8.3.3. Issue 3: modeling and simulation around the system perimeter
          4. 1.8.3.4. Issue 4: virtual prototyping of very large systems
          5. 1.8.3.5. Issue 5: verification, validation and qualification of systems
          6. 1.8.3.6. Issue 6: knowledge management throughout the system’s lifecycle
          7. 1.8.3.7. Issue 7: human-centered agile design
        4. 1.8.4. Development of the engineering process
        5. 1.8.5. Themes of research
          1. 1.8.5.1. Modeling: development, analysis and model inversion
          2. 1.8.5.2. Automatic proof (for decision-making in evolutive multi-system contexts)
          3. 1.8.5.3. Design of software-intensive complex systems with consideration of the human factor
          4. 1.8.5.4. Co-design of materials and software
      9. 1.9. Conclusion
      10. 1.10. Bibliography
    2. Chapter 2: Management of Emergency Situations: Architecture and Engineering of Systems of Systems
      1. 2.1. Introduction
      2. 2.2. Main concepts of systems engineering
      3. 2.3. Context of the emergency situation management scenario
        1. 2.3.1. Global context: Tairétalet
        2. 2.3.2. Synthesis of the Dubbus accident report
        3. 2.3.3. Decision of the Tairétalet authorities
        4. 2.3.4. Analysis of context and participants involved
        5. 2.3.5. Results of studies on existing resources
        6. 2.3.6. Emergency situation management scenario: perimeter and architecture
        7. 2.3.7. Reference operational scenario
        8. 2.3.8. Alternative operational scenarios
        9. 2.3.9. Perimeter and component systems of the system of systems
        10. 2.3.10. System dimensions: lines of development
      4. 2.4. Architecture of component systems of the system of systems
        1. 2.4.1. Detecting an accident: the accident detection system
        2. 2.4.2. Evaluating the gravity of an accident, coordinating the emergency services and allocating casualties to hospitals: the regional call center
        3. 2.4.3. Casualty evacuation: emergency service centers and hospitals
        4. 2.4.4. Continuous improvement of emergency situation management
        5. 2.4.5. Systems engineering for the regional call center, emergency service centers and hospitals
        6. 2.4.6. Specificities of system of systems engineering
      5. 2.5. Conclusion
      6. 2.6. Acknowledgements
      7. 2.7. Bibliography
  7. PART 2: CASE STUDY: ANTARCTICA LIFE SUPPORT FACILITY
    1. Chapter 3: Introduction to the Antarctica Life Support Facility Case Study
      1. 3.1. Why Antarctica?
      2. 3.2. Fictional context of the study
        1. 3.2.1. The Antarctica mission
        2. 3.2.2. The cast of characters
      3. 3.3. Some data on the Antarctic and Adélie Land
        1. 3.3.1. Geography
        2. 3.3.2. Climate
        3. 3.3.3. Biological patrimony
        4. 3.3.4. Location of the life support facility
      4. 3.4. Bibliography
    2. Chapter 4: Finding the Right Problem
      1. 4.1. What system are we dealing with?
        1. 4.1.1. Purpose and missions
        2. 4.1.2. The system perimeter
      2. 4.2. System lifecycle
      3. 4.3. Who does the system involve?
      4. 4.4. Creating a working framework
      5. 4.5. Gathering information
      6. 4.6. Modeling the context
      7. 4.7. Understanding and defining goals
      8. 4.8. Modeling the domain
      9. 4.9. Defining stakeholder requirements and constraints
      10. 4.10. Things to remember: stakeholder-requirements engineering
      11. 4.11. Bibliography
    3. Chapter 5: Who Can Solve the Problem?
      1. 5.1. Consultation and selection
        1. 5.1.1. Establishment of an acquisition plan
        2. 5.1.2. Creating an initial list of companies
        3. 5.1.3. Organizing and launching a request for information
        4. 5.1.4. Selecting companies for the call to tender
        5. 5.1.5. Preparing and launching the call to tender
        6. 5.1.6. Selecting a partner company
      2. 5.2. Responding (and winning)
        1. 5.2.1. Approaching the problem
        2. 5.2.2. Advancing into the unknown
        3. 5.2.3. Where should we start?
