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Complete Systems Analysis: The Workbook, the Textbook, the Answers

Book Description

This is the digital version of the printed book (Copyright © 1998, 1994).

In a fundamentally new approach, Complete Systems Analysis teaches everything you need to know about analyzing systems: the methods, the models, the techniques, and more.

A definitive text on modern systems analysis techniques is combined with an extensive case study to give readers hands-on experience in completing an actual analysis project.

Readers proceed through each step of a full-scale analysis project, analyzing the complex requirements of a television station’s airtime programming department. Each phase of the case study and each exercise in the textbook section is thoroughly explained in separate review and answer sections.

An innovative Trail Guide system–inspired by the difficulty levels marked on ski trails–encourages readers to follow a sequence that suits their skill level. Beginners follow the full trail while experienced analysts fill in gaps in their training, refresh their understanding of key concepts, and practice their skills. Managers review key concepts but can skip the detailed work with models.

The book shows how analysis is used for object-oriented implementation, and how event-response data flow models and entity-relationship data models are complementary, not competing, models.

Complete Systems Analysis adapts to the reader’s needs and provides an appropriate learning path for the beginner, with a more direct route for experienced analysts wanting to make better use of today’s techniques. Since its initial publication in 1994 as a two-volume set in hardcover, this highly acclaimed text–released in 1998 as a single, softcover volume–has served as a course text in classes throughout the world.

