You are previewing Communications Technology Handbook, 2nd Edition.
O'Reilly logo
Communications Technology Handbook, 2nd Edition

Book Description

This is the first point of reference for the communications industries. It offers an introduction to a wide range of topics and concepts encountered in the field of communications technology. Whether you are looking for a simple explanation, or need to go into a subject in more depth, the Communications Technology Handbook provides all the information you need in one single volume.

This second edition has been updated to include the latest technology including:
Video on Demand
Wire-less Distribution systems
High speed data transmission over telephone lines
Smart cards and batteries
Global positioning Systems






The contents are ordered initially by communications systems. This is followed by an introduction to each topic and goes on to provide more detailed information in alphabetical order. Every section contains an explanation of common terminology, and further references are provided. This approach offers flexible access to information for a variety of readers. Those who know little about communications professionals, the book constitutes a handy reference source and a way of finding out about related technologies. The book addresses an international audience by referring to all systems and standards throughout.

This book has been revised to include new sections on:
* Video on demand
* Wire-less distribution systems
* High speed data transmission over telephone lines
* Smart cards
* Global positioning systems

* provides a basic understanding of a wide range of topics
* offers a flexible approach for beginners and specialists alike
* addresses an international audience by referring to all systems and standards throughout



Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Halftitle
  3. Dedication
  4. Title
  5. Copyright
  6. Contents
  7. Preface to the Second Edition
  8. Preface to the First Edition
  9. 1 Analogue systems and concepts
    1. 1.1 Amplifiers
    2. 1.2 Distortions
    3. 1.3 Feedback amplifiers
    4. 1.4 Operational amplifiers (Op Amps)
    5. 1.5 Oscillators
      1. 1.5.1 Frequency controlling elements
      2. 1.5.2 Oscillator circuits
    6. 1.6 Parametric amplifiers
    7. 1.7 Phase locked loop (PLL)
    8. 1.8 Power amplifiers
    9. 1.9 Push–pull amplifiers
    10. 1.10 Stability and frequency response
    11. 1.11 Miscellaneous terms
    12. 1.12 Useful references
  10. 2 Antennas or aerials
    1. 2.1 Useful theoretical concepts
    2. 2.2 Antenna properties
    3. 2.3 Classification of antennas
    4. 2.4 Coplanar arrays
    5. 2.5 Fresnel zone plate antennas
    6. 2.6 Miscellaneous terms
    7. 2.7 Useful references
  11. 3 Audio signal processing
    1. 3.1 Analogue signal processing
    2. 3.2 Digital signal processing (DSP)
      1. 3.2.1 Bit rate reduction techniques
      2. 3.2.2 8 to 14 modulation (EFM)
      3. 3.2.3 Oversampling
    3. 3.3 Miscellaneous terms
    4. 3.4 Useful references
  12. 4 Bar code and data matrix technology
    1. 4.1 Common code formats
    2. 4.2 2-dimensional coding
    3. 4.3 Data matrix coding
    4. 4.4 Useful references
  13. 5 Codes and coding formats
    1. 5.1 Primary codes and pulse shapes
    2. 5.2 Secondary codes and formats
    3. 5.3 Miscellaneous terms
    4. 5.4 Useful references
