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Communication Acoustics: An Introduction to Speech, Audio and Psychoacoustics

Book Description

In communication acoustics, the communication channel consists of a sound source, a channel (acoustic and/or electric) and finally the receiver: the human auditory system, a complex and intricate system that shapes the way sound is heard. Thus, when developing techniques in communication acoustics, such as in speech, audio and aided hearing, it is important to understand the time-frequency-space resolution of hearing.

This book facilitates the reader's understanding and development of speech and audio techniques based on our knowledge of the auditory perceptual mechanisms by introducing the physical, signal-processing and psychophysical background to communication acoustics. It then provides a detailed explanation of sound technologies where a human listener is involved, including audio and speech techniques, sound quality measurement, hearing aids and audiology.

Key features:

  • Explains perceptually-based audio: the authors take a detailed but accessible engineering perspective on sound and hearing with a focus on the human place in the audio communications signal chain, from psychoacoustics and audiology to optimizing digital signal processing for human listening.

  • Presents a wide overview of speech, from the human production of speech sounds and basics of phonetics to major speech technologies, recognition and synthesis of speech and methods for speech quality evaluation.

  • Includes MATLAB examples that serve as an excellent basis for the reader's own investigations into communication acoustics interaction schemes which intuitively combine touch, vision and voice for lifelike interactions.