Topics include

  • Analysis Models

  • Data Flow Diagrams

  • Data Viewpoint

  • Data Models

  • Leveled Data Flow Diagrams

  • Current Physical Viewpoint

  • Building the Data Dictionary

  • Strategy: Focusing on the Essentials

  • Identifying Events

  • Modeling an Event Response

  • Writing Mini Specifications

  • CRUD Check

  • Modeling New Requirements

  • New Physical Viewpoint

  • Object-Oriented Viewpoint

  • Strategy: Toward Implementation

  • Table of Contents

    1. About This eBook
    2. Title Page
    3. Copyright Page
    4. Also Available from DORSET HOUSE PUBLISHING CO.
    5. Dedication Page
    6. Contents
    7. Acknowledgments
    8. Foreword
    9. Section 1: The Project
      1. 1.1. Your Project Starts Here
        1. Your Client
        2. Introducing the British Television Industry
        3. How to Do Your Project
        4. How You and the Project Come Together
        5. How to Make This Book Work for You
        6. How to Work Your Way Through This Book
        7. Easiest Trail
        8. More Difficult Trail
        9. Most Difficult Trail
        10. Promenade Trail
        11. Choosing Any Trail
        12. Ski Patrol
        13. You Don’t Need a CASE Tool
        14. But You Do Need ...
      2. 1.2. Start with the Context
        1. The Story of Piccadilly Television
        2. Your Strategy
      3. 1.3. What About the Business Data?
        1. Your Strategy
      4. 1.4. The Piccadilly Organization
        1. Piccadilly People
        2. Sales Department
        3. Commercial Booking Department
        4. Research Department
        5. Computer Department
        6. Programme Transmission Department
        7. Your Strategy
      5. 1.5. Building the Data Dictionary
        1. Your Strategy
        2. More About the Programme Transmission Department
        3. Now Study the Ratecard
      6. 1.6. Selling the Airtime
        1. Your Strategy
        2. Interview with Stamford Brook, Sales Manager
        3. Hints on How to Work
      7. 1.7. Strategy: Focusing on the Essentials
        1. Your Strategy
        2. Changing Your Viewpoint
        3. The Essential Viewpoint
        4. Ski Patrol
      8. 1.8. Identifying Events
        1. Your Strategy
        2. A Strategic Point
      9. 1.9. Modeling an Event Response
        1. Your Strategy
      10. 1.10. Refining an Event Response
        1. Your Strategy
      11. 1.11. Writing Mini Specifications
        1. Your Strategy
      12. 1.12. Another Event Response
        1. Interview with Dollis Hill, Sales Executive
        2. Your Strategy
      13. 1.13. More Events
        1. Your Strategy
        2. Ski Patrol
      14. 1.14. Some New Requirements
        1. Piccadilly’s New Ideas
        2. Your Strategy
      15. 1.15. CRUD Check
        1. Your Strategy
      16. 1.16. Strategy: Toward Implementation
        1. Your Strategy
        2. External versus Internal Views
        3. Design Strategy
      17. 1.17. Piccadilly’s New Environment
        1. Interview with Stamford Brook: Implementing the New System
        2. Applying the Design Strategy
        3. Piccadilly’s System Environment Model
        4. Allocating Event Responses
        5. Allocating Essential Data Stores
        6. Allocating Essential Data Flows
        7. Allocating Essential Processing Policy
        8. Summarizing the New Physical Model
      18. 1.18. Analysis Strategy
        1. Your Analysis Strategy for Piccadilly
        2. Preliminary Design
        3. Detailed Design
        4. Using Your Models As Estimating Tools
        5. Models As Management Tools
        6. Models As Presentation Tools
        7. Your Next Project: Reusing Analysis
        8. Ski Patrol
    10. Section 2: The Textbook
      1. 2.1. Analysis Models
        1. Analysis Models: A History of Sorts
        2. The Cavemen Build a Model
        3. The Working Model
        4. How Do You Understand Systems?
        5. Cutting at the Natural Joints
        6. Summary
        7. Exercise 1: Woolly Mammoths
        8. Exercise 2: Other Uses for the Model
        9. Exercise 3: The System Remembers
      2. 2.2. Data Flow Diagrams
        1. A Graphic Model
        2. A Working Model: The Data Flow Diagram
        3. A Tour of the Model
        4. Context Diagram
        5. Summary
        6. Exercise 1: Nelson Buzzcott’s Employment Agency
        7. Exercise 2: The FastBuck Book Company
        8. Exercise 3: The Government Research Paper Clearing House
      3. 2.3. A Variety of Viewpoints
        1. Models and the Need for Different Viewpoints
        2. Filtering Information
        3. Using Viewpoints
        4. Summary
      4. 2.4. Data Viewpoint
        1. Adventures in Data Modeling
        2. Learning What a System Does By What It Remembers
        3. Why Analyze the Stored Data?
        4. Summary
      5. 2.5. Data Models
        1. Role of Data Models
        2. Entities
        3. Relationships
        4. No Foreign Keys
        5. Cardinality
        6. Building a Data Model
        7. A Sample Data Model
        8. Participation
        9. Summary
        10. Exercise: The Barbican Data Model