  14. 6 Computers in communications
    1. 6.1 Hardware
    2. 6.2 Software
    3. 6.3 Viruses
    4. 6.4 Miscellaneous terms
    5. 6.5 Useful references
  15. 7 Digital communication systems
    1. 7.1 Basic digital processes
    2. 7.2 Digital signal processing (DSP)
    3. 7.3 Echo cancelling/suppression
    4. 7.4 Integrated services digital network (ISDN)
      1. 7.4.1 ISDN access
      2. 7.4.2 ISDN D channel
      3. 7.4.3 ISDN D channel packets
      4. 7.4.4 ISDN system and interfaces
    5. 7.5 Miscellaneous terms
    6. 7.6 Useful references
  16. 8 Digital pulse code modulation
    1. 8.1 Frame time multiplexing
    2. 8.2 Hierarchy of PCM multiplexing
    3. 8.3 Justification or bit/pulse stuffing
    4. 8.4 Signalling protocol
    5. 8.5 Speech digit signalling/bit stealing
    6. 8.6 Data rates
    7. 8.7 Miscellaneous terms
    8. 8.8 Useful references
  17. 9 Electromagnetic compatibility/interference (EMC/EMI)
    1. 9.1 Protection and protective devices
    2. 9.2 Standards and guidelines
    3. 9.3 Techniques of testing
    4. 9.4 Miscellaneous terms
    5. 9.5 Useful references
  18. 10 Encryption and decryption
    1. 10.1 Key systems
    2. 10.2 Data Encryption Standard (DES) system
    3. 10.3 Diffie Hellman algorithm
    4. 10.4 Rivest Shamir and Adleman (RSA) public key system
    5. 10.5 Security of key encryption systems
    6. 10.6 Voice systems
    7. 10.7 Miscellaneous terms
    8. 10.8 Useful references
  19. 11 Error control
    1. 11.1 Even and odd parity
    2. 11.2 Hamming codes
    3. 11.3 Interleaved or interlaced codes
    4. 11.4 Polynomial or cyclic codes
    5. 11.5 Recurrent or convolution codes
    6. 11.6 Specific decoding techniques
    7. 11.7 Two-dimensional coding
    8. 11.8 Miscellaneous terms
    9. 11.9 Useful references
  20. 12 Facsimile (Fax) systems
    1. 12.1 Facsimile terminal (description and operation)
    2. 12.2 Signal compression techniques
    3. 12.3 Standard groups
    4. 12.4 Universal fax terminal
    5. 12.5 Miscellaneous terms
    6. 12.6 Useful references
  21. 13 Filters
    1. 13.1 Analogue filters
      1. 13.1.1 Classical filter theory
      2. 13.1.2 Modern filter theory
      3. 13.1.3 N-path or comb filters
      4. 13.1.4 Operational amplifier filters (active filters)
      5. 13.1.5 Surface acoustic wave filters (SAWF)
      6. 13.1.6 Switched capacitor filters
    2. 13.2 Digital filters
      1. 13.2.1 Kaiman filters
      2. 13.2.2 Non-recursive or finite impulse response (FIR) filters
      3. 13.2.3 Recursive filters or infinite impulse response (IIR) filters
      4. 13.2.4 Median filters
      5. 13.2.5 Transversal filter or equaliser
      6. 13.2.6 Quadrature mirror filters
      7. 13.2.7 Windows
    3. 13.3 Optical filters
      1. 13.3.1 Terminology of optical filters
    4. 13.4 Miscellaneous terms
    5. 13.5 Useful references
  22. 14 Frequency ranges in use
  23. 15 Image processing
    1. 15.1 Basic image processing
    2. 15.2 Image analysis (contrast enhancement)
    3. 15.3 Image processing
      1. 15.3.1 Discrete cosine transform coding
      2. 15.3.2 Fractal transform coding
      3. 15.3.3 Motion compensation/estimation
    4. 15.4 MPEG image compression
    5. 15.5 Overlay techniques
      1. 15.5.1 Text or caption generators
    6. 15.6 Miscellaneous terms
    7. 15.7 Useful references
  24. 16 Information theory
    1. 16.1 Average information