  • Table of Contents

    1. Cover
    2. Title page
    3. Copyright page
    4. Dedication page
    5. About the Authors
    6. Preface
    7. Preface to the Unfinished Manuscript of the Book
    8. Introduction
    9. 1 How to Study and Develop Communication Acoustics
      1. 1.1 Domains of Knowledge
      2. 1.2 Methodology of Research and Development
      3. 1.3 Systems Approach to Modelling
      4. 1.4 About the Rest of this Book
      5. 1.5 Focus of the Book
      6. 1.6 Intended Audience
      7. References
    10. 2 Physics of Sound
      1. 2.1 Vibration and Wave Behaviour of Sound
      2. 2.2 Acoustic Measures and Quantities
      3. 2.3 Wave Phenomena
      4. 2.4 Sound in Closed Spaces: Acoustics of Rooms and Halls
      5. Summary
      6. Further Reading
      7. References
    11. 3 Signal Processing and Signals
      1. 3.1 Signals
      2. 3.2 Fundamental Concepts of Signal Processing
      3. 3.3 Digital Signal Processing (DSP)
      4. 3.4 Hidden Markov Models
      5. 3.5 Concepts of Intelligent and Learning Systems
      6. Summary
      7. Further Reading
      8. References
    12. 4 Electroacoustics and Responses of Audio Systems
      1. 4.1 Electroacoustics
      2. 4.2 Audio System Responses
      3. 4.3 Response Equalization
      4. Summary
      5. Further Reading
      6. References
    13. 5 Human Voice
      1. 5.1 Speech Production
      2. 5.2 Units and Notation of Speech used in Phonetics
      3. 5.3 Modelling of Speech Production
      4. 5.4 Singing Voice
      5. Summary
      6. Further Reading
      7. References
    14. 6 Musical Instruments and Sound Synthesis
      1. 6.1 Acoustic Instruments
      2. 6.2 Sound Synthesis in Music
      3. Summary
      4. Further Reading
      5. References
    15. 7 Physiology and Anatomy of Hearing
      1. 7.1 Global Structure of the Ear
      2. 7.2 External Ear
      3. 7.3 Middle Ear
      4. 7.4 Inner Ear
      5. 7.5 Otoacoustic Emissions
      6. 7.6 Auditory Nerve
      7. 7.7 Auditory Nervous System
      8. 7.8 Motivation for Building Computational Models of Hearing
      9. Summary
      10. Further Reading
      11. References
    16. 8 The Approach and Methodology of Psychoacoustics
      1. 8.1 Sound Events versus Auditory Events
      2. 8.2 Psychophysical Functions
      3. 8.3 Generation of Sound Events
      4. 8.4 Selection of Subjects for Listening Tests
      5. 8.5 What are We Measuring?
      6. 8.6 Tasks for Subjects
      7. 8.7 Basic Psychoacoustic Test Methods
      8. 8.8 Descriptive Sensory Analysis
      9. 8.9 Psychoacoustic Tests from the Point of View of Statistics
      10. Summary
      11. Further Reading
      12. References
    17. 9 Basic Function of Hearing
      1. 9.1 Effective Hearing Area
      2. 9.2 Spectral Masking
      3. 9.3 Temporal Masking
      4. 9.4 Frequency Selectivity of Hearing
      5. Summary
      6. Further Reading
      7. References
    18. 10 Basic Psychoacoustic Quantities
      1. 10.1 Pitch
      2. 10.2 Loudness
      3. 10.3 Timbre
      4. 10.4 Subjective Duration of Sound
      5. Summary
      6. Further Reading
      7. References
    19. 11 Further Analysis in Hearing
      1. 11.1 Sharpness
      2. 11.2 Detection of Modulation and Sound Onset
      3. 11.3 Roughness
      4. 11.4 Tonality
      5. 11.5 Discrimination of Changes in Signal Magnitude and Phase Spectra
      6. 11.6 Psychoacoustic Concepts and Music
      7. 11.7 Perceptual Organization of Sound
      8. Summary
      9. Further Reading
      10. References
    20. 12 Spatial Hearing
      1. 12.1 Concepts and Definitions for Spatial Hearing
      2. 12.2 Head-Related Acoustics
      3. 12.3 Localization Cues
      4. 12.4 Localization Accuracy
      5. 12.5 Directional Hearing in Enclosed Spaces
      6. 12.6 Binaural Advantages in Timbre Perception
      7. 12.7 Perception of Source Distance
      8. Summary
      9. Further Reading
      10. References
    21. 13 Auditory Modelling
      1. 13.1 Simple Psychoacoustic Modelling with DFT
      2. 13.2 Filter Bank Models
      3. 13.3 Cochlear Models
      4. 13.4 Modelling of Higher-Level Systemic Properties
      5. 13.5 Models of Spatial Hearing
      6. 13.6 Matlab Examples
      7. Summary
      8. Further Reading
      9. References
    22. 14 Sound Reproduction
      1. 14.1 Need for Sound Reproduction
      2. 14.2 Audio Content Production
      3. 14.3 Listening Set-Ups
      4. 14.4 Recording Techniques
      5. 14.5 Virtual Source Positioning
      6. 14.6 Binaural Techniques
      7. 14.7 Digital Audio Effects
      8. 14.8 Reverberators
      9. Summary
      10. Further Reading and Available Toolboxes
      11. References
    23. 15 Time–Frequency-domain Processing and Coding of Audio
      1. 15.1 Basic Techniques and Concepts for Time–Frequency Processing
      2. 15.2 Time–Frequency Transforms
      3. 15.3 Time–Frequency-Domain Audio-Processing Techniques
      4. Summary
      5. Further Reading
      6. References
    24. 16 Speech Technologies
      1. 16.1 Speech Coding
      2. 16.2 Text-to-Speech Synthesis
      3. 16.3 Speech Recognition
      4. Summary
      5. Further Reading
      6. References
    25. 17 Sound Quality
      1. 17.1 Historical Background of Sound Quality
      2. 17.2 The Many Facets of Sound Quality
      3. 17.3 Systemic Framework for Sound Quality
      4. 17.4 Subjective Sound Quality Measurement
      5. 17.5 Audio Quality
      6. 17.6 Quality of Speech Communication
      7. 17.7 Measuring Speech Understandability with the Modulation Transfer Function
      8. 17.8 Objective Speech Quality Measurement for Telecommunication
      9. 17.9 Sound Quality in Auditoria and Concert Halls
      10. 17.10 Noise Quality
      11. 17.11 Product Sound Quality
      12. Summary
      13. Further Reading
      14. References
    26. 18 Other Audio Applications
      1. 18.1 Virtual Reality and Game Audio Engines
      2. 18.2 Sonic Interaction Design
      3. 18.3 Computational Auditory Scene Analysis, CASA
      4. 18.4 Music Information Retrieval
      5. 18.5 Miscellaneous Applications
      6. Summary
      7. Further Reading
      8. References
    27. 19 Technical Audiology
      1. 19.1 Hearing Impairments and Disabilities
      2. 19.2 Symptoms and Consequences of Hearing Impairments
      3. 19.3 The Effect of Noise on Hearing
      4. 19.4 Audiometry
      5. 19.5 Hearing Aids
      6. 19.6 Implantable Hearing Solutions
      7. Summary
      8. Further Reading
      9. References
    28. Index
    29. End User License Agreement