      6. 2.6. More on Data Flow Diagrams
        1. A Working Model of the System
        2. The Rule of Data Conservation
        3. Triggering Processes
        4. Naming Data Flows
        5. Composite Data Flows
        6. Data Flows Are Always Named, Except ...
        7. Data Flows and Data Stores
        8. A Common Error
        9. Trivial Rejects
        10. Well-Defined Processes
        11. Indefinable Processes
        12. Drawing Data Flow Diagrams
        13. Exercise 1: Any Defects?
        14. Exercise 2: Can You Improve This?
        15. Exercise 3: The Clearing House Revisited
        16. Exercise 4: La Cave du Morey Saint-Denis
      7. 2.7. Leveled Data Flow Diagrams
        1. Most of Today’s Systems Are Big
        2. How Much Detail at Each Level?
        3. Numbering the Bubbles
        4. Functional Primitives
        5. Using the Imaginary Expanded Diagram
        6. Balancing
        7. Summary
        8. Exercise 1: Find the Leveling Problems
        9. Exercise 2: Balancing Data Stores
        10. Exercise 3: Draw the Parent Bubble
        11. Exercise 4: Repartition the Model
      8. 2.8. Current Physical Viewpoint
        1. What Is a Current Physical Model?
        2. Why Build a Current Physical Model?
        3. Gaining the Users’ Confidence
        4. Defining the Context of Analysis
        5. Building a Current Physical Model
        6. Summary
      9. 2.9. Data Dictionary
        1. Working Models
        2. The Meaning of Your Data
        3. Defining Terms in the Context
        4. Problems of Accuracy
        5. Notation
        6. Further Decomposition
        7. Data Elements
        8. Defining Calculations
        9. Defining Data Stores, Entities, and Relationships
        10. What Do You Put in the Data Dictionary?
        11. Aliases
        12. Summary
        13. Exercises
      10. 2.10. Essential Viewpoint
        1. Systems That Go Wrong
        2. Creating a New System from What Exists
        3. Identifying the Essence of the System
        4. Why Model the Essential Requirements?
        5. Essential Stored Data
        6. Where Do You Find the Essential Requirements?
        7. Summary
      11. 2.11. Event-Response Models
        1. Building an Essential Requirements Model
        2. Events
        3. Identifying the Event Response
        4. Compiling the Event List
        5. Seeing the External Event-Response Pattern
        6. Seeing the Temporal Event-Response Pattern
        7. Using the Current Physical Model to Build the Essential Model
        8. Modeling the Essential Processes and Stored Data
        9. Developing the Event-Response Data Model
        10. Refining Event-Response Models
        11. Refining an Event-Response Model: An Example
        12. Mid-Point Summary
        13. Exercise 1: Dentist Performs Service
        14. Exercise 2: Time to Produce Appointment Schedule
        15. Discussion: The Essential Data Model
        16. Discussion: Life in the Fast Lane
        17. Identifying Custodial and Fundamental Processes
        18. Performing the CRUD Check
        19. Exercise 3: Sid Edison’s Radio Repairs
        20. Some Notation Issues
        21. Making Event Responses Unique
        22. Joining the Event Responses
        23. Summary
      12. 2.12. Mini Specifications
        1. Working Models
        2. Specifying the Functional Primitives
        3. Isn’t It Late to Be Specifying?
        4. Specification Techniques
        5. Structured Language
        6. Decision Tables
        7. Decision Trees
        8. Specifying Judgmental Bubbles
        9. Specifying Data Storage and Retrieval
        10. Summary
        11. Exercise 1: Hopper’s Choppers
        12. Exercise 2: Terry’s Ski Tuning Service
      13. 2.13. Modeling New Requirements
        1. Defining New Requirements
        2. Modeling New Requirements
        3. Are the Requirements Really New?
        4. Changes to the Context Mean ...
        5. Summary
      14. 2.14. New Physical Viewpoint
        1. Implementing the Essential Requirements
        2. Defining the System Environment
        3. Processors
        4. Data Containers
        5. Data Carriers
        6. Allocating Processes and Data
        7. Implementing External Expectations
        8. Introducing the Environmental Processes
        9. External Design
        10. User Orientation
        11. Behavioral Models
        12. Developing the Transaction Synchronization Model
        13. Physical Descriptions of the Data
        14. Developing the Implementation Model
        15. Checking the Result Against Expectations
        16. Summary
      15. 2.15. Object-Oriented Viewpoint
        1. What Is Object Orientation?
        2. Classes
        3. Relating Analysis to Object-Oriented Systems
        4. Analysis in an Object-Oriented Environment
        5. Object-Oriented Systems Development
        6. Summary
    11. Section 3: Project Reviews
      1. 3.1. Review: Start with the Context
        1. The Context Diagram for Piccadilly Television
        2. The Case of the Missing Users
        3. The Boundary of Your Project
        4. Interpreting the Business