    2. 16.2 Hartley–Shannon law of channel capacity
    3. 16.3 Redundancy
    4. 16.4 Miscellaneous terms
    5. 16.5 Useful references
  25. 17 Logic
    1. 17.1 Boolean logic
    2. 17.2 Combinational logic and circuits
    3. 17.3 Fuzzy logic
    4. 17.4 Sequential logic
    5. 17.5 Miscellaneous terms
    6. 17.6 Useful references
  26. 18 Measurement of system parameters
    1. 18.1 Analogue systems
      1. 18.1.1 Cathode ray oscilloscope (CRO) type measurements
      2. 18.1.2 Distortions
      3. 18.1.3 Interference distortion
      4. 18.1.4 Noise measurements
      5. 18.1.5 Power measurements
    2. 18.2 Digital systems
      1. 18.2.1 Cathode ray oscilloscope (CRO) type measurements
      2. 18.2.2 Distortion, interference and noise
      3. 18.2.3 ISDN testing
    3. 18.3 Miscellaneous terms
    4. 18.4 Useful references
  27. 19 Memories
    1. 19.1 Magnetic memories
    2. 19.2 Optical memories or CD-ROM
    3. 19.3 Semiconductor memories
    4. 19.4 Miscellaneous terms
    5. 19.5 Useful references
  28. 20 Microwave devices
    1. 20.1 Active devices
      1. 20.1.1 Amplifiers
      2. 20.1.2 Diodes
    2. 20.2 Passive devices
    3. 20.3 Miscellaneous terms
    4. 20.4 Useful references
  29. 21 Mixer signal processing
    1. 21.1 Linear mixing
    2. 21.2 Nonlinear mixing
      1. 21.2.1 Analogue techniques
    3. 21.3 Miscellaneous terms
    4. 21.4 Useful references
  30. 22 Modulation and demodulation
    1. 22.1 Modulation
      1. 22.1.1 Analogue modulation (basic concepts)
      2. 22.1.2 Digital modulation (basic concepts)
    2. 22.2 Demodulation
      1. 22.2.1 Analogue demodulation
      2. 22.2.2 Digital demodulation
    3. 22.3 Modulation-efficiency systems
    4. 22.4 Miscellaneous terms
    5. 22.5 Useful references
  31. 23 Networks
    1. 23.1 Network management systems (NMS)
    2. 23.2 Network topologies and protocols
    3. 23.3 Network modulators/demodulators (modems)
    4. 23.4 Network security
    5. 23.5 Network systems
      1. 23.5.1 Bus extension systems
      2. 23.5.2 Major network systems
    6. 23.6 Recommended standard (RS) interfaces
    7. 23.7 Standard interconnects and internetworking
    8. 23.8 Miscellaneous terms
    9. 23.9 Useful references
  32. 24 Noise
    1. 24.1 Classification of noise
    2. 24.2 Hartley–Shannon channel capacity
    3. 24.3 Noise parameters
    4. 24.4 Noise spectral density
    5. 24.5 Specific types of noise
    6. 24.6 System noise performance (Friis’ equation)
    7. 24.7 Systems designed to combat noise
    8. 24.8 Miscellaneous terms
    9. 24.9 Useful references
  33. 25 Optical communications, devices and systems
    1. 25.1 Driver/source devices
      1. 25.1.1 Lasers
      2. 25.1.2 Light emitting diodes
    2. 25.2 Optical fibres
      1. 25.2.1 Fibre characteristics
      2. 25.2.2 Fibre technology
    3. 25.3 Photodetector/receiver devices
      1. 25.3.1 Detector/receiver characteristics
      2. 25.3.2 Detector/receiver devices
    4. 25.4 Miscellaneous terms
    5. 25.5 Useful references
  34. 26 Power supplies
    1. 26.1 Batteries and portable supplies
    2. 26.2 Smart batteries
    3. 26.3 Stabilised/switched mode power supplies
    4. 26.4 Uninterruptible power supplies (UPS)
    5. 26.5 Miscellaneous terms
    6. 26.6 Useful references
  35. 27 Propagation
    1. 27.1 Ionosphere
    2. 27.2 Propagation anomalies