        4. 5.2.4. Doing it all simultaneously
      3. 5.3. Committing to a “right” definition of the system to be created
        1. 5.3.1. From stakeholder requirements to technical requirements
        2. 5.3.2. Covering the whole of the System’s lifecycle
        3. 5.3.3. Accounting for stakeholder expectations and constraints
        4. 5.3.4. Remaining realistic
        5. 5.3.5. Removing major risks
        6. 5.3.6. Facing identified threats
        7. 5.3.7. Use of precise terminology
      4. 5.4. Creating the list of technical requirements
        1. 5.4.1. Creating the necessary model
        2. 5.4.2. Expressing the “right” technical requirements
          1. 5.4.2.1. Succinctness
          2. 5.4.2.2. Formalization
          3. 5.4.2.3. Structure
        3. 5.4.3. Compliance with the specification
      5. 5.5. Things to remember: technical requirements engineering
      6. 5.6. Bibliography
    4. Chapter 6: Solving the Problem
      1. 6.1. General approach
      2. 6.2. Functional design
        1. 6.2.1. A brief introduction to functional design
        2. 6.2.2. Application
          1. 6.2.2.1. Mission support
          2. 6.2.2.2. Life support
          3. 6.2.2.3. Heating
      3. 6.3. Physical design
        1. 6.3.1. Identifying physical components
        2. 6.3.2. Allocation of functions to identified components
        3. 6.3.3. Grouping components by sub-system
        4. 6.3.4. Architecture of (some) sub-systems
          1. 6.3.4.1. “Life support” sub-system
          2. 6.3.4.2. “Technical support” sub-system
          3. 6.3.4.3. “Base supervision” sub-system
        5. 6.3.5. Sub-systems architecture of the life support facility
      4. 6.4. Interfaces
        1. 6.4.1. Waste management
        2. 6.4.2. Centralized supervision
        3. 6.4.3. Other types of interactions between components
      5. 6.5. The “playing fields” of the systems architect
      6. 6.6. EFFBDs
        1. 6.6.1. An informal introduction to EFFBD diagrams
        2. 6.6.2. Syntax and structure of EFFBDs
        3. 6.6.3. Formalization of EFFBDs
        4. 6.6.4. Verification and validation of EFFBDs
      7. 6.7. Things to remember: architectural design
      8. 6.8. Bibliography
    5. Chapter 7: Solving the Problem Completely, in a Coherent and Optimal Manner
      1. 7.1. Making the right technical decisions at the right level and the right time
        1. 7.1.1. Formalizing possibilities
        2. 7.1.2. Using a multi-criteria analytical approach
          1. 7.1.2.1 Adopting a decision model
          2. 7.1.2.2 Creating possible solutions
          3. 7.1.2.3 Evaluating possible solutions
          4. 7.1.2.4 Identifying the best solution(s)
        3. 7.1.3. Reinforcing and optimizing choices
        4. 7.1.4. Things to remember
      2. 7.2. Integrating disciplines
        1. 7.2.1. Integrating dependability
        2. 7.2.2. Integrating the human factor
        3. 7.2.3. Things to remember
      3. 7.3. Bibliography
    6. Chapter 8: Anticipating Integration, Verification and Validation
      1. 8.1. Positioning integration, verification and validation
      2. 8.2. Integration, verification and validation in the system’s lifecycle
      3. 8.3. Analyzing input
      4. 8.4. Establishing an integration, verification and validation strategy
        1. 8.4.1. Identifying integration, verification and validation objectives
        2. 8.4.2. Stages of integration, verification and validation
      5. 8.5. Defining the infrastructure
        1. 8.5.1. Platforms
        2. 8.5.2. Tools
        3. 8.5.3. Data
      6. 8.6. Integration, verification and validation organization
      7. 8.7. Choosing techniques
        1. 8.7.1. Review
        2. 8.7.2. Testing
        3. 8.7.3. Traceability
      8. 8.8. Things to remember: integration, verification and validation
        1. 8.8.1. Activities linked to engineering
        2. 8.8.2. Anticipation
        3. 8.8.3. A multi-faceted approach
        4. 8.8.4. Strategy: a key point
        5. 8.8.5. The IVV manager: a high-pressure role
      9. 8.9. Bibliography
    7. Chapter 9: Conclusion to the “Antarctica Life Support Facility” Case Study
      1. 9.1. “Before we can manage a solution, we need to find one!”
      2. 9.2. “Modeling isn’t drawing!”
      3. 9.3. Implementing systems engineering
      4. 9.4. Acknowledgements
      5. 9.5. Bibliography
  8. Conclusion
  9. List of Authors
  10. Index