        5. It’s the Message, Not the Medium
        6. Internal or External?
        7. Naming the Flows
        8. Ski Patrol
      2. 3.2. Review: What About the Business Data?
        1. Looking for Potential Entities
        2. Are These Entities Relevant?
        3. Finding Relationships
        4. Adding Cardinality
        5. Defining Your Entities
        6. Another Way to Build the Data Model
        7. Ski Patrol
      3. 3.3. Review: The Piccadilly Organization
        1. Sample Model of Piccadilly
        2. Verifying Your Context
        3. Adding to Your Data Model
        4. Some Analysts’ Questions
        5. Ski Patrol
      4. 3.4. Review: Building the Data Dictionary
        1. Defining Piccadilly Entries
        2. Defining Ratecard
        3. Adding to Your Data Model
        4. Relationships
        5. Ski Patrol
      5. 3.5. Review: Selling the Airtime
        1. The Data Flow Diagram As a Recording Device
        2. Leveling Upward to Reduce Complexity
        3. The Big Picture
        4. Ski Patrol
      6. 3.6. Complete Current Physical Model
        1. Contents
        2. Ski Patrol
        3. Data Dictionary
      7. 3.7. Review: Identifying Events
        1. The Context Is Your Guide
        2. Piccadilly Event List
        3. Ski Patrol
      8. 3.8. Review: Modeling an Event Response
        1. Sample Event-Response Model
        2. Ski Patrol
      9. 3.9. Review: Refining an Event Response
        1. The Event-Response Model
        2. Ignoring the Implementation
        3. Connecting to the Data Model
        4. Ski Patrol
      10. 3.10. Review: Writing Mini Specifications
        1. Reviewing the Specification
        2. Combining the Models
        3. Using an Alternative Mini Specification
        4. More Questions for the User
        5. Ski Patrol
      11. 3.11. Review: Another Event Response
        1. Sample Event-Response Model for Event 1
        2. Ski Patrol
        3. Ignoring Physical Details
        4. Connecting to the Data Model
        5. Defining the Essential Activity
        6. Ski Patrol
      12. 3.12. Review: More Events
        1. How to Use This Chapter
        2. Modeling the Piccadilly Essential Event Responses
        3. Event 2 Management sets a sales target
        4. Event 3 Bureau prepares TV ratings
        5. Event 4 Agency decides the transmission instructions for a commercial
        6. Event 5 Agency decides a commercial is outdated
        7. Event 6 Supplier wants to sell a new programme
        8. Event 7 Production company makes a commercial
        9. Event 8 Personnel hires a sales executive
        10. Event 10 Agency cancels a spot
        11. Event 11 Agency wants to upgrade a spot
        12. Event 12 Agency chooses spots for a campaign
        13. Event 13 Spots are transmitted
        14. Event 14 Time to analyze revenue
        15. Event 15 Time to analyze the breakchart
        16. Event 16 Time to finalize new programme schedule
        17. Event 17 Another channel sets a schedule
        18. Event 18 Broadcasting Board makes rules
        19. The Combined Data Model
        20. Ski Patrol
      13. 3.13. Review: Some New Requirements
        1. First Model the Requirement
        2. Integrating the Requirements with Your Existing Models
        3. Ski Patrol
      14. 3.14. Review: CRUD Check
        1. Using the CRUD Table
        2. Don’t Forget the Relationships
        3. CRUD Checks Your Context
        4. What Have You Achieved?
        5. How Much Detail Is Enough?
        6. Ski Patrol
    12. Section 4: Textbook Solutions
      1. 4.1. Solutions: Analysis Models
        1. Exercise 1: Woolly Mammoths
        2. Exercise 2: Other Uses for the Model
        3. Exercise 3: The System Remembers
      2. 4.2. Solutions: Data Flow Diagrams
        1. Exercise 1: Nelson Buzzcott’s Employment Agency
        2. Exercise 2: The FastBuck Book Company
        3. Exercise 3: The Government Research Paper Clearing House
      3. 4.3. Solutions: Data Models
        1. Exercise: The Barbican Data Model
      4. 4.4. Solutions: More on Data Flow Diagrams
        1. Exercise 1: Any Defects?
        2. Exercise 2: Can You Improve This?
        3. Exercise 3: The Clearing House Revisited
        4. Exercise 4: La Cave du Morey Saint-Denis
      5. 4.5. Solutions: Leveled Data Flow Diagrams
        1. Exercise 1: Find the Leveling Problems
        2. Exercise 2: Balancing Data Stores
        3. Exercise 3: Draw the Parent Bubble
        4. Exercise 4: Repartition the Model
      6. 4.6. Solutions: Data Dictionary
      7. 4.7. Solutions: Event-Response Models
        1. Exercise 1: Dentist Performs Service
        2. Exercise 2: Time to Produce Appointment Schedule
        3. Exercise 3: Sid Edison’s Radio Repairs
        4. Custodial Activities
      8. 4.8. Solutions: Mini Specifications
        1. Exercise 1: Hopper’s Choppers
        2. Exercise 2: Terry’s Ski Tuning Service
    13. Bibliography
    14. Glossary
    15. Index
    16. Bonus Interview with James & Suzanne Robertson
    17. Trail Guides
      1. Easiest Trail
      2. More Difficult Trail
      3. Most Difficult Trail
      4. Promenade Trail