    3. 27.3 Miscellaneous terms
    4. 27.4 Useful references
  36. 28 Quality and reliability/quality assurance (QA)
    1. 28.1 Miscellaneous terms
    2. 28.2 Useful references
  37. 29 Radar, navigation and tracking systems
    1. 29.1 Navigation systems
      1. 29.1.1 Antenna polar diagram DF systems
      2. 29.1.2 Decca Navigator System
      3. 29.1.3 LORAN-C system
      4. 29.1.4 Single station locators (SSL)
    2. 29.2 Radar systems
      1. 29.2.1 Doppler shift equation
      2. 29.2.2 Range equation
    3. 29.3 Tracking systems
      1. 29.3.1 Automatic debiting systems
      2. 29.3.2 Radio tags
      3. 29.3.3 Star-Track
      4. 29.3.4 Trafficmaster
    4. 29.4 Miscellaneous terms
    5. 29.5 Useful references
  38. 30 Radio frequency receivers
    1. 30.1 Basic superhet receiver
    2. 30.2 Double/triple frequency conversion receivers
    3. 30.3 Figure of merit
    4. 30.4 Frequency synthesis and digital control
    5. 30.5 Miscellaneous terms
    6. 30.6 Useful references
  39. 31 Satellite systems
    1. 31.1 Satellite services
    2. 31.2 Miscellaneous terms
    3. 31.3 Useful references
  40. 32 Semiconductor devices and technology
    1. 32.1 Behaviour of PN junctions
      1. 32.1.1 Bi-polar transistors
      2. 32.1.2 Field effect transistors (FET)
      3. 32.1.3 Integrated circuits
      4. 32.1.4 Thick film circuits
    2. 32.2 Devices
      1. 32.2.1 Diodes and junctions
      2. 32.2.2 Programmable logic devices (PLD)
      3. 32.2.3 Transistors and other devices
    3. 32.3 Technology
      1. 32.3.1 Comparisons
      2. 32.3.2 Other features
    4. 32.4 Miscellaneous terms
    5. 32.5 Useful references
  41. 33 Signals
    1. 33.1 Basic signal elements
      1. 33.1.1 Bessel functions
      2. 33.1.2 Complex frequency and numbers
    2. 33.2 Specific transforms
      1. 33.2.1 Discrete cosine transform (DCT)
      2. 33.2.2 Fourier transforms
      3. 33.2.3 Discrete Fourier transform (DFT)
      4. 33.2.4 Fast Fourier transform (FFT)
      5. 33.2.5 Laplace transform
      6. 33.2.6 Lapped transforms
    3. 33.3 Smith’s charts
    4. 33.4 z and chirp-z transforms
    5. 33.5 Miscellaneous terms
    6. 33.6 Useful references
  42. 34 Spread spectrum techniques
    1. 34.1 Spread spectrum systems
      1. 34.1.1 Direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) systems
      2. 34.1.2 Frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) systems
      3. 34.1.3 Hybrid and alternative systems
    2. 34.2 Demodulation
      1. 34.2.1 Correlation detection
      2. 34.2.2 Costas loops
    3. 34.3 Miscellaneous terms
    4. 34.4 Useful references
  43. 35 Standards organisations and associated bodies
    1. 35.1 Organisations
    2. 35.2 Useful standards database references
  44. 36 Telephony and associated systems
    1. 36.1 Analogue systems and techniques
      1. 36.1.1 Basic network structures
      2. 36.1.2 Basic exchange structures
      3. 36.1.3 Centrex services
      4. 36.1.4 Frequency division multiplex (FDM) hierarchy
      5. 36.1.5 Personal communications service (analogue)
      6. 36.1.6 Signalling
      7. 36.1.7 Stored program control (SPC)
      8. 36.1.8 Switching
      9. 36.1.9 Traffic parameters
      10. 36.1.10 Trunking and scanning
    2. 36.2 Digital systems and technologies
      1. 36.2.1 Cordless communications and telephones
      2. 36.2.2 Developing digital technologies
      3. 36.2.3 Packet switching and fast packets
      4. 36.2.4 Paging
      5. 36.2.5 Personal and private systems
      6. 36.2.6 Signalling
      7. 36.2.7 Switching (digital systems)
      8. 36.2.8 X series services
    3. 36.3 Miscellaneous terms
    4. 36.4 Useful references
  45. 37 Television systems and signals
    1. 37.1 Camera and lens system
      1. 37.1.1 Lens fundamentals
      2. 37.1.2 Lens imperfections (aberrations and distortions)
      3. 37.1.3 Lens coatings
      4. 37.1.4 Prisms – colour separation
      5. 37.1.5 Zoom lens
      6. 37.1.6 Semiconductor image sensors (CCD)
    2. 37.2 Current analogue systems
      1. 37.2.1 NTSC system
      2. 37.2.2 PAL system
      3. 37.2.3 SECAM system
      4. 37.2.4 Sampling problems – aliasing
    3. 37.3 Current analogue/digital systems
      1. 37.3.1 Multiple sub-Nyquist sampling encoding system (MUSE or Hi-vision)
      2. 37.3.2 Multiplexed analogue componen systems (MAC)
    4. 37.4 High definition TV (HDTV) systems
      1. 37.4.1 Analogue/digital HDTV systems
      2. 37.4.2 Digital HDTV systems
      3. 37.4.3 DigiCipher system
      4. 37.4.4 Digital Spectrum Compatible HDTV System
      5. 37.4.5 Future HDTV systems
      6. 37.4.6 European Digital Television Standard
      7. 37.4.7 North American Grand Alliance Standard
    5. 37.5 TV sound channels
      1. 37.5.1 Dolby adaptive delta modulation digital audio system
      2. 37.5.2 Dolby Pro-Logic
      3. 37.5.3 MPEG-Audio
      4. 37.5.4 NICAM-728
      5. 37.5.5 European digital audio broadcast (DBS or DAB)
    6. 37.6 Scrambling and access control
      1. 37.6.1 Access control
      2. 37.6.2 Basic principles of scrambling
      3. 37.6.3 Practical systems in use
      4. 37.6.4 Smart cards
    7. 37.7 Videoconferencing
    8. 37.8 Videotelephony
    9. 37.9 Videowalls
    10. 37.10 Miscellaneous terms
    11. 37.11 Useful references
  46. 38 Transmission lines and waveguides
    1. 38.1 Transmission lines
      1. 38.1.1 Primary line constants
      2. 38.1.2 Propagation constant and characteristic impedance
      3. 38.1.3 Reflection coefficient, standing waves and return loss
      4. 38.1.4 Voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR)
    2. 38.2 Smith’s charts
    3. 38.3 Waveguides
      1. 38.3.1 Cut-off frequency, dominant or fundamental and second-order modes
      2. 38.3.2 Resonant cavities and waveguide couplings
      3. 38.3.3 Waveguide parameters
    4. 38.4 Miscellaneous terms
    5. 38.5 Useful references
  47. 39 Video on demand systems
    1. 39.1 Attenuation characteristics
    2. 39.2 Channel allocation
    3. 39.3 Interference control
    4. 39.4 Modulation techniques
    5. 39.5 System hardware
    6. 39.6 System standards
    7. 39.7 Miscellaneous terms
    8. 39.8 Useful references
  48. 40 Videotex(t)
    1. 40.1 Closed caption transmissions
    2. 40.2 Interactive video
    3. 40.3 Teletext
    4. 40.4 Viewdata
      1. 40.4.1 Internet access
    5. 40.5 Miscellaneous terms
    6. 40.6 Useful references
  49. 41 Wire-less distribution systems
    1. 41.1 Basic systems – 2.5 GHz operation
    2. 41.2 Choice of operating frequency bands
    3. 41.3 Current operational systems
    4. 41.4 Future expansion
    5. 41.5 Miscellaneous terms
    6. 41.6 Useful references
  50. Appendix 1. CCITT recommendations
  51. Appendix 2. Abbreviations and acronyms
  52. Index